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GREAT  WAR   1861 -'65. 




(Lieut. -Colonel  Seventieth  Eegiment  N.  C.  T.  ) 

VOL.   IV. 


GOLDSBORO,    N.    C. 



Organization  of  Reserves,  by  the  Editor, 1 

Sevkntibth  Regiment  (  First  Res.  )  by  Colonel  Charles  W.  Broadfoot,  9 

Seventy-First  Regiment  (Second  Res.  )  by  Captain  David  E.  McKinne  25 

Seventy  Second  Regiment  (  Third  Res  )  by  Colonel  John  W.  Hinsdale  35 

Sevbnty-Third  Regiment  (Fourth  Res.  )  by.  the  Editor, 65 

Seventy-Fourth  Regiment  (Fifth  Res.  )  liy  the  Editor, 69 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment,  (Seventh Ca v.)  by  Colonel  John  T.  Kennedy 

and  Lieutenant  W.  Fletcher  Parker, 71 

Sevknty-Fifth  Regiment  (Seventh  Cav.  )  by  Lieutenant  E.  J.  Holt. .  91 

Seventy  Sixth  Regiment,  (Sixth  Res  )  by  the  Editor  99 

Seventy-Seventh  Regiment  (Seventh  Res.)  by  lAeutenant  John  O. 

Albright - 99 

Seventy-Eighth  Regiment  (Eighth  Res.)  by  the  Editor 107 

Seventy  Ninth  Regiment  (Eighth  Cav.  )  by  S.  V.  Pichens,  Adjutant,  109 

Eightieth  Regiment,  by  Captain  R.  A.  Aiken 117 

Eighty-First'Regiment  (First  Detailed)  *!/ JAe  Editor  129 

Eighty-Second   Regiment   (Second    Detailed)    by    Colonel   A.    O. 

Brenizer 131 

Eighty-Third  Regiment  (Third  Detailed)  by  the  Editor, 133 


Sixteenth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  0.  H.  Mills, 137 

Tenth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  T.  C.  Moore 221 


Battalion  Organization,  bg  the  Editor 224 

First  Battalion,  by  Major  R.  W.  Wharton , 225 

Second  Battalion,  by  Lieutenant- Colonel  Wharton  J.  Qreen, 243 

Third  Battalion,  by  Major  John  W.  Moore, 261 

Fourth  B.^ttalion,  by  the  Editor, 270 

Fifth  Battalion,  by  Captain  Virgil  S   Lusk,' 271 

Sixth  Battalion,  by  Major  Matthew  P.  Taylor, 293 

Seventh  Battalion,  by  the  Editor, 301 

Eighth  Battalion,  by  the  Editor,     302 

Ninth  Battalion,  by  Sergeant  T.  A.  McNeill, 303 

Tenth  Battalion,  by  Captain  Woodbury  Wheeler, 315 

Tenth  Battalion,  by  Lieutenant  F.  C.  Frazier, 325 

Tenth  Battalion,  by  Adjutant  C.  S.  Powell, . 329 

Eleventh  Battalion,  by  the  Editor, 338 

Twblth  Battalion,  by  the  Editor 339 

Thirteenth  Battalion,  by  lAeutenant  J.  H  Myrover, 341 

Thirteenth  Battalion,  by  Captain  Lewis  H.  Webb 355 

Thirteenth  Battalion,  by  Captain  James  D.  Cumming,   361 

Fourteenth  Battalion,  by  Adjutant  8.  V.  Pickens 363 

Fifteenth  Battalion,  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  James  M.  Wynns, 365 

Sixteenth  Battalion,  by  Colonel  John  T.  Kennedy 370 

IV  Contents 

Seventeenth  Battalion,  by  Major  A.  C.  Avery, 371 

EiaaTEENTH  Battalion,  by  Major  James  0.  MacRae 379 

Nineteenth  Battalion,  hy  the  Editor 383 

Twentieth  Battalion,  by  E.  R.  Hampton,  Hospital  Steward, 385 

TvfENTY-FiRST  Battalion,  by  the  Editor, 397 

Twenty-second  Battalion,  by  the  Editor,   398 

Twentt-third  Battalion,  hy  the  Editor,   399 

Twenty  fourth  Battalion,  by  the  Editor, 400 

Twenty  FIFTH  Battalion,  by  the  Editor, 401 

Unattached  Companies,  by  the  Editor,    401 

North  Carolinians  in  other  Commands,  by  the  Editor, 403 

The  Two  Brothers,  by  Captain  David  G.  Maxwell, 405 

The  Conscript  Bureau,  by  the  Editor, 407 

The  Corps  of  Engineers,  by  Captain  C.  B.  Denson, 409 

BRIGADE    histories. 

Brigade  Organization,  by  the  Editor, 435 

Anderson- Ramseur-Cox  Brigade,  by  Brigadier-Oeneral  W.  R.  Cox,  443 

Branch-Lane  Brigade,  by  Brigadier- General  J.  H.  Lane, 465 

Clingman's  Brigade,  by  Captain  W.  H.  S.  Burgwyn,  A.  A.  G.,. .  . .  481 

Cooke's  Brigade,  by  Captain  James  A.  Graham, 501 

Daniel-Grimes  Brigade,  by  Captain  W.  L.  London,  A.  A    O.,   .  .  513 
Garland-Iverson-Johnston  Brigade,  5y  Lieutenant  J.   F.  John- 
ston. A.  D.  C. 531 

Hoke  Godwin  Lewis  Brigade,  by  Major  J.  F.  Beall, 525 

Martin-Kirkland  Brigade,  by  Captain  C.  G.  Elliott,  A.  A.  0 527 

Pender-Scales  Brigade  by  Adjutant  T.  L.  Rawley,    551 

Pettigrbw-Kirkland-MacUab    Brigade,    hy    Captain    Louis    G. 

Young,  A.  A.   G •  ..  555 

Ransom's  Brigade,  by  Captain  W.  H.  S.  Burgwyn, ^ .  569 

Roberts  Cavalry  Brig  ad  b,  by  Lieutenant  E.  J.  Holt 580 

Gordon-Barp.ingbb  Cavalry  Brigade,  hy  Private  Julian  8.  Carr,  581 

Junior  Reserves'  Brigade,  by  Lieutenant  F.  H  Busbee,  583 

Chaplain  Service,  by  Chaplain  A.  D.  Belts 597 

The  Medical  Corps,  by  Surgeon  P.  E.  Hines 623 

The  Militia,  hy  Captain  James  M.  Grizzard, 645 

The  Home  Guard,  hy  the  Editor,  649 

military  prisons. 

Prison  Life  at  Johnson's  Island,  by  Colonel  R.  E.  Webb, 657 

Prison  Life  at  Johnson's  Island,  by  Colonel  Thomas  S.  Kenan,.  . .  689 

Prisoners  at  Johnson's  Island  to  Governor  Vance 697 

List  of  Prisoners  at  Johnson's  Isi,and,  by  Lieutenant  T.  F.  Cross,  703 

Prisoners  at  Morris  Island,  by  Captain  W.  O.  MacRae 713 

List  OF  N.  C.  Prisoners  at  Morris  Island,  %  Col.  Jno.  L.  Cantwell,  Til 

Prison  Life  at  Fort  Delaware,  by  Sergeant  C.  W.  Rivenbark 725 

Escape  from  Port  Warren,  by  Lieutenant- Commander  J.    W.  Al.ex- 

ander,  C.  S.  N., 733 

Salisbury  Prison,  by  Chaplain  A.  W.  Mangum ,. . .  745 


By  WALTER  CLARK,  Lieutbnant-Colonel  70  N.  C.  T. 

When  the  Southern  leaders  were  contemplating  separa- 
tion, they  estimated  largely  upon  the  expectation  that  all  the 
States  South  of  Mason  and  Dixon's  line,  the  Ohio  and  the 
northern  boundary  of  Missouri  would  go  with  the  South,  in- 
eluding  Indian  Territory  and  Nc-w  Mexico.  This  would 
have  given  the  new  Confederacy  nearly  one^third  of  the  pop- 
ulation of  the  old  Union.  In  this  event  there  would  have 
doubtless  been  a  peaceable  separation  and  no  war.  But  it 
proved  that  in  the  States  of  Maryland,  Delaware,  that  part 
of  Virginia  since  known  as  West  Virginia,  Kentucky  and 
Missouri,  the  majority  were  largely  on  the  northern  side  and 
there  was  no  small  defection  among  the  whites  in  East  Ten- 
nessee and  other  localities,  to  say  nothing  of  the  colored  refu- 
gees who  swelled  the  Union  army.  It  is  estimated  that  no 
less  than  350,000  men  from  the  Southern  side  of  the  line 
above  indicated  served  in  the  Federal  armies  which  also  con- 
tained, besides  the  troops  from  the  populous  T\  orthern  States, 
a  host  of  foreigners  attracted  by  high  bounties  and  good  pay. 

The  result  was  that  instead  of  the  Confederate  armies  being 
one-third  of  the  forces  in  the  field  (which  would  have  insured 
early  success  if  there  had  been  war)  the  official  records  show 
that  first  and  last  over  3,000,000  of  men  served  in  the  ISTorth- 
em  armies  and  600,000 — certainly  not  more  than  650,000 — 
in  those  of  the  South.  This  disproportion  of  5  to  1  struck 
the  cold  calculating  mind  of  Edwin  M.  Stanton,  who  perceived 
that  in  an  exchange  of  prisoners,  man  for  man,  the  Soiith 
therefore  was  largely  advantaged.  With  an  iron  will,  and 
reckless  of  all  considerations  of  humanity,  he  stopped  the  ex- 
change of  prisoners.  The  blow  was  a  staggering  one  to  the 
Confederacy.  It  could  not  recruit  its  armies  from  abroad 
and  the  loyal  population,  capable  of  bearing  arms,  was  already 
almost  en  masse  in  service. 

2  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

President  Davis,  contrary  to  the  course  pursued  by  Gov- 
Bmor  Vance,  instead  of  shipping  cotton  as  a  basis  of  credit 
and  to  procure  supplies,  conceived  the  fatal  idea,  and  pursued 
it  to  the  disastrous  end,  that  by  withholding  our  cotton,  a 
"cotton  famine"  would  force  the  nations  of  Europe  to  raise 
the  blockade,  and  come  to  our  aid.  Thus  besides  the  natural 
weariness  of  war,  the  lack  of  supplies  caused  the  soldiery  to 
Ibe  half  fed  and  badly  clothed  and  shod,  and  more  than  this, 
-when  the  cry  of  want  went  up  from  wives  and  little  ones  in 
many  an  humble  home,  the  cancer  of  desertion  became  an 
open  sore. 

With  ranks  daily  depleted  by  deaths  on  the  battlefield  and 
in  the  hospitals,  by  wounds,  by  the  growing  volume  of  deser- 
tions, by  the  necessity  of  detailing  troops  fropi  the  front  to 
prevent  depredations  at  home,  and  the  "unreturning  brave" 
who  languished  in  ISTorthern  prisons,  the  necessity  to  replen- 
ish the  ranks  was  overpowering.  A  resort  to  the  colored 
population  for  many  reasons  was  deemed  impracticable  and 
when  tried  in  a  small  way,  in  the  last  days  of  the  war,  in 
the  spring  of  1865,  the  experiment  was  not  satisfactory. 

There  was  only  one  other  resource,  to  extend  the  age  of  the 
military  conscription,  which  already  embraced  all  able^-bodied 
men  between  the  ages  of  18  and  45,  except  those  exempt  as 
State  officers,  physicians,  and  ministers  of  the  gospel,  and  per- 
haps some  others.  In  the  presence  of  a  necessity  which 
would  admit  of  no  denial,  the  Confederate  Congress  on  17 
Pebruary,  1864,  passed  a  law  placing  in  the  "Reserves"  those 
between  the  ages  of  17  and  18  and  between  45  and  50.  A 
salvo  was  added  that  they  were  not  to  serve  out  of  their  res- 
pective States,  but  this  was,  by  reason  of  the  same  necessity, 
disregarded.  Junior  Reserves  from  this  State  served  in 
South  Carolina  and  Virginia  and  our  Senior  Reserves  fought 
in  South  Carolina  and  Georgia,  though  the  bulk  of  the  latter 
relieved  other  troops  to  go  to  the  front  by  taking  their  places 
in  preserving  internal  order,  arresting  deserters,  forwarding 
conscripts,  guarding  bridges  on  the  great  railway  lines  (over 
which  passed  the  supplies  and  recruits  for  our  armies)  and 
guarding  the  prisoners  at  Salisbury. 

A  brief  breathing  spell  was  given  in  which  those  who 

Organization  of  Resekves.  3 

■wished  might  volunteer.  Then  the  General  Orders  to  em- 
body the  Eeserves  were  formulated  and  issued.  Those  be- 
tween 17  and  18  years  of  age  were  embodied  in  April  and 
May,  1864.  Those  between  45  and  50  were,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  two  regiments  and  two  battalions,  left  at  home  till  Au- 
gust and  September  to  make  and  harvest  the  crops,  and  the 
remainder  were  organized  into  regiments  in  the  Fall.  The 
reserves  ordered  out  in  April  were  organized  into  companies 
and  sent  to  camps  of  instruction  at  Wilmington,  Ealeigh  and 
Morganton  and  during  May  and  June  nine  battalions  were 
organized,  as  follows — the  men  electing  their  company  officers 
find  these  latter  electing  the  Field  Officers : 

First  Battalion  (three  companies),  Major  Charles  W. 
;Broadfoot,  25(JVlay,  at  Raleigh. 

Second  Battalion  (three  companies).  Major  John  H.  An- 
derson, 28  May,  at  Raleigh. 

Third  Battalion  (three  companies).  Major  B.  F.  Hooks,  31 
May,  at  G-oldsboro. 

Fourth  Battalion  (three  companies).  Major  J.  M.  Reece, 
fit  Raleigh,  30  May. 

Fifth  Battalion;  (three  companies),  Major  W.  F.  Beasley, 
ftt  Goldsboro,  2  June. 

Sixth  Battalion  (five  companies).  Major  Walter  Clark,  3 
June,  at  Raleigh. 

Seventh  Battalion  (three  companies,)  Major  W.  Foster 
French,  4  June,  at  Wilmington. 

Eighth  Battalion  (three  companies).  Major  J.  B.  Elling- 
ton, 10  Jime,  at  Morganton. 

Ninth  Battalion  (three  companies),  Major  D.  T.  Millard, 
Asheville,  28  June. 

The  Sixth  was  the  only  battalion  having  more  than  three 
companies  when  organized.  On  15  June  another  company 
each  was  added  to  the  First,  Fourth  and  Fifth  Battalions 
.and  later  another  company  to  the  Second. 

All  these  were  Junior  Reserves  except  the  Third  Battalion, 
which  were  Seniors.  This  battalion  of  Seniors  went  into  im- 
mediate service  as  bridge  guards  and  later  on  were  in  several 
battles  and  became  part  of  the  Eighth  Regiment  of  Re- 
serves— or   Seventy-eighth   North   Carolina.      Another   Batr 

4  North  Cakolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

talion  was  partially  organized  -with  three  companieg  at  JMoi*- 
ganton  where  over  100  of  them  were  captured  28  June,  1864, 
in  Geo.  W.  Kirk's  raid.  The  remainder  were  recruited  up 
by  the  addition  of  Juniors  from  other  counties  and  two  new 
companies  were  thus  created  which  later  at  Salisbury  were 
added  to  Millard's  Ninth  Battalion.  This  battalion  after  see- 
ing sei-vices  at  Wilmington  as  is  narrated  in  its  history  herein, 
was  brigaded  with  the  three  Junior  Eeserve  Regiments  (Sev- 
entieth, Seventy-first  and  Seventy-second  North  Carolina)  at 
Kinston  in  January,  1865,  and  attached  to  Hoke^s  Division 
whose  fortunes  that  brigade  thenceforward  shared  till  John- 
ston's surrender.  As  to  the  other  eight  battalions,  the  First 
(Broadfoot)  and  Sixth  (Clark)  Battalions  with  two  other 
companies  added,  were  organized  into  the  First  Regiment  of 
Reserves  (Seventieth  North  Carolina)  at  Weldon  4  July, 
1864.  The  Second  (Anderson)  and  Fifth  (Beasley)  were 
organized  into  a  larger  battalion  at  Weldon  16  July,  and  this 
on  7  December,  1864,  by  the  addition  of  two  companies,  was 
raised  to  a  regiment,  the  Second  Reserves  or  Seventy-first 
North  Carolina.  The  Fourth  (Reece),  Seventh  (French), 
and  Eighth  (Ellington)  Battalions  were  organized  into  the 
Third  Regiment  of  Reserves  or  Seventy-second  North  Caro- 
lina, at  Wilmington,  3  January,  1865.  Major  Reece,  with 
six  other  officers  and  between  one  hundred  and  two  hundred 
men  of  these  three  battalions,  which  were  then  under  his  com- 
mand, were  captured  near  Fort  Fisher  the  night  of  25  De- 
cember, 1864,  under  circumstances  not  creditable  to  him. 
His  brave  but  inexperienced  boys,  many  of  them,  stoutly  re- 
fused to  be  surrendered  and  saved  themselves.  The  report 
made  by  one  of  these,  the  gallant  young  Adjutant,  F.  M. 
Hamlin,  will  be  found  in  Serial  Volume  87,  Official  Records 
Union  and  Con.federa.te  Armies,  p.  1025. 

The  Junior  Reserve  Brigade,  composed  of  the  above  three 
regiments  and  Millard's  Battalion,  was  commanded  at  first 
by  Colonel  F.  S.  Armistead,  of  the  Seventieth.  At  the  bat- 
tle of  South  West  Creek  below  Kinston  8-9  March,  1865,  it 
was  under  General  L.  S.  Baker,  and  15  March  Colonel  J.  H. 
N'ethercutt,  of  the  Sixty-sixth  North  Carolina,  was  assigned 
to  it  just  before  the  battle  of  Bentonville  and  commanded  the 

Organization  of  Reserves.  5 

brigade  till  the  surrender  under  Johnston.  At  first,  Adju- 
tant A.  T.  London  and  Lieutenant  E.  S.  Eoster  of  the  Seven- 
tieth acted  as  Assistant  Adjutant  General  and  Ordnance  Offi- 
cer, respectively,  of  this  Brigade  but  when  Colonel  JSTether- 
cutt  took  command  15  March  he  assigned  Lieutenant  Wm. 
Calder  as  Assistant  Adjutant  General  and  Lieutenant  E.  S. 
Martin  as  Ordnance  Officer,  both  of  the  Eirst  Heavy  Artil- 
lery Battalion.         • 

The  field  officers  of  the  Junior  Reserves  without  exception 
had  seen  previous  service  in  the  army.  The  writer  was  the 
only  field  officer  who  was  himself  a  Junior  Reserve  (under 
18)  and  only  one  other  (Beasley)  was  under  21  years  of  age, 
which  fact  it  appears  from  General  Holmes'  letter  book  he 
reported  to  the  authorities  at  Richmond.  The  company  of- 
ficers were,  as  a  rule,  17  years  of  age  when  elected,  but 
those  who  passed  the  Examining  Board  were  retained  after 
they  reached  that  age  and  there  was  a  good  sprinkling  of 
company  officers  of  maturer  age  and  army  experience  who 
having  resigned,  or  been  discharged,  from  the  army  by  rea- 
son of  wounds  or  physical  disability  re-entered  service  with 
the  Juniors.  The  Examining  Board  was  composed  of  Ma- 
jors C.  W.  Broadfoot,  J.  H.  Anderson  and  Walter  Clark. 
As  may  be  imagined  at  first  many  of  the  young  company 
officers  were  found  by  this  board  deficient  in  education  or 
knowledge  of  tactics  and  dropped.  These  as  fast  as  they 
became  18  years  of  age  were  sent,  together  with  all  non-com- 
missioned officers  and  privates  who  arrived  at  that  age,  to  the 
regiments  in  Virginia.  The  company  officers  who  passed 
the  required  examination  were  retained  with  their  companies. 
The  vacancies  caused  by  those  failing  to  pass  were  filled  usu- 
ally by  electing  old  soldiers  "on  light  duty"  by  reason  of 
wounds,  or  other  disability  or  by  the  election  of  young  men 
of  better  education,  resulting  in  a  very  decided  improvement 
in  the  personnel  of  the  company  officers.  Towards  the  last, 
amid  the  pressure  and  hurry  of  events,  privates  and  non- 
commissioned officers  arriving  at  18  years  of  age  were  not 
always  sent  off  to  the  older  regiments. 

So  much  for  the  three  regiments  and  the  battalions  of  the 
Juniors.     Of  the  Seniors,  there  were  five  regiments  and  two 

G  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

battalions.  The  words  "Junior"  and  "Senior"  were  not 
officially  used  and .  the  first  three  were  designated  simply 
"First,  Second  and  Third  Kegimenta  of  Keserves"  (or  Sev 
entieth,  Seventy-first  and  Seventy-second  North  Carolina), 
The  latter  were"designated  as  the  "Fourth,  Fifth,  Sixth,  Sev- 
enth and  Eighth  Eegiments  of  Reserves"  (or  Seventy-third, 
Seventy-fourth,  Seventy-sixth,  Seventy-seventh,  and  Seventy- 
eighth  jSToi-th  Carolina,  for  a  cavalry  regiment  has  some  how 
gotten  switched  into  the  enumeration  in  Moore's  Roster  as  the 
Seventy-fifth ) .  There  were  also  three  battalions,  besides  that 
of  Major  Hooks',  above  mentioned,  which  was  incorporated 
into  the  Eighth  Reserves  (Seventy-eighth  North  Carolina). 
These  were  a  battalion  of  Seniors  organized  at  Asheville  and 
commanded  by  Major  L.  P.  Erwin,  who  did  good  service  in 
that  section,  another  from  Catawba  and  adjacent  counties, 
commanded  by  Major  A.  A.  Hill,  and  the  Third  Battalion  or- 
ganized at  Raleigh,  which  served  at  Fort  Fisher  and  was 
commanded  by  Major  J.  T.  Littlejohn.  A  large  part  of  the 
officers  of  these  five  regiments  and  three  battalions  of  Seniors 
had  doubtless  seen  service  in  the  army  and  probably  many  of 
the  privates  had  also. 

The  Fourth,  Fifth  and  Sixth  Reserves  were  formed  into 
the  Second  Brigade  and  commanded  by  Colonel  John  F. 
Hoke,  with  headquarters  at  Salisbury.  Of  this  Brigade  Ma- 
jor jVr.  P.  Beardon  was  Quartermaster  and  Captain  R.  P. 
Waring  Adjutant  General.  The  Seventh,  together  with  the 
companies  late  organized  into  the  Eighth  Reserves  in  De- 
cember, 1864,  were  in  a  brigade  at  Wilmington  command-- 
ed  by  Colonel  Jno.  K.  Connally,  of  the  Fifty-fifth  North 
Carolina.  87  Official  Records  Union  and  Confederate  Ar- 
mies, p.  1021.  From  December,  1864,  to  March,  1865, 
the  Seventh  Reserves  served  in  Georgia,  South  Carolina  and 
this  State,  brigaded  with  the  Tenth  North  Carolina  Battalion 
(Young)  and  part  of  the  time  with  the  Fiftieth  North  Car- 
olina, the  brigade  being  commanded  by  Colonel  Wash.  iL 
Hardy,  of  the  Sixtieth  North  Carolina. 

The  sei-vices  of  the  above  regiments  and  four  battalions  of 
Reserves  are  narrated,  as  well  as  they  can  now  be  recalled,  in 
the  following  sketches  of  their  respective  regiments  and  bat- 

Organization  of  Reserves.  7 

talions,  but  this  history  of  thedr  organization  is  here  given 
as  the  reference  thereto  in  Major  Gordon's  admirable  article 
on  the  organization  of  troops  in  Vol.  1  (p.  16)  of  this  work 
was  very  brief  from  his  lack  of  information  in  this  particular 
matter.  Major  H.  R.  Hooper  was  Quarter  Master  of  all  the 
Reserves  of  North  Carolina  and  Dr.  Thomas  Hill,  Surgeon 
in  Chief.  Lieutenant-General  T.  H.  Holmes  commanded 
the  Reserves  with  Captain  John  W.  Hinsdale  Assistant-Ad- 
jutant General  till  his  promotion  to  Colonel  of  the  Seventy- 
second  IsTorth  Carolina  (Third  Juniors)  when  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Major  Chas.  S.  Stringfellow  as  Assistant-Adjutant- 

The  rolls  kept  in  Raleigh  of  our  regiments  were  duplicates 
and  naturally  not  kept  up  with  the  care  of  those  used  as  pay 
rolls,  which  were  sent  to  Richmond,  hence  much  of  the  com- 
plaint of  the  defects  in  Moore's  Roster,  which  is  nowhere 
more  incomplete  than  in  regard  to  the  Reserves.  The  State 
can  not  now  get  a  complete  and  correct  roster  of  her  troops 
unless  an  act  of  Congress  is  passed  to  have  a  complete  ti-an- 
soript  made  from  the  original  Confederate  pay  rolls  which 
were  surrendered  at  Greensboro,  where  they  had  been  carried 
from  Richmond,  100  (Serial  Vol.)  Q-ff.  Rec.  Union  and  Con- 
fed.  Armies,  S^S,  and  which  are  now  on  file  at  Washington, 
and  this  ought  to  be  done  with  a  careful  collation  of  the  rolls 
which  were  sent  in  from  time  to  time,  of  each  company  and 


Baleigh,  N.  C, 

4  July,   1901. 


1.  Chas.  W.  Broadfoot,  Colonel. 

2.  Walter  Clark,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

3.  N.  A.  Gregory,  Major. 

(Picture  in  71st  Regiment.) 

4.  Thos.  L.  Lee,  Captain,  Co.  G. 

5.  Christopher  C.  Smith,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 

6.  B.  I.  Breedlove,  Private,  Co.  B. 

7.  LucuUus  Hunter,  Private,  Co.  B. 


(first  junior  rhsbbves.  ) 

By  colonel  CHARLES  W.  BROADFOOT. 

Under  the  inexorable  necessity  of  filling  the  ranks  depleted 
by  the  waste  of  three  years  of  war,  the  Confederate  Congress 
on  17  February,  1864,  passed  the  act  by  which  the  military 
age,  previously  18  to  45,  was  extended  to  embrace  all  from 
17  to  50.  Those  from  17  to  18  years  of  age,  known  later  as 
Junior  Reserves,  were  embodied  intO'  companies  in  April  and 
May,  and  in  May  and  June  were  formed  into  battalions,  and 
later  on  into  regiments — forming  a  total  in  this  State  of  three 
regiments  and  one  battalion,  which  became  the  Junior  Re- 
serves' Brigade  in  Hoke's  Division,  Hardee's  Corps.  The 
embodying  of  those  from  45  to  50  years  of  age  was  postponed 
a  few  weeks  to  enable  the  men  to  make  and  save  their  crops 
and  make  arrangements  for  the  care  of  their  families. 

The  First  Regiment  of  Junior  Reserves  was  formed  by  the 
consolidation  of  the  First  and  Sixth  Battalions,  of  whose 
organization  it  is  proper  to  speak  at  this  place. 


This  battalion  consisted  of  three  companies.  Company 
A,  Captain  Charles  Price,  81  officers  and  men;  Company  B, 
Captain  D.  S.  Speed,  78  officers  and  men ;  Company  C,  Cap- 
tain C.  J.  Richardson,  93  officers  and  men.  Total,  with 
field  and  staff,  255. 

It  was  organized  into  a  battalion  at  Camp-  Holmes,  near 
Raleigh,  25  May,  1864,  by  electing  as  Major,  the  writer,  who 
had  served  in  the  "Bethel"  Regiment  and  afterwards  in  Com- 
pany D,  Forty-third  North  Carolina,  but  at  this  time  was  an 
Aide  on  the  staff  of  Lieutenant-General  Holmes,  and  had  re- 
cently returned  with  him  from  the  campaign  in  Arkansas. 

The  battalion  was  equipped  vidth  clothing,  shoeS'  and  ac- 
coutrements as  well  as  the  government  at  that  time  could  do. 

10  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

but  were  armed  with  Enfield  rifles,  which  had  been  changed 
to  percussion  from  flint  and  steel,  and  which  were  well  nigh 
worthless.  Later  on  better  guns  which  had  been  captured  in 
Virginia,  were  issued  to  the  Juniors. 

On  29  May  the  battalion  was  ordered  to  Weldon,  where  it 
went  into  camp  on  the  Northampton  side  of  the  river,  on  the 
ground  formerly  occupied  by  the  Fifty-sixth  Regiment,  near 
the  residence  of  Mr.  John  M.  Moody,  who  with  his  entire 
family  was  as  kind  and  considerate  of  the  soldier  boys  as  it 
was  possible  to  be.  The  camp  was  styled  "Camp  Daniel"  in 
honor  of  Brigadier-General  Junius  Daniel,  then  recently 
killed  in  battle  and  who  was  born  a  few  miles  distant  in  Hal- 
ifax County. 


The  Sixth  Battalion  consisted  of  five  companies.  Com- 
pany A,  Captain  A.  M.  Heitmaji,  89  officers  and  men ;  Com- 
pany B,  Captain  C.  D.  Dowd,  80  officers  and  men ;  Company 

C,  Captain  W.  S.  Lineberry,  78  officers  and  men ;  Company 

D,  Captain  W.  H.  Carter,  76  officers  and  men ;  Company  E, 
Captain  Thos.  L.  Lea,  82  officers  and  men.  Total  when  or- 
ganized, including  field  and  staff,  408  officers  and  men. 

This  battalion  was  organized  at  Camp  Holmes  near  Ral- 
eigh, 3  June,  1864,  by  electing  Walter  Clark,  Major.  Major 
Clark,  a  cadet  at  Tew's  Military  School,  had  in  May,  1861, 
entered  the  service  as  drill-master  and  later  went  to  Virginia 
with  Pettigrew's  regiment.  Twenty-second  North  Carolina; 
in  1862-'63  he  had  served  as  Adjutant  of  the  Thirty-fifth 
North  Carolina  (Colonel  M.  W.  Ransom).  On  the  return 
to  this  Stat©  of  that  brigade  in  1863,  he  resigned  and  entering 
the  senior  class  at  the  State  University,  graduated  2  June, 
the  day  before  his  election  as  Major.  His  battalion  was 
equipped  much  as  the  First  had  been  and  was  ordered  to 
GoldsboTO',  8  June.  After  a  few  days  stay  it  was  ordered  to 
Weldon  18  June  and  went  into  camp  19  June,  near  the  First 
Battalion,  in  a  camp  styled  "Camp  Ransom,"  in  honor  of 
General  M.  W.  Ransom,  whose  residence  was  close  by  and  on 
whose  staff  (when  Colonel  Ransom)  the  Major  commanding 
had  served. 

Seventieth  Regiment.  11 

Tlie  post  at  Weldon  was  commanded  by  Colonel  James  W. 
Hinton,  of  the  Sixty-eighth  North  Carolina,  and  the  district 
was  under  the  command  of  General  L.  S.  Baker,  with  head- 
quarters at  Goldsboro.  Pickets  were  kept  out  by  the  two  bat- 
talions to  guard  against  surprise  by  raiding  parties,  or  a  sud- 
den advance  of  the  enemy  from  the  Chowan.  The  com- 
mand was  rigidly  and  constantly  drilled  and  with  the  facility 
of  boys  soon  acquired  military  discipline  and  efficiency.  On 
27  June  the  Sixth  Battalion  was  ordered  to  Gaston  and  took 
post  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  to  protect  the  railroad  bridge 
at  that  point  from  a  threatened  cavalry  raid,  but  returned  to 
Weldon  1  July. 


On  4  July,  1864,  the  First  and  Sixth  Battalions  were,  in 
pursuance  of  General  Orders,  organized  into  a  regiment.  On 
15  June,  Captain  M.  C.  Nixon's  company  had  been  assigned 
to  the  First  Battalion.  The  Halifax  County  company  of 
Captain  W.  R.  Williams,  was  now  added  to  the  two  battal- 
ions, making  ten  companies  whose  officers  on  that  day  elected 

Charles  W.  Broadfoot,  Colonel. 
Walter  Clark^  Lieutenant-Colonel. 
N.  A.  Gregory^,  Major. 

The  election  was  conducted  by  Lieutenant  Graham  Daves, 
Aide  to  General  Holmes.  Upon  his  report  of  the  election, 
orders  were  issued  assigning  above  officers  to  duty  accordingly. 
Major  Gregory  had  seen  service  as  First  Lieutenant  of  Com- 
pany I,  Twenty-third  North  Carolina  Regiment,  but  having 
been  wounded  and  disabled  at  Chancellorsville,  had  resigned. 
He  now  patriotically  acepted  his  election  and  re-entered  the 

During  July,  the  headquarters  of  Lieutenant-General 
Holmes  were  removed  to  Weldon.  Not  long  after  his  arri- 
val, he  sent  for  the  above  field  officers  of  the  First  Regiment 
and  explained  tO'  them  his  earnest  wish  that  his  chief  of  staff, 
Lieutenant'Colonel  F.  S.  Armistead,  might  be  made  Colonel 
of  the  First  Regiment,  as  thereby  he  felt  confident  that  he 
would  without  delay  be  appointed  Brigadier-General  of  the 

12  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Junior  Reserves  Brigade  (which  was  to  be  formed)  by  Pres- 
ident Davis,  who  had  been  a  cadet  at  West  Point  with  him- 
self and  a  life-long  friend.  Colonel  Armistead  was  himself 
a  West  Pointer  and  brother  of  General  Armistead  who  was 
killed  at  Gettysburg.  Their  mother  was  a  Stanly,  of  New 
Bern.  In  deference  to  General  Holmes'  wishes  the  field 
officers  resigned  and  at  the  new  election  F.  S.  Armistead 
was  elected  Colonel,  C.  W.  Broadfoot  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Walter  Clark  Major,  and  IST.  A.  Gregory  accepted  the  vacant 
captaincy  of  Company  H.  This  arrangement  was  expected 
to  endure  for  a  very  brief  period  and  in  order  to  carry  it  out 
fully,  General  Holmes  delayed 'the  formation  of  the  other 
battalions  into  regiments  as  long  as  he  could.  But  the  ex- 
pected promotion  of  Colonel  Armistead,  for  some  reason,  did 
not  materialize,  and  the  arrangement  continued  to  the  end,  ex- 
cept that  on  formation  of  the  Second  Regiment,  Gregory  was 
elected  Major  of  that.  As  Colonel  Armistead  for  many 
months  commanded  the  post,  or  the  brigade,  the  regiment  was 
in  the  actiial  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Broadfoot  and 
in  his  absence  by  Major  Clark.  On  the  second  organization, 
the  company  of  Captain  W.  R.  Williams  was  transferred  to 
Anderson's  Battalion  and  that  of  Captain  John  A.  Manning 
was  substituted. 

The  companies  as  relettered  after  the  second  organization 
were  officered  as  follows : 

Company  A — Warren,  Franklin  arid  Nash — Captain, 
Charles  Price,  of  Warren ;  First  Lieutenant,  C.  C.  Smith,  of 
Nash ;  Second  Lieutenants,  E.  S.  Foster  and  W.  B.  Coppedge, 
both  of  Franklin.  This  company  was  the  only  one  which 
had  no  change  in  its  officers  from  its  organization  in  May, 
till  the  surrender  a  year  later.  Captain  Price  is  a  distin- 
guished lawyer,  living  in  Salisbury  and  has  been  United 
States  District  Attorney  for  Western  North  Carolina ;  Lieu- 
tenant Foster  is  a  promising  physician  in  Louisburg. 

Company  B — Granville — Captains,  D.  S.  Speed,  R.  L. 
Crews,  F.  R.  Gregory ;  First  Lieutenants,  A.  Thorpe,  T.  W. 
Taylor ;  Second  Lieutenants,  F.  S.  Daniels,  W.  H.  Gregory 
R.  H.  Andrews,  Alex.  Turner. 

Seventieth  Regiment.  13 

Company  C — Dmidson — Captain,  A.  M.  Heitman;  First 
Lieutenant,  J.  A.  Parks ;  Second  Lieutenants,  C.  L.  Badgett, 
E.  W.  Lindsay,  F.  E.  Thomas. 

Company  D — Wake — Captain,  C.  J.  Richardson;  First 
Lieutenants,  A.  J.  Alford,  G.  R.  Smith ;  Second  Lieutenants, 
G.  R.  Smith,  W.  H.  Crabtree,  R.  Halyburton. 

Company  E — Moore  and  Montgomery — Captains,  C.  D. 
Dowd,  W.  W.  Beard ;  First  Lieutenant,  W.  A.  Fry,  R.  W. 
Wellborn;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  T.  McCaulay,  D.  J.  Dye, 
E.  J.  Dye,  J.  C.  Weal. 

Company  F — Randolph — Captain,  W.  S.  Lineberry; 
First  Lieutenants,  L.  S.  Gray,  H.  C.  Causey ;  Second  Lieviten- 
ants,  H.  C.  Causey,  Z.  T.  Rush,  W.  T.  Glenn,  W.  R.  Ash- 

Company  G — Casurell  and  Stanly — Captain,  Thos.  L.  Lea, 
of  Caswell ;  First  Lieutenant,  J.  W.  Smith,  of  Stanly ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenants,  J.  G.  Denny  and  L.  Eudy,  of  Caswell, 
Waverly  Johnson,  of  l^Torthampton. 

Company  H — Chatham — Captains,  W.  H.  Carter,  N.  A. 
Gregory,  J.  A.  Faison;  First  Lieutenants,  J.  T.  McAuley, 
Carson  Johnson;  Second  Lieutenants,  W.  Y.  Fulford,  J.  J. 
Watson,  J.  W.  Treloar. 

Company  I — Orange — Captains,  M.  C.  Nixon,  J.  S.  Far- 
thing, A.  D.  Markham,  W.  F.  Hargrave,  B.  F.  Weaver,  Ga- 
briel Holmes.  The  latter  was  a  son  of  Lieutenan1>General 
Holmes  and  grandson  of  Governor  Holmes. 

Company  K- — Martin,  Northanvpton,  Bertie  andChowan — 
Captains,  Jno.  A.  Manning,  Frank  S.  Faison ;  First  Lieuten- 
ants, Frank  S.  Faison,  W.  D.  Pruden;  Second  Lieutenants, 
W.  D.  Pruden,  J.  K.  WheeJer.  Lieutenant  Pruden  is  now 
the  well  known  lawyer  of  Edenton. 

There  were  many  changes  among  the  officers  by  the  oper- 
ation of  the  Examining  Board  and  resignations  and  some 
names  may  be  indavertently  O'mitted.  Among  the  company 
officers.  Captain  N".  A.  Gregory,  F.  R.  Gregory,  J.  A. 
Faison  and  W.  W.  Beard  and  Lieutenant  W.  H.  H.  Gregory 
had  seen  previous  service  in  the  army.  Captain  Faison  was 
a  West  Pointer. 

14  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  staff  of  the  regiment  was  as  follows : 

A.  T.  London^  of  Wilmington,  Adjutant. 

'N.  M.  JoNEs^  of  Chatham,  SergeantrMajor. 

C.  S.  Weddetst^  of  "Wake,  Quartermaster  Sergeant. 

Assistant  Suegeons,  James  Jordan,  of  Northampton ;  F. 
E.  Gregory,  of  Granville;  G.  G.  Smith,  of  Concord.  Dr. 
Gregory  had  previously  been  Captain  of  Company  B. 

When  first  organized  into  battalions,  we  had  no  surgeons 
and  the  following  extract  of  a  letter  from  the  writer  at  that 
time  gives  an  idea  of  the  situation : 

"Camp  Daniel, 
"June  2,  1864. 
"I  have  no  surgeon  and  have  to  prescribe  for  the  sick 
myself.  A  doctor  of  Major  Hahr's  Battalion  has  kindly  fur- 
nished me  with  some  medicines  with  fvll  directions  how  to 
use.  To-day  I  dosed  about  thirty.  *  *  *  j  have  a  good 
deal  to  amuse  me  in  camp.  My  men  come  to  me  for  every- 
thing. One  wants  a  furlough,  one  has  broken  his  gun  and 
expects  me  to  mend  it  for  him ;  another  wants  tO'  go  home  to 
get  married,  etc." 

An  assistant  surgeon  reported  for  duty  on  17  June,  1864, 
but  with  no  medicines.  These  came  within  a  short  time, 
however,  and  thereafter  we  had  the  services  of  kind,  attentive 
and  competent  surgeons.  This  regiment,  with  the  other 
Junior  Reserves,  joined  in  the  following  letter: 

"Camp  ojt  Junior  Reserves, 
"Near  Weldon,  N.  O.,  October  10,  1864. 
"Hon.  Secretary  of  War,  Richmond,  Va. : 

Sir: — ^We,  the  undersigned  Field  Officers  of  the  Junior 
Reserves  of  North  Carolina  stationed  near  Weldon,  N.  C,  at 
the  unanimous  request  of  the  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the 
commands,  respectfully  tender  their  services  to  the  depart- 
ment for  duty  in  Virginia  during  the  present  emergency, 
while  our  National  Capital  is  threatened  and  its  brave  defend- 
ers stand  in  need  of  reinforcements." 

This  letter  was  a  source  of  pride  to  Lieutenant-General 

Seventieth  Regiment.  15 

Holmes,  commanding  the  Reserves  of  North  Carolina,  -who 
often  spoke  of  it  in  highly  complimentary  terms  to  the  writer. 
On  16  October,  1864,  the  regiment  went  to  Boykin's  Depot, 
met  a  raid  from  the  Blackwater  where  it  remained  a  day  or 
two,  and  returned  to  Weldon,  as  the  enemy  had  retired,  where 
we  continued  to  furnish  guards  for  bridges  at  Gaston  and  else- 
where, and  heavy  details  for  outpost  duty. 


This  regiment  and  Anderson's  Battalion  were  ordered  to 
Plymouth  on  Saturday,  29  October.  We  left  Weldon  and 
went  by  rail  to  Tarboro.  On  Sunday  marched  eighteen 
miles,  on  Monday  twenty-five  to  within  thirteen  miles  of  Ply- 
mouth, where  we  met  our  troops  returning  from  the  capture 
of  the  place  and  the  blowing  up  of  the  Albemarle  by  the  en- 
emy, and  were  ordered  to  Hamilton,  IST.  C.  This  was  extra- 
ordinary' marching  for  raw  levies.  There  was  little  or  no 
straggling  and  the  regiment  was  highly  complimented  by  Gen- 
eral Baker,  commanding. 

Camp  "Baker,"  near  Hamilton,  waa  headquarters,  and 
from  this  point  the  outpost  service  become  both  arduous  and 
important,  as  our  advanced  posts  extended  to  Foster's  Mills, 
below  Williamston,  in  Martin  County.  Covering  the  ap- 
proaches to  Martin,  Edgecombe  and  Pitt  Counties,  whence 
at  the  time  large  supplies  were  drawn  for  the  support  of  Lee's 

Early  in  November,  four  companies  (B,  E,  H  and  I),  were 
sent  under  command  of  the  Major  of  the  regiment  tO'  William- 
ston where  he  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  post,  relieving  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  Van  Hook  with  six  companies  of  the  Fiftieth. 
Two  companies  of  cavalry,  Captains  Pitts  and  Brown,  of  the 
Sixty-fifth  North  Carolina,  and  Lee's  Alabama  Battery  of 
artillery  were  also  under  his  command,  seven  companies  al- 
together. With  these  he  was  to  guard  the  crossings  at  Fos- 
ter's and  Rawls'  Mills  and  patrol  the  roads  leading  to  Ply- 
mouth and  Washington  where  the  enemy  were  in  force.  One 
of  the  principal  objects  served  by  the  outpost  at  that  time  was 
to  cover  the  movements  of  Dr.  Fretwell,  who  had  been  sent 
out  from  Richmond  to  place  torpedoes  in  the  Roanoke  below 

16  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Williamston,  which  he  did  successfully  with  a  force  of  de- 
tailed men  as  experts.  The  enemy  made  two  or  three  at- 
tempts to  disturb  our  quiet,  and  on  one  occasion  Major  Clark 
followed  them  with  part  of  the  cavalry,  and  three  companies 
of  infantry  and  a  section  of  artillery  nearly  to  Jamesville, 
the  rest  being  left  to  guard  the  road  from  Washington. 


About  10  December,  six  companies,  A,  C,  D,  F,  G  and  K 
were  ordered  from  Camp  Baker  to  Virginia  and  went  as  far 
as  Belfield,  Va.,  where  they  took  part  in  the  fight  at  that  place 
which  turned  back  the  raid  under  General  Warren.  The  other 
four  companies,  B,  E,  H  and  I,  were  at  the  time  below  Wil- 
liamston at  and  near  Foster's  Mills,  and  were  ordered  to 
follow  the  othei's  as  rapidly  as  possible.  These  four  made 
a  forced  march  to  Tarboro,  when  they  were  immediately  or- 
dered back  to  meet  a  raid  from  Plymouth. 


On  12  December,  after  marching  one  hundred  miles  in 
eight  days,  they  were  in  line  behind  breastworks  at  Butler's 
Bridge,  near  Hamilton,  Fort  Branch  and  Camp  Baker,  with  a 
section  of  Lee's  light  battery  from  Montgomery,  Ala.,  and  two 
companies  of  cavalry  of  the  Sixty-fifth  TSTorth  Carolina  State 
Troops,  Captains  Brown  and  Pitts  in  the  im.m.ediate  front. 
The  whole  force  under  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Broadfoot.  Just  before  daylight  on  the  morning  of  the  ISth, 
we  were  attacked  in  front  and  rear  at  the  same  time,  the 
party  in  the  rear  having  been  piloted  through  the  swamps  by 
one  or  more  traitors,  known  as  Buffaloes.  The  cavalry  com- 
panies were  dismounted  and  in  front  as  skirmishers,  and  their 
horses  were  a  few  yards  in  rear  of  the  breastworks,  on  the 
Hamilton  side,  when  they  were  fired  upon  by  the  enemy  and 
broke  away  from  the  few  men  in  charge  of  them  and  dashed 
over  the  bridge  and  up  the  road  in  the  direction  of  Tarboro. 
The  noise  of  these  loose  horses  crossing  the  bridge  was  mis- 
taken by  the  enemy  in  front  for  a  charge,  and  they  fell  back, 
allowing  the  entire  command  to  escape,  and  reform  on  the 
Tarboro  road  about  one-fourth  of  a  mile  distant,  in  a  line  of 
old  breastworks  commanding  the  road. 

Seventieth  Regiment.  17 

In  this  affair  the  regiment  lost  Dr.  Gregory  captured  in 
Camp  Baker,  where  he  went  to  attend  the  wounded,  Lieu- 
tenant VanB.  Sharpe,  of  Pitt  County,  who  had  been  wound- 
ed while  on  the  skirmish  line,  and  several  privates  were  also 
captured,  and  we  had  our  camp  plundered,  if  a  camp  of 
Junior  Reserves  at  that  time  can  be  said  to  be  the  subject  of 
plunder.  Colonel  Hinton  and  Adjutant  Hinton,  of  ttie  Sixty- 
Eighth,  who  had  spent  the  night  at  the  Sherrod  house  in  our 
rear,  waiting  tlie  coming  up  of  tbat  regiment,  were  captured, 
as  they  came  out  expecting  to  meet  it,  but  the  Adjutant  soon 
escaped.  He  had  a  leave  of  absence  in  his  pocket  to  go  home 
to  be  married  and  he  kept  his  tryst.  The  enemy  returned 
hastily  to  Plymouth.  ITpooi  the  return  of  the  six  companies 
from  Belfield,  the  regiment  resumed  its  duties  at  Camp  Baker 
of  protecting  the  approaches  from  below  and  thus  gTiarding 
Tarboro  and  Weldon. 


Late  in  December,  the  enemy  sent  several  boats  up  tbe  Roan- 
oke, threatening  Fort  Branch,  and  on  23  December,  two  com- 
panies of  the  regiment,  with  a  section  of  Dickson's  light  bat- 
tery (Company  E,  of  Starr's  Battalion),  the  whole  imder  the 
command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Broadfoot,  who  had  volun- 
teered for  this  service,  went  to  Poplar  Point  on  the  Roanoke, 
a  short  distance  below  Fort  Branch,  tO'  reconnoitre,  and  pre- 
vent, if  possible,  their  further  ascent  of  tbe  river.  The  loss 
of  a  boat,  sunk  near  Williamston  by  a  torpedo  placed  in  the 
river  the  night  before  by  Dr.  Fretwell.  who  had  been  sent 
from  Richmond  asi  already  stated,  for  the  purpose  of  obstruct- 
ing the  river,  had  cheeked  the  gunboats  which  were  advanc- 
ing slowly,  dragging  tlie  river  from  open  boats  as  they  went. 
When  they  passed  a  bend  in  the  river  below  Poplar  Point  and 
came  into  view,  the  guns  of  Dickson's  Battery  located  on  the 
bluff,  opened  fire  and  stopped  them.  The  enemy  shelled  the 
banks,  which  were  lined  with  two  companies  of  our  regi- 
ment, without  damage,  and  upon  24  December  another  bat- 
tery having  been  placed  below  the  gunboats  and  the  infantry 
having  been  reinforced  by  Colonel  Whitford's  Sixty-seventhi 

18  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Hegiment,  the  enemy  retired,  shelling  heavily  the  woods  as 
they  withdrew.  General  Leventhorpe,  commanding  the  Dis- 
trict of  North  Carolina,  complimented  our  command  for  its 
part  in  this  affair. 

Just  here  an  anecdote:  While  passing  along  the  line  the 
officer  in  command  caught  one  of  the  boys  with  an  unex- 
ploded  shell  from  the  enemy  between  his  knees,  trying  to  ex- 
tract the  powder.  Upon  being  sharply  reprimanded  and  told 
•of  the  danger  to  himself  and  others,  the  boy  replied :  "I  am 
not  skeered  of  the  d — d  things  when  they  are  coming  at  me 
through  the  air,  and  I  know  I  ain't  afraid  of  'em  when  I  have 
'em  in  my  hands."  About  29  January  this  regiment,  with 
the  Second  and  Third  Regiments  and  Millard's  Battalion  of 
Junior  Reserves,  commanded  by  Captain  C.  M.  Hall,  were 
formed  into  a  brigade  under  command  of  Colonel  F.  S.  Arm- 
istead,  by  General  Order  No.  1,  of  this  date,  and  Captain  B. 
P.  Smith,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  was  assigned  to  duty  as 
brigade  Quartermaster.  This  was  our  first  acquaintance  with 
a  quartermaster,  as  our  dealings  heretofore  with  that  branch 
of  the  service  were  at  long  range.  We  never  had  a  commis- 
sary officer,  but  our  brigade  had  an  excellent  ordnance  officer 
in  Lieutenant  E.  S.  Foster,  of  Company  A,  of  our  regiment, 
assigned  to  duty  as  such. 

About  the  middle  of  February,  1865,  our  regiment  as  part 
of  the  First  Brigade  Reserves,  went  to  Kinston,  N.  C,  and 
were  accounted  worthy  to  stand  with  their  older  brethren  of 
Hoke's  Division,  as  part  and  parcel  of  the  same;  and  from 
this  time  to  the  farewell  address  of  that  gallant  General  made 
to  his  division  on  1  May,  1865,  we  shared  its  hardships,  as 
well  as  its  glories. 


After  being  encamped  with  the  brigade  for  some  three 
weeks  at  Kinston  (about  one  mile  west  of  the  Jno.  C.  Wash- 
ington residence),  news  came  that  the  enemy  was  advancing 
from  New  Bern  in  force.  The  brigade  was  placed  under 
command  of  General  L.  S.  Baker,  and  attached  tO'  Hoke's 
Division,  and  on  6  March  we  crossed  the  river  and  marched 
down  to  South  West  Creek,  where  we  lined  the  bank  of  that 

Seventieth  Regiment.  19 

fitream,  the  right  of  our  brigade  (the  First  Eegiment)  resting 
on  the  county  road  where  it  crosses  that  stream  north  of  the 
railroad.  The  morning  of  the  8th  we  heard  the  heavy  fight- 
ing and  joined  in  the  cheering  as  the  news  came  down  the  line 
that  Hoke  had  captured  1,600  prisoners  and  a  general  officer 
on  the  right.  About  3  p.  m.  we  were  ordered  to  cross  the 
stream  before  us,  which  we  did  on  an  improvised  bridge  under 
firing  going  on  between  our  skirmishers  and  those  of  the  en- 

On  the  other  side  the  brigade  formed  line  of  battle  in  the 
same  order  as  before,  the  First  Regiment  Reserves  (Seven- 
tieth Xorth  Carolina)  on  the  right.  On  orders  from  Gen- 
eral Baker  the  brigade  moved  handsomely  forward,  and  drove 
the  enemy  from  behind  their  temporary  breastworks  of  fence 
rails  and  logs.  We  captured  some  prisoners  and  the  loss  in 
the  brigade  was  not  very  heavy. 


General  D.  PI.  Hill,  writing  a  month  after,  says  in  his  re- 
port of  this  battle,  speaking  from  hearsay,  for  he  states 
therein  that  the  Reserves  were  not  under  his  command,  as 
follows,  9S  (Serial  Vol.)  Ojf.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed. 
4.rmies,  1087.  The  Reserves  advanced  handsomely  for 
a  time,  but  at  length  one  regiment  (the  First,  I  think), 
l>roke  and  the  rest  lay  down  and  could  not  be  got  forward." 
Had  General  Hill  been  writing  of  troops  under  his  own  com- 
inand,  or  of  matters  of  his  own  knowledge,  his  statement 
would  be  accepted.  But  by  the  very  reason  of  his  high  chax- 
flcter  this  statement  by  him  on  hearsay  can  not  be  allowed  to 
go  down  in  history  uncorrected.  I,  who  saw  the  whole  mat- 
ter, must  say,  and  all  others  who  were  present  (of  whom  hun- 
dreds are  still  living,)  among  them  the  editor  of  this  work, 
will  concur  with  me  that  this  statement  is  a  gross  injustice  to 
the  gallant  boys.  The  facts  are  that  the  whole  brigade  went 
forward  handsomely,  as  General  Hill  says,  and  while  closely 
engaged,  a  portion  of  the  First  Regiment  (not  all)  miscon- 
ceiving a  command  that  was  given  to  the  skirmish  line,  did 
break  and  fell  back  some  150  yards  to  the  stream.  They  did 
jiot  attempt  to  cross  it  by  the  bridge  or  otherwise  and  were 

20  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

readily  and  promptly  rallied  and  immediately  went  forward 
again.  Tliey  were  much  cliagrined  at  misunderstanding  the 
orders  which  alone  had  caused  them  tO'  fall  back.  No  part  of 
the  brigade  at  any  time  lay  down  and  refused  to  go  forward- 
Those  who'  commanded  the  Juniors  or  saw  them  in  action 
know  that  there  were  no  troops  who  had  more  enthusiasm  or 
were  more  easily  led  than  they. 

Abo'Ut  dark  General  Hoke  placing  hiinself  at  the  head  of 
our  brigade,  some  other  troops  being  added,  marched  us 
down  the  road  towards  Nense  river  with  the  intention  of  turn- 
ing the  enemy's  flank,  but  about  midnight  the  scouts  brought 
in  news  which  induced  General  Hoke  to  retrace  our  steps  and 
at  daylight  we  had  recrossed  the  creek  and  were  back  in  our 

The  enemy  in  front  were  repulsed,  but  Sherman's  army 
was  coming  up  from  South  Carolina  and  we  were  in  danger 
of  being"  "in  a  strait  betwixt  two."  On  the  10th  we  retreated 
through  Kinston,  thence  through  Goldsboro  to  Smithfield, 
where  we  saw  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston,  who  was  in  chief 
command.  There  one  morning  the  Junior  Reserves  Brigade 
was  drawn  iip  on  three  sides  of  a  square  to  witness  the  execu- 
tion of  three  men  from  Zachary's Georgia  Regiment, who  were 
to  be  shot  for  mutiny.  There  were  threats  of  rescue,  hence 
this  precaution.  The  men  were  tied  to  stakes  and  shot  by  a 
detail,  half  only  of  whose  g^lns  were  loaded  with  ball,  the 
other  half  with  powder  (the  loading  being  done  by  others)  so 
nO'  man  would  know  that  he  fired  the  fatal  shot.  It  was  a 
painful  scene. 


On  16  March  the  battle  of  Averasboro  was  fought  and  the 
next  morning  we  moved  forward  to  meet  Sherman.  The 
night  of  the  18th  we  camped  in  the  woods  beyond  the  stream 
which  runs  through  Bentonville.  The  next  day,  19  March, 
was  a  bright  Sunday  morning.  Hoke's  Division  lined  the 
road  and  at  right  angles  to  us  was  the  Army  of  the  West, 
The  enemy  were  in  the  angle.  In  the  afternoon  we  saw  the 
Western  army  at  right  angles  to  us  as  it  charged  and  took  two 
successive  lines  of  breastworks,  capturing  the  enemy's  artil- 

Seventieth  Regiment.  21 

lery.  Several  officers  led  the  charge  on  horseback  across  an 
open  field  in  full  view,  with  colors  flying  and  line  of  battle 
in  such  perfect  order  as  to  be  able  to  distinguish  the  several 
field  officers  in  proper  place  and  followed  by  a  battery  which 
dashed  at  full  gallop,  wheeled,  unlimbered  and  opened  fire. 
It  looked  like  a  picture  and  at  our  distance  was  truly  beauti- 
ful. It  was  gallantly  done,  but  it  was  a  painful  sight  to  see 
hoAV  close  their  battle  flags  were  together,  regiments  being 
scarcely  larger  than  companies  and  a  division  not  much  larger 
than  a  regiment  should  be.  In  the  meantime  Hoke's  Division 
was  sharply  engaged  with  a  corps  which  was  trying  to  turn 
our  flank.  The  enemy's  large  force  enabled  him  to  do  this  and 
next  morning  Hoke's  Division  was  thrown  back  and  formed  a 
new  line  of  battle  facing  nearly  due  east,  whereas  the  day  be- 
fore we  had  been  facing  southwest. 

Tbis  new  line  the  division  promptly  fortified  with  breast- 
works hastily  thrown  up  of  logs,  filled  in  vsdth  earth  dug  up 
with  bayonets  and  tin  pans  and  a  few  spades  and  shovels.  In 
front  of  this  line,  two  hundred  yards,  was  the  skirmish  line 
of  each  brigade.  That  of  our  brigade  was  commanded  by 
Major  Walter  Clark,  of  the  First  Eegiment.  During  the 
two  days  we  held  that  position  the  enemy  repeatedly  charged 
and  sometimes  drove  in  the  skirmishers  to  our  right  and  left, 
but  being  favored  by  the  ground  or  for  some  other  cause,  the 
skirmishers  of  our  brigade  held  their  ground  the  entire  time. 
On  Tviefiday  afternoon,  the  enemy  having  broken  through  to 
our  extreme  left,  threatened  our  communications.  That 
night  General  Johnston  withdrew  across  the  stream,  having 
held  70,000  of  Sherman's  troops  at  bay  with  forces  in  the 
beginning  not  exceeding  14,000,  and  at  no  time  reaching 
20,000.  In  many  respects  this  was  one  of  the  most  remarka- 
ble battles  of  the  war.  Sherman's  troops  were  evidently  de- 
moralized by  a  long  course  of  pillaging  and  plunder. 

Sherman  did  not  follow  our  retreat,  but  sheered  off  to 
Goldsboro.  General  Johnston's  army  was  encamped  around 
Mitchener's  depot  and  was  reorganized  31  March,  100  Offi- 
cial Records  Union  and  Confederate  Armies  738-736.  On 
6  April  we  had  the  last  great  review  held  of  any  of  the  Con- 
federate armies  and  Governor  Vance  made  one  of  his  most 

22  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

inspiring  speeches.  No  brigade  there  made  a  finer  appear' 
ance  than  the  Juniors.  It  was  the  largest  brigade  in  Hoke's 
Division,  nearly  doubling  in  numbers  Clingman's,  and  in- 
deed was  the  largest  brigade  in  the  whole  army  by  the  official 


On  10  April  we  began  our  final  retreat.  On  12  April  we 
passed  through  Ealeigh,  Hoke's  Division  being  the  rear  guard 
and  our  last  pickets  passed  through  the  town  at  midnight, 
Governor  Vance  passed  out  just  ahead  of  us  and  spent  tlie 
night  in  General  Hoke's  tent  about  seven  miles  west  of  Eal- 
eigh. We  passed  through  Chapel  Hill  and  the  Alamance  Reg- 
ulator battle  ground  (of  16  May,  1771)  and  thence  on  up  to 
Red  Cross  in  Randolph,  where  we  halted  several  days  await- 
ing  the  result  of  the  "Bennett  House"  surrender  of  14  ApriL 

In  passing  through  Alamance  the  streams  were  much 
swollen  by  recent  rains,  and  there  was  great  difficulty  in  cross- 
ing  and  many  narrow  escapes  from  drowning  occurred,  espe- 
cially  among  the  boys. 

The  first  treaty  for  surrender,  the  most  creditable  thing 
in  the  career  of  General  Sherman,  having  been  disallowed  by 
President  Johnson,  we  were  again  moved  westward  but  we 
were  again  stopped  at  Bush  Hill,  near  Trinity  College,  by  the 
news  that  a  final  surrender  had  been  made  on  26  April. 
There  on  1  May  $1.25  in  silver  was  paid  tO'  each  one 
from  general  to  private  and  on  the  next  day,  what  was  left 
of  the  command  received  paroles  from  the  commanding  officer 
of  their  respective  regiments.  By  this  time  the  army  had 
dwindled  tO'  a  skeleton,  the  certainty  of  a  surrender  and  the 
unwillingness  to  be  made  prisoner  having  rapidly  thinnedf 
the  ranks. 

On  the  afternoon  of  2  May,  1865,  what  was  left  of  the 
First  Regiment  of  Junior  Reserves  received  their  paroles  and 
quietly  dispersed  to  their  respective  homes.  The  regiment 
was  off  duty  forever. 

We  suffered,  we  fought,  we  failed,  it  has  pleased  some  to 
call  us  rebels  because  we  had  done  our  duty,  but  history  will 
record  the  names  of  the  gallant,  bright-faced  boys  of  the 

Seventieth  Regiment.  23 

North  Carolina  Junior  Eeserves  on  that  page  where  only 
those  of  heroes  are  written. 

Chaeles  W.  Beoadfoot. 
Fayettevillb,  N.  C, 

2  May,  1901. 


1.   w.  F.  Bewley,  Lieut.-Colopel. 

5.  Wm,  H,  Overman,  Captain,  Oo,  B. 

6.  B.  F.  Eoglirs,  2d  Lieut.,  Oo.  E. 

3  d!  e!  MeKJinft  Qaptain,  Co.  A.  T.    R  M.  Snirjnan,  Sd  Ueut.,  Co.  B,  ^ 

4  J  aHStSciJUin.Co.C.  a    M^PA-Ludwig.Drummer.Co.F. 

9.    J,  W.  Denmark,  Drummer,  Co.  A. 

2.   N.  A.  GreKory,  Utajpr 


(second  junior  EE8ERVES.  ) 

By  DAVID  E.  McKlNNE,  Captain   Company  A. 

The  Second  Eegimesnt  Reserves  (Juniors)  was  formed  by 
the  consolidation  of  the  Second  and  Fifth  Battalions,  with 
the  addition  of  other  companies. 


This  battalion  was  composed  of  three  companies,  Company 
A,  Captain  W.  H.  Overman ;  Company  B,  Captain  J.  Q.  Hol- 
land ;  Company  C,  Captain  John  K.  Wells,  and  was  organized 
31  May,  1864,  at  Camp  Holmes  near  Raleigh,  by  the  elec- 
tion of  John  H.  Anderson,  Major.  Major  Anderson  had 
served  as  a  private  in  the  "Bethel"  Regiment  and  later  as 
First  Lieutenant  Company  D,  Forty-eighth  JSTorth  Carolina, 
and  had  resigned  on  account  of  wounds.  His  battalion  2 
June  was  ordered  to  Goldsboro.  There  on  15  June  Captain 
T.  C.  Rowland's  company  was  added  as  Company  D. 


This  battalion  was  also  of  three  companies.  Company  A, 
Captain  A.  R.  Hicks ;  Company  B,  Captain  J.  W.  Grainger, 
and  Company  C,  Captain  McD.  Boyd.  It  was  organized  at 
Goldsboro  2  June,  1864,  by  electing  W.  F.  Beasley  Major. 
Major  Beasley  had  seen  service  as  First  Lieutenant  Com- 
pany H,  Forty-eighth  jSTortli  Carolina  Regiment.  A  few 
days  later  Captain  S.  Spears'  company,  afterwards  command- 
ed by  Captain  Corl,  was  added  to  this  battalion  and  both  these 
battalions  were  ordered  to  Weldon. 


On  16  July  at  Weldon  the  Second  and  Fifth  Battalions 
were  combined  into  Anderson's  Battalion  of  eight  compa- 
nies by  electing  J.  H.  Anderson  Lieutenant>Colonel  and  W. 
F.  Beasley  Major. 

26  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  fall  of  1864,  this  battalion  spent  at  Weldon.  On  4 
October  Captain  W.  S.  Flynn's  company  was  added  and  on 
10  October  this  battalion  and  the  First  Eegiment  of  Ee- 
serves  united  in  an  offer  of  their  services  to  go  to  Virginia. 

personal  expebiences. 

The  writer,  in  August,  was  assigned  to  duty  as  Adjutant  of 
the  post  of  Weldon  and  filled  that  position  until  called  to  the 
command  of  his  company  by  the  subsequent  retirement  of 
Captain  Hicks  and  Lieutenant  Draughon.  The  following 
personal  experiences  may  be  of  interest.  On  31  August,  a 
dispatch  came  that  the  enemy  had  burnt  Winton  and  ISTew- 
som's  and  were  advancing.  The  commander  of  the  sub-de- 
partment issued  an  order  to  Major  Walter  Clark,  of  the  Sev- 
entieth Regiment  (First  Junior  Reserves)  to  go  to  the  front, 
and  take  command  of  the  scattered  companies,  infantry, 
cavalry  or  artillery  in  that  section  and  keep  the  enemy  in 
check  till  he  could  send  back  authentic  information.  The 
writei'  was  ordered  to  accompany  him  as  Acting  Adjutant- 
General.  An  engine  and  a  box  car  containing  our  horses,  were 
obtained  by  an  order  for  them  from  General  Arnold  H.  Elzey, 
commanding  at  Richmond,  who  happened  to  be  passing 
through  Weldon.  The  engine  ran  down  the  Seaboard  road, 
car  in  front,  till  we  reached  Boykins,  where  Lieutenant  Bien- 
venu,  of  the  Louisiana  Artillery,  was  on  post  with  a  section 
of  his  battery.  He  and  some  of  his  men  armed  with  rifles 
were  taken  on  board.  Lieutenant  Bienvenu  and  his  men, 
took  post  with  us  on  the  top  of  the  front  end  of  the  car  and 
we  ran  down  to  the  end  of  the  track  at  Nottoway  river.  The 
enemy  had  burnt  a  few  houses  but  our  pickets  reported  they 
had  left.  Returning  to  Boykins  the  special  train  was  sent 
back  to  Weldon  while  we  saddled  our  horses  and  reached 
Murfreesboro  by  10  o'clock  at  night.  Off  at  daylight  next 
morning,  we  went  to  Winton  to  find  the  enemy  had  burnt 
houses  there  and  withdrawn.  Thence  we  went  on  in  the  Cole- 
raine  section  towards  Pitch  Landing,  everywhere  visiting 
our  cavalry  outposts.  Nothing  naore  being  left  to  be  done, 
we  got  back  to  Murfreesboro  by  dinner  and  here  a  singular 
thing  happened.     Major  Clark  seeing  a  soldier  sitting  on 

Seventy-First  Regiment.  27 

the  porch  with  a  Spencer  seven-shooter,  captured  from  the 
enemy,  reached  out  his  hand  to  look  at  it,  when  to  his  sur- 
prise the  soldier  held  on  to  one  end  of  it  and  declined  to 
let  it  go  out  of  his  hand.  When  we  went  to  the  stables  to 
order  our  horses,  he  kept  at  a  respectful  distance,  but  in  sight. 
Soon  after  Captain  Hugh  L.  Oole,  enrolling  officer  of  that 
district,  whom  we  knew,  came  over  to  the  hotel,  and  at  sight 
of  us  seemed  much  amused  for  some  unknown  cause,  while 
the  soldier  suddenly  and  mysteriously  disappeared.  Not  till 
after  the  war  did  we  learn  the  solution.  The  sight  of  two 
boys  of  17,  one  wearing  the  stars  of  Major  and  the  other  the 
bars  of  a  Lieutenant  together  with  our  very  rapid  movements, 
had  caused  some  of  the  cavalry  the  former  had  been  sent 
to  command  to  suspect  we  were  spies  and  we  had  been  vir- 
tually prisoners  in  the  hotel  "unbeknownst  to  ourselves"  till 
Captain  Cole  raised  the  blockade.  That  evening  we  reach- 
ed Jackson,  having  ridden  that  day  72  miles,  capturing  on 
the  way  a  Yankee  straggler  and  a  Confederate  deserter,  both 
of  whom,  with  the  aid  of  two  cavalrymen,  picked  up  by  us, 
we  carried  into  Weldon  next  day  as  the  sole  result  of  our 
commission  to  "take  command  of  our  forces  on  the  Chowan 
and  skirmish  with  the  enemy,  falling  back  if  necessary,  but 
sending  all  the  information  to  be  gathered." 


After  this,  in  October,  the  Seventieth  Regiment  and  An- 
derson's Battalion  were  ordered  to  Tarboro  and  thence  to 
Plymouth,  where  the  "Albemarle"  had  just  been  blown  up 
by  Lieutenant  W.  B.  Cushing,  of  the  I'ederal  Navy.  After 
a  forced  march,  just  as  we  were  nearly  to  Plymouth,  we  met 
the  Fiftieth  North  Carolina,  which  had  been  forced  to  evac- 
uate the  town  by  the  Federal  fleet  now  that  their  dreaded  en- 
emy, the  iron-clad  "Albemarle,"  was  out  of  the  way.  An- 
derson's Battalion  returned  to  Tarboro  and  thence  to  Wel- 
don, leaving  the  First  Regiment  at  Fort  Branch  near  Ham- 


On  7  December  the  company  of  Captain  W.  R.  Williams 
was  added,  making  a  full  regiment,  of  which  -Jno.  H.  Ander- 

28  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

son  was  elected  Colonel,  W.  F.  Beasley  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and  JSr.  A.  Gregory  Major.  W.  G.  Hunter,  of  Salisbury,  was 
appointed  Adjutant;  J.  P.  Jordan,  Assistant  Surgeon;  Chas. 
E.  Ramseur,  of  Lincoln,  Sergeant-Major;  C.  F.  Bisaner,  of 
Lincolnton,  Commissary  Sergeant;  J.  W.  Wortt,  Quarter- 
master Sergeant. 

The  companies  as  finally  reorganized  and  relettered,  were 
as  follows  (including  all  the  officers  from  the  beginning)  : 

Company  A — Wayne  and  Duplin — Captains,  Albert  K- 
Hicks,  of  Duplin,  David  E.  McKinne,  of  Wayne ;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, James  Walter  Draughan,  of  Sampson;  Second  Lieu- 
tenants, David  E.  McKinne  and  Buckner  H.  Smith,  of 
Wayne,  and  Hugh  F.  Murray,  of  Pitt. 

Company  B — Rowan — Captain,  W.  H.  Overman;  First 
Lieutenant,  Nevin  D.  Fetzer;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  J. 
Trotter  and  Turner  P.  Trotter,  all  of  Eowan. 

Company  C — Lincoln  and  Gaston — Captain,  J.  Q.  Hol- 
land, of  Gaston;  First  Lieaatenant,  J.  A.  Beale,  of  Bertie; 
Second  Lieutenants,  L.  M.  Hoffman  of  Gaslon,  C.  F.  Bisaner 
of  Lincoln,  G.  F.  Lucas  and  J.  N.  Hopper. 

Company  D — Cleveland  and  Rutherford — Captain,  J.  K. 
Wells,  of  Cleveland ;  First  Lieutenant,  H.  G.  Logan,  of  Ruth- 
erford; Second  Lieutenants,  J.  G.  Falls,  Jr.,  of  Cleveland, 
H.  H.  Weatherman  and  R.  J.  Durham. 

Company  E — Caharrus — Captains,  S.  Spears  and  G.  F.  C. 
Corl,  of  Cabarrus;  First  Lieutenants,  W.  G.  Hunter  of 
Rowan,  Thos.  J.  Shinn  of  Cabarrus;  Second  Lieutenants^, 
Frank  Winecoff,  John  0.  Wallace  and  B.  F.  Rogers  of  Ca- 
barrus, and  W.  R.  Hines  of  Edgecmobe. 

Company  F — Union — Captain  T.  C.  Rowland ;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, B.  H.  Benton ;  Second  Lieutenants,  S.  R.  Robinson 
and  H.  E.  Nelson. 

(jompany  G — Greene  and  Lenoir — Captain,  Jesse  W. 
Grainger,  of  I^enoir;  First  Lieutenant,  Samuel  Laughing- 
house  of  Pitt;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  Ed.  Clarke  of  Pitt, 
Jno.  F.  Humphrey  of  Wayne,  jDharles  S.  Smith  of  Halifax. 

Company  H — Pitt,  Johnston  and  Wilson — Captains, 
McD.  Boyd  and  Joseph  J.  Laughinghouse ;  First  Lieutenants^ 

Seventy-First  Regiment.  29 

J.  J.  Laughinghoiise,  Benj.  Sheppard;  Second  Lieutenante, 
E.  B.  Anderson,  — .  — .  Smith,  all  of  Pitt,  and  Eobert  M. 
Funnan,  of  Franklin. 

Company  I — Beaufort,  Hyde  and  Tyrrell — Captain  Wil- 
liam S.  Flynn,  of  Beaufort  (previo'usly  in  United  States 
Army);  First  Lieutenjint,  Samuel  Selby,  of  Hyde;  Second 
Lieutenants,  John  W.  Wilkinson  and  John  Adams. 

Company  K — Halifax — Captain,  W.  E.  Williams;  First 
Lieutenant,  David  C.  Whitaker;  Second  Lieutenants,  W.  K. 
Martin,  Jr.,  and  W.  T.  Purnell,  all  of  Halifax. 

This  last  company  had  done  provost  duty  at  Weldon  from 
its  organization  in  May,  1864.  Captain  Williams  had  been 
Captain  Company' F,  Forty-third  Eegiment,  and  had  resigned 
on  account  of  wounds.  It  had  been  attached  to  the  Seven- 
tieth North  Carolina  as  Company  K,  4  July,  when  it  was 
first  organized,  but  subsequently  Captain  Jno.  A.  Manning's 
company  was  substituted. 


On  8  December,  the  regiment,  together  with  six  companies 
of  the  Seventieth  Eegiment  (First  Juniors),  hastily  ordered 
from  Plamilton,  and  the  Seventh  Battalion  (French's), 
Eighth  Battalion  (Ellington's),  and  Ninth  (Millard's)  bat- 
talion, all  of  Junior  Eeserves,  ordered  from  Wilmington, 
were  sent  to  Belfield,  Va.,  to  meet  the  advance  of  Warren's 
Corps.  The  Junior  Battalions  from  Wilmington  were  un- 
der the  command  of  Colonel  George  Jackson.  They  were 
there  under  the  enemy's  fire  for  the  first  time  and  followed 
the  enemy  several  miles  on  his  retreat.  The  weather  was 
intensely  eold  and  the  boys,  poorly  clad  and  badly  fed,  suffer- 
ed terribly  from  exposure,  though  only  a  few  were  killed  or 
wounded  in  the  fight.  For  their  conduct  in  this  expedition, 
the  Legislature  of  North  Carolina  passed  a  special  vote  of 
thanks  to  the  Junior  Eeserves. 

cou:eaine  espedttion. 

In  January,  the  regiment  was  joined  by  Millard's  Battal- 
ion and  sent  to  Coleraine,  on  the  Chowan,  to  meet  an  expected 
advance    of    the    enemy.     The    command    forded    rivers, 

30  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

marched  in  the  rain  without  tents  at  night,  with  almost  no 
camp  equipage,  to  find  that  the  enemy  had  withdrawn.  On 
our  return,  we  were  ordered  to  Gold&boro,  thence  to  Kin- 
ston  where  the  three  regiments  of  Junior  Keserves  (Sevesnti- 
eth.  Seventy-first  and  Seventy-second  North  Carolina)  and 
Millard's  Battalion — being  all  the  Juniors — ^were  placed  in 
a  brigade  commanded  by  Colonel  F.  S.  Armistead  and  en- 
camped on  the  north  of  the  railroad,  about  one  mile  west  of 
the  residence  of  John  C.  Washington. 

south  west  ceeek. 

The  enemy  advancing  from  New  Bern  on  6  March,  we 
crossed  the  river  with  Hoke's  Division  (to  which  we  were 
thenceforward  attached)  and  O'ther  troops  and  marched  down 
to  South  West  Creek  four  or  five  miles  below  Kinston,  where 
we  were  on  the  left  of  our  army,  the  right  of  our  brigade  rest- 
ing on  the  county  road  which  runs  north  of  the  railroad.  For 
some  reason,  Millard's  Battalion  was.  not  with  us  in  this  bat^ 
tie,  but  was  placed  farther  to  the  right.  On  the  afternoon 
of  the  8th  wp  crossed  the  creek  in  our  front  on  an  improvised 
bridge  and  as  soon  as  the  brigade  was  formed  in  line,  we 
moved  forward  in  handsome  style  and  drove  back  the  enemy 
in  front  of  us.  After  dark  General  Hoke  put  himself  at  our 
head,  some  other  troops  being  added,  and  we  moved  by  the 
left  flank  down  the  road  towards  Neuse  river,  the  object  being 
to  turn  the  enemy's  right  flank.  About  midnight,  scouts 
came  in  with  information  which  caused  General  Hoke  tO'  or- 
der us  to  retrace  our  steps  and  by  daylight  we  were  again 
in  our  intrenchments  west  of  the  creek,  which  we  had  marched 
out  of  the  afternoon  before. 

As  news  came  that  Sherman  was  coming  up  by  way  of 
Fayetteville  on  the  11th,  we  were  withdrawn,  passing  tbrough 
Kinston.  We  marched  through  GoldsboTO  on  to.  Smithfield, 
where  we  united  with  the  Western  army  and  saw  General 
Joseph  E.  Johnston.  En  route,  on  15  March  the  brigade 
which  at  the  battle  of  South  West  Creek  was  commanded  by 
General  L.  S.  Baker,  was  placed  under  Colonel  John  H. 
JSTethercutt,  of  the  Sixty-sixth  North  Carolina,  and  that  gal- 
lant oflicer  and  good  fighter  remained  with  us  to  the  close. 

Seventy-First  Regiment.  31 


On  17  March  the  army  took  up  the  movement  to  meet 
Sherman.  On  the  night  of  the  18th  we  encamped  just  be- 
yond Bentonville.  The  next  day  was  a  bright  Sunday  morn- 
ing, and  we  were  in  the  fight  on  the  left  of  Hoke's  Division. 
In  the  afternoon  we  witnessed  the  gallant  charge  of  our  de- 
pleted army  of  the  "West  when  it  charged  and  took  two  succes- 
sive lines  from  the  enemy.  His  overwhelming  numbers, 
however,  enabled  Sherman  to  out-flank  us  on  our  left  during 
the  night  and  next  morning  our  line  of  battle  which  had  faced 
southwest  on  Sunday  was  thrown  back  and  faced  nearly  due 
east.  This  line  was  strengthened  by  a  hasty  breastwork  of 
logs  and  dirt  which  we  held,  against  all  assaults,  on  the  20th 
and  21st.  On  the  night  of  the  latter  day  the  enemy  having 
outflanked  us  again  on  our  left  we  quietly  withdrew,  and 
leisurely  fell  back  to  Mitchener's  depot.  Sherman  did  not 
pursue,  but  moved  on  to  Goldsboro  to  join  the  column  from 
ISTew  Bern  which  we  had  met  at  South  West  Creek.  The 
conduct  of  the  Junior  Brigade  at  Bentonville  was  admirable 
and  elicited  high  praise  not  only  from  Colonel  Nethercutt, 
commanding  the  brigade,  but  from  Generals  Hoke  and  Har- 
dee, commanding  the  division  and  the  Corps.  General  Jos. 
E.  Johnston  in  his  published  writings  since  the  war  has  added 
his  encomiums.  Our  loss  in  killed  and  wounded  was  report- 
ed as  41.  For  three  days  with  14,000  men,  at  no  time,  with 
all  reinforcements,  reaching  30,000,  Johnston  had  held  at 
bay  Sherman's  70,000,  and  had  fought  one  of  the  most  re- 
markable battles  of  the  war. 

At  Mitchener's  depot,  the  army  was  reorganized  and  took 
a  much  needed  rest.  On  6  April  we  had  a  grand  review,  the 
last  held  in  the  Confederate  armies.  The  Junior  Brigade 
was  the  largest  on  the  parade.  Governor  Vance  was  present 
and  made  one  of  his  most  stirring  speeches. 

THE  eeteeat. 

On  9  April  General  Lee  surrendered  at  Appomattox.  On 
the  next  day,  we  began  our  retreat  simultaneously  with  Sher- 
man's advance  from  Goldsboro.  On  12  April  we  passed 
through   Raleigh,    Hoke's   Division  being  the  rear   guard. 

32  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Here  a  few  of  the  officers  heard  of  Lee's  surrender,  but  it 
was  not  known  to  the  army  at  large.  At  midnight,  our  last 
pickets  passed  through  and  early  on  the  13th  the  United 
States  forces  took  possession  of  the  Capital  of  the  State. 

We  encamped  the  night  of  the  .12th  about  seven  miles  west 
of  Kaleigh.  Next  morning  our  army  divided,  part  going 
via  Ilillsboro  to  Greensboro,  while  Hardee's  Corps,  to  which 
we  belonged,  took  the  route  through  Chapel  Hill  and  via  Al- 
amance battle  ground.  Haw  river  and  Alamance  creek  were 
greatly  swollen  by  the  rains  and  with  great  difficulty  were 

A  striking  incident  of  the  crossing  is  thus  related  by  Lieu- 
tenant E.  M.  Furman,  of  our  regiment  (since  State  Auditor). 
One  of  the  smaller  boys  disappearing  under  the  water,  a 
taller  and  stouter  comrade  grabbed  him  and  pulled  him  up, 
he  dived  down  a  second  and  third  time  and  on  being  pulled  up 
his  comrades,  suspecting  an  attempt  at  suicide,  asked  what  he 
meant.  "'Why,"  said  the  little  fellow,  shivering  and  drip- 
ping, "My  gun's  down  thar  and  I'm  trying  to  git  hit." 


We  halted  several  days  at  Eed  Cross,  in  Eandolph,  to  await, 
as  it  turned  out,  President  Johnson's  action  on  the  Johnson- 
Sherman  treaty  made  at  the  Bennett  house  near  Durham  14 
April.  This  being  disapproved  at  Washington,  we  again 
moved  westward  but  the  definite  surrender  of  26  April  near 
Greensboro  having  been  arranged,  we  were  again  halted  at 
Bush  Hill,  half  way  between  Trinity  College  and  High 
Point.  This  proved  our  last  march  and  oiir  last  halting  place 
as  Confederate  soldiers.  After  it  became  apparent  that  a 
surrender  was  at  hand,  many  left,  fearing  a  prison.  At 
our  last  halt  $1.25  in  silver  was  paid  to  each  man  in  the  army 
without  respect  to  rank  and  at  the  close  the  mule  teams  were 
divided  among  the  members  of  the  regiment  to  Avhich  the 
wagons  belonged. 

On  1  May,  Major-General  Robert  P.  Hoke,  who  was  one 
of  the  youngest  and  best  generals  in  the  army  and  command- 
ed our  division,  issued  the  following  farewell  address  to  the 

Seventy-First  Regiment.  33 

"Soldiers  of  my  Division : 

"On  tJie  eve  of  a  long,  perhaps  final  separation,  I  desire  to 
address  to  you  the  last  sad  words  of  parting. 

"The  fortunes  of  war  have  turned  the  scales  against  us. 
The  proud  banners  which  you  have  waved  so  gloriously  on 
many  a  field  are  to  be  furled  at  last;  but  they  are  not  dis- 
graced. My  comrades,  your  indomitable  courage,  your 
heroic  fortitiide,  your  patience  under  suffering  have  sur- 
rounded these  witii  a  halo  which  future  years  cannot  dim. 
HistO'ry  will  bear  witness  to  your  valor  and  succeeding  gener- 
ations will  point  with  admiration  to  your  grand  struggle  for 
constitutional  freedom.  Soldiers,  your  past  is  full  of  glory. 
Treasure  it  in  your  hearts.  Remember  each  gory  battle  field, 
each  day  of  victory,  each  bleeding  comrade.  Think  then  of 
your  future. 

"  Freedom's  battle  once  begun, 
Bequeathed  from  bleeding  sire  to  son, 
Though  baffled  oft,  is  ever  won." 

"You  have  yielded  to  overwhelming  forces,  not  to  supe- 
rior valor;  you  are  paroled  prisoners,  not  slaves;  the  love  of 
liberty  which  led  you  in  the  contest  still  bums  as  brightly  in 
your  hearts  as  ever,  cherish  it,  nourish  it,  associate  it  with 
the  histoTy  of  the  past.  Transmit  to  jowr  children,  teach 
them  the  rights  of  freemen  and  teach  them  to  maintain  them ; 
teach  them  that  the  proudest  day  in  all  your  proud  career 
was  that  on  which  you  enlisted  as  a  Southern  soldier,  entering 
that  holy  brotherhood  whose  ties  are  now  sealed  in  the  blood 
of  your  compatriots,  who  have  fallen  and  whose  history  is 
covered  with  the  brilliant  records  of  the  past  four  years. 

"Soldiers  amid  the  imperishable  laurels  that  surmount 
your  bx'ows,  no  brighter  leaf  adorns  you  than  your  late  con- 
nection with  the  AriTiy  of  JSTorthern  Virginia.  The  star  that 
shone  with  splendor  over  its  oft  repeated  field  of  victory,  over 
the  two  deadly  struggles  of  Manassas  Plains,  Richmond, 
Chancellorsville  and  Fredericksburg  has  sent  its  rays  and 
been  reflected  wherever  true  courage  is  admired  and  wherever 
freedom  has  a  friend.  That  star  has  set  in  blood,  but  yet  in 
glory.  That  army  is  now  of  the  past.  Its  banners  trail,  but 

34  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

not  with  ignominy ;  no  stain  blots  its  escutcheon,  no  blood  can 
tinge  your  face  as  you  proudly  announce  that  you  have  a  part 
in  the  past  history  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

"My  comrades,  we  have  borne  together  the  same  hard- 
ships, we  have  braved  the  same  dangers,  we  have  rejoiced 
over  the  same  victory ;  your  trials  and  your  patience  have  ex- 
cited sympathy  and  admiration  and  I  have  borne  willing  wit- 
ness to  your  bravery.  It  is  with  a  heart  full  of  grateful  emo- 
tion for  your  service  and  ready  obedience  that  I  take  leave  of 

"May  the  future  of  every  one  of  you  be  as  happy  as  your 
past  career  has  been  brilliant  and  no  cloud  ever  dim  the 
brightness  of  your  fame.  The  past  looms  before  me  in  its 
illuminating  grandeur.  Its  memories  are  a  part  of  the  past 
life  of  each  one  of  you ;  but  it  is  all  now  over.  The  sad,  dark 
veil  of  defeat  is  between  us  and  a  life  time  of  sorrow  is  our 
only  heritage. 

"You  carry  to  your  home  the  heartfelt  wishes  of  your  Gen- 
eral for  your  prosperity. 

"My  command,  farewell ! 

"E.  F.  Hoke, 
"Maj  or-Gener  al. 

"Headquarters  Hoke's  Division,  near  Greensboro,  N.  0., 
1  May,  1865." 

On  2  May,  1865,  we  fell  in  ranks  for  the  last  time . 
and  our  paroles  were  given  to  each  man  and  dividing 
into  squads,  we  took  our  several  ways  to  our  homes,  where 
"amid  departed  hopes  there  lingered  (for  many)  the  melan- 
choly attractions  of  the  grave."  Those  days  have  passed,  so 
has  our  youth.  The  Juniors  are  now  more  than  Seniors,  but 
while  one  of  our  regiment  remains,  he  will  always  say  with 
pride  "I  belonged  to  the  Second  Regiment  of  the  ITorth  Caro- 
lina Junior  Reserves." 

David  E.  McKinne. 
Phikckton,  N.  C. 
2  May,  1901. 

1  O  «;..  Wi 



Wki  . 

'v  JfMiH 





1  -^> 





1              .      , 









1.  John  W.  Hinsdale,  Colonel. 

2.  W.  Foster  French,  Lieut-Colonel. 

3.  W.  W.  King,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 

4.  Jno.  W.  Harper,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  C. 

B.  H.  W.  Connelly,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  C. 

6.  J.  M.  Bandy,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  E. 

7.  D.  S.  Reid,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  K. 

8.  C.  W.  Taylor,  Orderly  Sergt.,  Co.  0. 

9.    J.  L.  McGimpsey,  Private,  Co.  B. 


(third  junior  resehvbs.) 

By  JOHN  W.  HINSDALE,  Colonel. 

It  affords  the  writer  pleasure  to  respond  to  the  invitation 
of  Judge  Walter  Clark,  himsielf  a  distinguished  officer  of  the 
boy-soldiers,  to  make  a  lasting  memorial  of  the  courage  and 
heroism  of  the  brave  and  patriotic  lads  who  composed  the 
Third  Regiment  of  Junior  Reserves,  known  since  the  war  as 
the  Seventy-second  Regiment  of  North  Carolina  Troops.  It 
is  to  be  regretted  that  the  task  has  not  been  performed  at  an 
earlier  day,  before  the  stirring  scenes  in  which  these  youths 
took  so  conspicuous  a  part  have  faded  into  the  dim  outline  of 
ft  shadowy  dream.  Some  inaccuracies  must  now  necessarily 
creep  into-  this  sketch.  Fortunately,  the  writer  was  Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General  of  Lieutenant-General  Theophilus  H. 
Holmes,  who  commanded  the  Reserves  of  North  Carolina, 
and  has  in  his  possession  many  valuable  records  pertaining 
to  that  office,  access  tO'  which  has  been  of  great  ass.istance  in 
the  preparation  of  this  regimental  |iistory. 

It  is  deemed  not  inappropriate  here  to  narrate  some  things 
of  a  general  nature  concsirning  the  Reserves. 

The  year  1863  closed  with  depression  and  gloom  through- 
out our  young  Confederacy.  Missouri,  Kentucky,  Louisiana, 
Tennessee  and  the  Arkansas  and  Mississippi  Valleys  had 
been  lost.  Vicksburg,  with  its  ill-fated  commander,  had  sur- 
rendered. Gettysburg,  in  spite  of  the  heroic  efforts  of  Caro- 
lina's best  and  bravest,  had  been  turned  by  Longstreet's  de- 
fault into  a  Union  victory.  All  of  our  ports  had  been  block- 
aded. Sherman  with  his  army  of  bummers,  was  preparing 
for  his  infamous  march  through  Georgia  and  the  Carolinas  in 
which  he  emulated  the  atrocities  of  the  Duke  of  Alva,  pro- 
claiming as  his  excuse  that  "War  is  hell,"  and  violating,  with 
fire  and  sword,  every  principle  of  civilized  warfare.     Grant 

36  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

had  been  placed  in  command  of  all  the  Union  armies  and  was 
preparing  to  take  personal  charge  of  a  campaign  of  attrition 
against  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  willing  to  swap  five 
for  one  in  battle,  if  need  be,  in  order  to  exhaust  his  straitened 
adversary — a  process  by  which  with  his  unlimited  resources 
of  men,  he  knew  he  was  bound  to  win  in  the  end. 

It  was  under  such  dire  distress  that  the  Confederate  Con- 
gress lY  February,  1864,  aroused  to  a  full  sense  of  the  magni- 
tude of  the  struggle,  and  recognizing  the  necessity  for  putting 
forth  our  whole  strength  in  the  contest  for  Southern  inde^ 
pendence,  passed  an  act  for  the  enrollment  of  the  Junior  and 
Senior  Reserves — the  formeir,  lads  between  17  and  18  years — 
the  latter,  old  men,  between  45  and  50  years — thus,  in  the 
language  of  President  Davis,  "robbing  the  cradle  and  the 

Lieutenant-General  T.  H.  Holmes  was  entrusted  by  Pres- 
ident Davis  with  the  organization  of  the  reserve  forces  in 
North  Carolina.  A  true  son  of  the  Old  North  State,  he  had 
promptly  responded  to-  her  call,  and  resigning  a  Major's  com- 
mission in  the  United  States  Army,  had  been  appointed  by 
the  President  first  Colonel,  then  Brigadier,  then  Major-Gen- 
eral  and  finally  Lieut6nan1>General.  As  courageous  as  a 
lion,  he  was  as  gentle  as  a  woman.  At  the  battle  of  Hele- 
na, Arkansas,  amid  a  storm  of  shot  and  shell,  with  a  cool- 
ness which  the  writer  hasj  never  seen  surpassed,  he  rode  into 
Graveyard  Hill,  upon  which  was  concentrated  the  fire  at  short 
range  of  fifty  cannon  and  five  thousand  muskets.  It  was  a 
daring  and  fearless  ride.  Like  General  Pettigrew,  he  was 
one  of  the  few  men  who  declined  promotion.  Well  does  the 
writer,  remember  the  receipt  by  General  Holmes,  when  com- 
manding the  Trans-Mississippi  Department  in  Little  Eock,  of 
a  LieutenantGeneral's  commission,  all  unsought  and  unex- 
pected. He  at  once  dictated  a  letter  to  the  President,  declin- 
ing with  grateful  thanks  the  high  honor  and  requesting  him 
to  bestow  it  upon  a  worthier  man.  It  was  only  upon  Mr. 
Davis'  insistance  that  the  promotion  was  afterwards  accepted, 

Mr.  Davis  in  his  "Rise  and  Fall  of  the  Confederate  Gov- 
ernment," says  of  him: 

"He  has  passed  beyond  the  reach  of  censure  or  of  praise, 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  37 

after  serving  his  country  on  many  fields  wisely  and  well.  I, 
who  knew  him  from  our  school  boy  days,  who  served  with 
him  in  garrison  and  in  the  field,  and  with  pride  watched  him 
as  he  gallantly  led  a  storming  party  up  the  rocky  height  at 
Monterey,  and  was  'intimately  acquainted  with  his  whole 
career  during  our  sectional  war,  bear  willing  testimony  to  the 
purity,  self  abnegation,  generosity,  fidelity  and  gallantry 
which  characterized  him  as  a  man  and  as  a  soldier."  A 
truer,  braver,  purer  heart  never  beat  under  the  Confederatei 

General  Holmes  on  28  April,  1864,  established  his  head- 
quarters at  Raleigh,  N.  C,  and  undertook  the  task  of  or- 
ganizing the  Reserves  of  the  State.  His  staff  consisted 
of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Frank  S.  Armistead,  a  graduate  of 
West  Point,  as  Inspector-General.  He  was  later  elected  Col- 
onel of  the  First  Regiment  of  Junior  Reserves  and  was  after- 
wards assigned  tO'  the  command  of  the  brigade  consisting  of 
the  first  three  regiments.  He  was  recommended  by  General 
Holmes  for  vlie  appointment  of  Brigadier-General  in  terms 
of  high  praise. 

Captain  John  W.  Hinsdale,  as  Assistant  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, who  had  served  in  this  capacity  on  the  staffs  of  Gen- 
erals Pettigrew  at  Seven  Pines,  and  Pender,  through  the 
Seven  Days'  Fight  around  Richmond,  and  also  with  General 
Holmes  in  the  Transi-Mississippi. 

First  Lieutenants  Theophilus  H.  Holmes,  Jr.,  and  Charles 
W.  Broadfoot,  Aides-de-Camp.  The  first,  a  mere  boy,  soon 
afterwards  gave  his  young  life  to  his  country  while  gallantly 
leading  a  cavalry  charge  near  Ashland,  Virginia.  The  lat- 
ter, a  member  of  the  Bethel  Regiment,  rose  from  private  to 
Colonel  of  the  First  Junior  Reserves,  and  is  now  one  of  the 
first  lawyers  of  the  upper  Cape  Fear. 

First  Lieutenant  Graham  Daves  was  appointed  Aide^de- 
Camp  after  the  death  of  young  Holmes  and  the  promotion  of 
Lieutenant  Broadfoot.  He  was  a  brave  and  efficient  officer  of 
scholarly  attainments  and  high  integrity.  A.  W.  Lawrence, 
of  Raleigh,  was  appointed  ordnance  officer,  and  Dr.  Thomas 
Hill,  now  an  eminent  physician  of  GoldsborO',  was  appointed 
Hedical  Director. 

38  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Major  Charles  S.  Stringfellow,  now  on©  of  Eichmond's 
most  distinguished  lawyers,  succeeded  Captain  Hinsdale  as 
Assistant  Adjutant-General  upon  the  latter's  promotion. 


The  Third  Regiment  of  Junior  Reseirves  was  formed  3 
January,  1865,  by  the  consolidation  of  the  Fourth  Battalion, 
commanded  by  Major  J.  M.  Reece;  the  Seventh  Battalion, 
commanded  by  Major  W.  F.  French;  and  the  Eighth  Battal- 
ion, commanded  by  Major  J.  B.  Ellington.  It  is  proper, 
therefore,  to  give  an  account  of  their  services  as  separate  or- 


The  Fourth  Battalion,  four  hundred  strong,  was  organ' 
ized  at  Camp  Holmes,  near  Raleigh,  N.  C,  on  30  May,  1864, 
by  the  election  of  J.  M.  Reece,  of  G-reensboro,  Major:  .Tohu 
S.  Pescud,  of  Raleigh,  was  appointed  Adjutant.  Pescud 
was  a  brave,  true-hearted  lad,  and  is  now  an  honored  citizen 
of  Raleigh.  The  battalion  was  sent  to  Goldsboro  2  June. 
It  was  composed  of  the  following  companies : 

Company  A — From  Guilford  County — John  W.  Pitts, 
Captain;  J.  IST.  Crouch,  First  Lieutenant;  T.  A.  Parsons  and 
George  M.  Glass,  Second  Lieutenants. 

Upon  the  resignation  of  all  the  company  officers,  W.  W, 
King  was  elected  First  Lieutenant  and  Davis  S.  Reid  Second 
Lieutenant.  The  former  was  in  command  of  the  company 
at  Fort  Fisher,  Kinston  and  Bentonville.  He  also'  acted  as 
Regimental  Adjutant  for  a  time,  when  D.  S.  Reid  com- 
manded the  company.  Both  of  these  officers  were  intelligent, 
brave  and  efficient. 

Company  B — From,  Alamance  and  Forsyth  Counties — A. 
L.  Lancaster,  Captain ;  A.  M.  Craig,  First  Lieutenant ;  Wil- 
liam May  and  C.  B.  Pfohl,  Second  Lieutenants. 

Company  C^ — From  Stokes  and  Person  Counties — R.  F, 
Dalton,  Captain ;  G.  Mason,  First  Lieutenant ;  G.  W.  Yan- 
cey and  J.  H.  Shackelford,  Second  Lieutenants. 

Company  D — From  Rockingham — A.  B.  Ellington,  Cap- 
tain ;  J.  P.  Ellington,  First  Lieutenant ;  F.  M.  Hamlin  and 
William  Fewell,   Second  Lieutenants.     This  company  was 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  39 

added  to  the  Battalion  15  June.  Captain  Ellington  was  pro- 
moted to  the  Majority  when  the  regiment  was  formed. 

Lieutenant  J.  P.  Ellington  in  July,  1864,  was  drowned 
in  Masonboro  Sound,  while  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty  as  of- 
ficer of  the  day,  visiting  the  pickets  on  the  beach.  His  body 
was  recovered  by  exploding  torpedoes  in  the  sound. 

Lieutenant  F.  M.  Hamlin  was  promoted  to  the  First  Lieu- 
tenancy and  commanded  the  company  until  he  was  made  Ad- 
jutant of  the  regiment. 

The  battalion  soon  after  its  organization  was  ordered  to 
GoldsboTO  to  report  to  Brigadier-General  L.  S.  Baker,  com- 
manding the  district  of  Southern  Virginia  and  Eastern 
North  Carolina.  It  was  sent  thence  to  Kinston  and  there 
did  guard  and  picket  duty.  On  15  June  it  was  ordered  to 
report  to  Colonel  Frank  S.  Armistead  at  Weldon.  He  had 
been  placed  in  command  of  the  defences  at  that  point.  On 
26  June  the  battalion  was  ordered  tO'  report  to  General  W.  H. 
C  Whiting,  at  Wilmington,  the  only  remaining  port  of  the 
Confederacy.  The  battalion  thereupon  was  stationed  at  Camp 
Davis  near  Wilmington,  on  Masonboro  Soimd,  under  com- 
mand of  Colonel  George  Jackson,  an  efficient  officer,  and 
did  picket  and  guard  duty  on  the  sound  and  the  beach  to  pre- 
vent the  landing  of  the  enemy,  the  escape  of  slaves  to  the 
blockaders  and  all  communication  with  the  passing  vessels. 
It  was  here  that  young  Ellington,  of  Company  D,  lost  his  life, 
crossing  the  Sound  in  a  storm  while  on  his  rounds  as  officer  of 
the  day.  He  was  a  zealous  and  capable  officer.  The  salt 
works,  from  which  large  supplies  of  salt  were  obtained  for  the 
army,  were  in  the  vicinity  of  this  camp,  and  were  guarded  by 
the  battalion. 

From  Camp  Davis  the  battalion  moved  to  Sugar  Loaf,  on 
the  Cape  Fear  River,  about  fifteen  miles  below  Wilmington, 
six  miles  above  Fort  Fisher  and  one  mile  from  the  oceaiu 
where  it  drilled  and  did  guard  and  picket  duty.  "Sugr.r 
Loaf"  is  a  singular  formation.  It  is  a  high  sand  hill  run- 
ning from  the  river  bank  half  way  across  the  peninsula,  stce]. 
on  the  exterior,  but  sloping  on  all  sides  to  a  basin  in  the  cen- 
tre. It  is  a  natural  fortification,  which  the  engineering  skill 
of  General  Whiting,  by  fosse  and  rampart,  had  converted 

40  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

into  an  impregnable  intrenched  camp,   containing  perhaps 
one  hundred  acres. 

On  9  December,  1864,  the  battalion  went  from  Sugar  Loaf 
to  Belfield,  Virginia,  in  company  Avith  the  Seventh  and 
Eighth  Battalions.  Its  future  movements  will  be  described 
in  connection  with  the  other  two-  batteries. 


The  Seventh  Battalion,  300  strong,  was  organized  at  Camp 
Lamb,  near  Wilmington,  in  June,  1864,  by  the  election  of  W. 
F.  French,  of  Lumberton,  Major,  and  E.  F.  McDaniel,  of 
Fayetteville,  was  appointed  Adjutant.  This  battalion  was 
composed  of  the  following  companies : 

Company  A — From  Cumberland,  Robeson  and  Harnett 
Counties — T.  L.  Ilybart,  Captain ;  I).  S.  Byrd,  First  Lieuten- 
ant; C.  C.  McLellan  and  C.  S.  Love,  Jr.,  Second  Lieuten- 

Upon  the  death  of  Captain  Hybert,  on  9  September,  D.  S. 
Byrd  was  promoted  to  the  Captaincy. 

Company  B — From  New  Hanover,  Brunswick  and  ColuTn- 
hus  Counties — John  D.  Kerr,  Captain ;  J.  B.  Williams,  First 
Lieutenant;  E.  H.  Moore  and  B.  F.  Gore,  Second  Lieuten- 

Company  C — From.  Richmond  County — Donald  Mc- 
Queen, Captain ;  A.  B.  McCoUum,  First  Lieutenant ;  A.  0. 
McFadyen  and  S.  A.  Barfield,  Second  Lieutenants. 

The  battalion  did  guard  duty  at  Wilmington  until  the  mid- 
dle of  July.  Here  Captain  Donald  McQueen  died  of  typhoid 
fever  on  25  June.  He  was  a  fine  soldier,  an  honor  to  his 
name  and  to  his  cause.  Lieutenant  McCoUum  succeeded  him 
in  command  of  the  company. 

On  the  night  of  3  July,  1864,  Lieutenant  Cushing,  of  the 
Federal  Navy  (the  same  who  blew  up  the  Confederate  ram 
"Albemarle"  at  Plymouth),  with  a  few  detailed  men,  entered 
the  Confederate  headquarters  at  Smithville  (now  Sonthport) 
and  carried  off  General  Paul  O.  Hebert's  Adjutant-General 
to  the  Federal  fleet.  Thereupon  the  Seventh  Battalion  was 
ordered  from  Wilmington  to   Smithville  for  its  protection. 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  41 

It  camped  in  a  beautiful  grove  of  live  oaks  back  of  the  town. 
Here  it  did  its  full  share  of  guard  and  picket  duty  under  the 
command  of  General  Hebert,  an  old  officer  who  had  served 
with  distinction  in  Mexico  and  had  been  Governor  of  Louis- 
iana. It  was  here  that  Captain  T.  L.  Hybart,  of  Fayetteville, 
was  stricken  with  typhoid  fever  and  died  9  September,  1864. 
He  was  one  of  the  best  officers  in  the  command,  and  had  he 
lived  and  the  war  continued,  would  have  made  his  mark. 
The  battalion  remained  at  Smithville  until  9  December  when, 
with  the  Fourth  and  Eighth  Battalions,  all  under  Colonel 
Jackson,  it  moved  tO'  Belfield,  Virginia,  tO'  repel  a  Federal 


The  Eighth  Battalion,  300  hundred  strong,  was  organized 
at  Camp  Vance,  near  Morgan  ton,  N.  C,  on  7  June,  by  the 
election  of  James  B.  Ellington  (First  Lieutenant  in  Com- 
pany D,  Sixty- first  North  Carolina  Regiment),  as  Major. 
It  was  composed  of  the  following  companies : 

Company  A — From,  Iredell  County — W.  G.  Watson,  Cap- 
tain ;  George  Ruf  us  White,  First  Lieutenant ;  Amos  M.  Guy 
and  Sinclair  Preston  Steele,  Second  Lieutenants. 

Captain  Watson  resigned  in  January,  1865,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  joining  a  cavalry  regiment  in  Lee's  army.  He  re- 
turned home  to  procure  his  outfit  for  the  service,  but  was 
captured  by  Stoneman  and  sent  to  prison  in  Louisville,  Ky. 
He  is  now  the  excellent  and  populai'  clerk  of  the  Superior 
Court  of  Rowan  County.  Upon  his  resignation,  Lieutenant 
White  was  promoted  to  the  Captaincy. 

Company  B — From  Catawhw — J.  R.  Gaither,  Captain;  J. 
M.  Lawrence,  First  Lieutenant  (both  captured  at  Fort 
Fisher)  ;  Charles  Wilfong  and  J.  M.  Bandy,  Second  Lieu- 

Lieutenant  Wilfong  resigned  after  the  battle  of  Kinston, 
and  Lieutenant  Bandy  thereafter  until  the  surrender,  com- 
manded the  company.  He  made  a  fine  off.cer.  After  the 
war  he  was  for  a  number  of  years  a  professor  in  Trinity  Col- 
lege. He  now  resides  in  Greensboro,  where  as  a  civil  engineer 
he  ranks  high  in  his  profession.     Sergeant  James  M.  Barkley 

42  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  elected  Second  Lieutenant  and  F.  H^.  Busbee  Junior  Sec- 
ond Lieaitenant.  Both  of  them  were  excellent  officers.  Lieu- 
tenant Barkley  is  now  an  able  and  eminent  minister  of  the 
Gospel  in  Detroit,  Mich.  I  am  indebted  toi  him  for  many 
data  M'hich  I  have  incorporated  intO'  this  sketch.  Lieutenant 
Busbee  is  now  one  of  the  first  lawyers  of  the  State — a  bril- 
liant advocate  and  a  wise  and  learned  counsellor. 

Company  C — Prom  Burke  and  Caldwell  Counties — Lam- 
bert A.  Bristol,  Captain;  Marcus  G.  Tuttle,  First  Lieuten- 
ant ;  George  T.  Dula  and  Horace  W.  Connelly,  Second  Lieu- 

George  T.  Dula  resigned  and  John  W.  Harper  was  elected 
Junior  Second  Lieoitemant.  He  soon  thereafter  laid  down 
his  young  life  on  his  country's  altar.  He  was  killed  at  the 
battle  of  Kinston. 

The  battalion  remained  for  some  days  at  Camp  Vance  and 
was  drilled  by  Lieutenant  Bullock,  a  drill  master.  On  24 
June,  it  was  ordered  to  Raleigh  and  at  Camp  Holmes  was 
uniformed  and  equipped  with  small  rifles,  which  were  very 
inferior  and  quite  dangerous — to  the  "man  behind  the  gun.'' 
On  26  June  the  battalion  was  ordered  to  Wilmington.  It 
went  into  camp  at  Caanp  Davis.  It  afterwards  did  picket 
and  patrol  duty  on  Masonboro  and  Wrightsville  Sounds  under 
Colonel  George  Jackson.  On  4  August  it  was  ordered  to  re- 
port tO'  General  L.  S.  Baiter,  at  Goldsboro,  but  returned  to 
Wilmington  16  August  and  was  again  placed  under  Colonel 
Jackson's  command  at  Masonboro  Sound. 

On  2  September,  under  orders  from  the  War  Department, 
Major  Ellington,  who  when  elected  Major  was  disabled  from 
active  service  by  wounds,  and  who  afterwards  recovered,  was 
relieved  of  his  command  and  sent  to  his  company  near 
Petersburg,  Virginia,  He  was  soon  afterwards  killed  at 
Fort  Harrison,  Virginia.  Major  Ellington  was  a  gallant 
officer  and  much  beloved  by  the  boys.  It  was  a  mistake  to 
have  relieved  him.  General  Holmes  afterwards  secured  a 
ruling  of  the  War  Department  by  which  the  officers  of  the 
Junior  Reserves  after  they  reached  the  age  of  18,  were  re^ 
tained.     But  the  privates  and  non-commissioned  officers  were 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  43 

still  required  to  be  sent  to  General  Lee  as  fast  as  they  became 
eighteen  years  old. 

Captain  William  G.  Watson  succeeded  Major  Ellington  in 
the  command  of  the  battalion.  In  the  fall,  the  battalion  was 
ordered  to  Sugar  Loaf,  on  the  Cape  Fear  river,  where  for 
several  months  it  did  picket  duty,  drilled,  etc.  On  10  Decem- 
ber it  was  ordered  to  Belfield,  Va.,  under  Colonel  Jackson. 
Its  further  career  will  be  traced  in  connection  vsrith  the 
Fourth  and  Seventh  Battalions  from  which  it  never  after  sep- 
arated until  Johnston's  surrender. 


On  8  December,  1864,  General  Whiting  was  notified  by 
General  Lee  that  the  Fifth  and  Second  Corps  of  Grant's 
army,  with  Bragg's  Division  of  Cavalry,  were  moving  under 
General  Warren  upon  Weldon,  and  that  they  were  near  Bel- 
field  and  that  Hill  and  Hampton  were  following  them.  One 
object  of  this  raid  was  to  destroy  the  railroad  bridge  at  Wel- 
don and  thus  cut  off  supplies  for  Lee's  army  from  that  direc- 
tion. General  Whiting  at  once  ordered  Colonel  George  Jack- 
son to  proceed  with  the  Fonrth,  Seventh,  Eighth  and  Ninth 
Battalions  of  Junior  Reserves  and  four  pieces  of  Paris'  Artil- 
lery with  three  days'  cooked  rations,  to  Weldon,  and  there 
report  for  temporary  service  to  General  Leventhorpe,  com- 
manding. The  latter,  an  Englishman  by  birth,  was  the  first 
Colonel  first  of  the  Thirty-fourth  and  then  of  the  Eleventh 
North  Carolina  Regiments,  and  had  done  splendid  service  in 
clearing  the  enemy  from  the  Roanoke  river  and  in  defending 
the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railway. 

The  four  battalions  assembled  in  Wilmington  from  Sugar 
Loaf  and  Smithville.  Through  the  efforts  of  Major  French, 
the  troops  were  here  shod.  They  were  placed  on  flat  cars 
and  thus  exposed,  were  transported  tO'  Weldon.  The  weather 
was  intensely  cold.  More  than  once  the  train  had  to  be 
stopped,  fires  made  in  the  woods  and  some  of  the  boys  lifted 
from  the  train  and  carried  to  the  fires  and  thawed  out.  Many 
went  to  sleep  in  their  wet  clothes  to  find  them  frozen  stiff 
upon  awakening.  This  suffering  was  undergone  without  a 
murmur.     The  old  guard  of  Napoleon  on  the  retreat  from 

44  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Moscow,  never  displayed  more  heroism  and  fortitude  than 
did  the  boy-soldiers — the  Young  Guard  of  the  Confederacy. 

Under  the  law,  the  reserves  could  not  be  required  to  cross 
their  State  lines,  bvit  without  hesitation  and  without  an  ex- 
ception, the  brave  boys  at  Weldon  hxirried  on  to  Belfield,  Vir- 
ginia, there  tO'  meet  the  invading  foe.  The  Federals  with- 
drew, leaving  their  dead  unburied,  after  a  sharp  fire  and  re- 
pulse from  the  reseih^es  who  had  just  reached  the  battlefield, 
and  the  latter  joined  in  the  pursuit  across  the  Meherrin  river 
at  Hicks'  Ford.  On  17  December,  1864,  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  North  Carolina,  recognizing  their  heroism,  passed  the 
following  resolutions : 

"Whereas,  The  Legislature  has  heard  with  satisfaction 
of  the  good  conduct  of  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Junior 
Reserves  and  Home  Guards,  who  volunteered  to  cross  the 
State  line  into  Virginia,  in  order  to  repel  the  late  advance  of 
the  public  enemy  on  Weldon ;  therefore, 

"Resolved,  That  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Junior  Re- 
serves and  Home  Guards,  so'  acting,  deserve  the  commenda- 
tion of  their  fellow  citizens,  and  are  entitled  to  the  thanks  of 
this  Legislature. 

"Resolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  proceedings  be  transmitted 
to  Lieutenant-General  Holmes  and  Major-General  R.  C.  Gat- 
lin,  that  it  may  be  communicated  to  the  commands  which 
they  are  intended  to  honor." 

From  Belfield  the  four  battalions,  together  with  the  First 
and  Second  Regiments  of  Junior  Reserves,  were  ordered,  un- 
der (^olonel  Levemthorpe,  to  Tarboro'  to  repel  a  Federal  raid 
from  Washington,  JST.  C.  The  command  moved  to  Hamilton, 
some  miles  below  Tarboro^.  The  enemy  retired  upon  the  ad- 
vance of  the  Confederate  troops.  The  battalions  remained 
there  a  day  or  two  and  returned  to  Tarboro.  The  troops 
camped  about  a  mile  northeast  of  the  town  for  several  days. 
The  boys  were  \vithout  overcoats,  tent  flies  or  tents,  and  lay 
upon  the  bare  ground  in  the  rain  and  sleet  and  sno'W  Many 
of  them  were  frost  bitten  A  good  old  farmer  along  side 
whose  fence  the  boys  camped  on  the  first  night  of  their  stay, 
kindly  gave  them  leave  tO'  start  their  fires  by  using  the  top  rail 
of  his  fence.     When  he  came  back  next  morning  there  was 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  45 

not  a  rail  to  be  seen.  When  he  remonstrated,  saying  that 
they  had  taken  more  than  he  had  given  them  leave  to'  take, 
one  wag  said:  "]^o,  sir;  as  long  as  there  was  a  top  rail, 
we  had  your  permission  to  burn  it.  We  never  took  any  but 
the  top  rail."  The  old  man  laughed  good  naturedly  and 

The  severity  of  the  experience  of  the  Reserves  on  the  Bel- 
field  expedition  may  be  realized  when  it  is  stated  that 
although  they  had  been  in  camp  over  six  months  and  had 
been  somewhat  enured  to  a  soldier's  life,  over  one-half  of  them 
were  sent  to  the  hospital  when  the  battalion  returned  to  Wil- 

The  command  marched  thence  to'  Goldsboro  and  by  train 
was  conveyed  to  Wilmington,  and  thence  back  to-  Sugar  Loaf. 
There  they  remained  under  the  command  of  General  W.  W. 
Kirkland  until  the  battle  of  Fort  Fisher.  This  officer  was 
a  splendid  fighter  and  a  superb  soldier.  He  was  Colonel  of 
the  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Regiment,  and  afterwards 
commanded  Early's  Brigade,  Pettigrew's  Division.  He  had 
taken  part  in  many  of  the  desperate  battles  of  Virginia  and 
had  been  twice  severely  wounded.  He  was  transferred  to 
Wilmington  late  in  December  and  established  his  headquar- 
ters at  Sugar  Loaf. 


TTie  three  battalions  composing  the  Third  Regiment  of 
Junior  Reserves  participated  brilliantly  in  the  defence  of 
Fort  Fisher,  when  attacked  by  General  B.  F.  Butler  and  Ad- 
miral Porter  on  23,  24  and  25  December,  1864. 

Fort  Fisher  was  located  on  the  point  of  a  narrow  penin- 
sula which  extends  southwardly  from  New  Inlet  between  the 
ocean  and  Cape  Fear  river,  near  its  mouth.  It  defended 
Wilmington,  the  last  remaining  port  through  which  army 
supplies,  ammunition,  clothing  and  food  for  Lee's  Army 
were  brought  in  by  blockade  runners.  Under  its  guns,  the 
"Ad- Vance"  brought  in  supplies  of  inestimable  value  to  our 
North  Carolina  troops.  Its  defence  was  of  supreme  import- 
ance to  the  Confederacy.  It  was  an  earthen  fort  of  an  irreg- 
ular form,  with  bastions  at  the  angles.     The  land  face,  250 

46  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

yards  long,  was  continuous  from  ocean  to  river.  The  sea 
face  was  1,300  yards  long.  Both  faces  were  mounted  with 
heavy  guns,  mortars  and  light  artillery,  presenting  a  formid- 
able front  to  the  enemy.  It  was  the  strongest  earthwork 
built  by  'the  Confederacy,  really,  as  Admiral  Porter  said, 
"stronger  than  the  MalaiofE  tower  which  defied  so  long  the 
combined  power  of  France  and  England.  Two  miles  above 
the  fort  were  the  Half  Moon  and  the  Flag  Pond  Batteries, 
and  a  mile  and  a  quarter  below,  and  at  the  extreme  end  of  the 
peninsula.  Battery  Buchanan  with  four  heavy  guns. 

When  Butler's  expedition  of  8,000  men  set  fortb  against 
it,  the  fort  was  garrisoned  by  only  66 Y  men — a  totally  inad- 
equate force  for  its  defence.  General  Butler,  with  General 
Weitzel  and  his  troops,  appeared  in  transports  off  New  Inlet, 
near  Fort  Fisher,  on  15  December.  The  navy  under  Ad- 
miral Porter,  did  not  appear  until  the  18tli.  He  had  col- 
lected the  largest  and  most  formidable  naval  expedition  of 
modern  times.  The  weather  being  stormy,  prevented  any 
hostile  operations  until  the  23d.  On  the  night  of  the  23d, 
Admiral  Porter  anchored  a  powder  ship,  containing  215  ton* 
of  powder,  about  800  yards  from  the  northeast  salient  of  the 
fort.  It  was  anticipated  that  the  explosion  of  this  mass  of 
powder  would  greatiy  impair,  if  not  destroy,  the  works,  and 
the  least  effect  expected  was  that  the  garrison  would  be  so  par- 
alyzed and  stunned  as  to  offer  but  small  resistance  to  subse- 
quent attacks.  The  explosion  did  nO'  more  harm  than  a  Chi- 
nese flre-eracker.  Colonel  William  Lamb,  then  in  command 
of  the  fort,  wired  General  Whiting  at  Wilmington  tbat  one  of 
the  enemy's  fleet  had  blown  up,  so  little  impression  did  it 
make  on  him. 

General  Benjamin  F.  Butier,  of  New  Orleans  fame,  in  bis 
autobiography,  gives  an  amusing  account  of  an  interview 
with  Major  Eeece,  who  commanded  the  Fourth  Battalion  of 
Junior  Reserves  and  was  captured  at  Fort  Fisher.  Butler 
says :  "I  inquired  of  him  where  he  was  the  night  before  last 
(the  night  of  the  explosion  of  the  powder  boat).  He  said 
he  was  lying  two  miles  and  a  half  up  the  beach.  I  asked 
him  if  he  had  heard  the  powder  vessel  explode.  He  said  he 
did  not  know  what  it  Avas,  but  supposed  a  boat  had  blown  up, 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  47 

that  it  jumped  him  and  his  men  who  were  lying  upon  the 
ground,  like  pop-corn  in  a  popper,  to  use  his  expression."  It 
is  hard  to  tell  which  most  to  admire.  Butler's  gullibility  or 
Reece's  "jollying"  extravagance. 

The  next  day,  24  December,  was  employed  by  Porter  in 
bombarding  the  fort,  dropping  into  it  as  many  as  130  shells 
a  minute.  At  this  time  the  three  battalions  of  Junior  Re- 
serves, about  800  strong,  were  encamped  near  Sugar  Loaf,  six 
miles  up  the  Cape  Fear  river  from  the  fort.  On  the  night 
of  the  24th,  the  Fourth,  Seventh  and  Eighth  battalions  were 
assembled  at  Sugar  Loaf  under  Brigadier-General  William 
W.  Kirkland.  Major  French  had  been  temporarily  assigned 
tO'  the  command  of  a  regiment  of  Senior  Reserves,  but  at  his 
request  was  permitted  to  return  to^  his  own  command  and  fol- 
low its  fortunes.  General  Whiting  directed  General  Kirk- 
land  to  send  these  battalions  to  Battery  Buchanan,  there  to 
take  boat  for  Bald  Head  and  relieve  Colonel  J.  J.  Hedrick 
and  his  seasoned  veterans,  in  order  that  they  might  reinforce 
Fort  Fisher.  They  marched  soon  after  midnight  through 
Fort  Fisher  to  Battery  Buchanaa,  on  the  extreme  end  of  the 
peninsula.  In  the  darkness,  many  of  the  boys  while  passing 
through  the  fort,  stumbled  into  the  holes  which  were  made  in 
every  direction  by  the  shells.  All  the  battalions  arrived  at 
Fort  Buchanan  before  day.  The  boat  which  was  to  carry 
them  to  Bald  Head  could  not  make  a  landing  on  account  of 
the  tide,  whereupon  Captain  Bristol  early  in  the  morning  re- 
ported in  person  the  situation  tO'  Colonel  Lamb,  who  or- 
dered the  Juniors  intO'  the  Fort.  This  was  early  Christmas 

Between  Fort  Buchanan  and  Fort  Fisher  is  a  clear,  open 
beach,  upon  which  a  partridge  could  not  hide  himself,  over 
which  they  must  pass  in  full  view  of  the  fleet.  As  soon  as 
the  march  began  the  fleet  poured  upon  the  command  a  terrific 
discharge  of  shot  and  shell.  The  first  one  killed  at  Fort 
Fisher  was  Private  Davis,  of  French's  Battalion  of  Juniors, 
who  on  this  march  was  cut  in  two  by  a  large  shell.  Another 
private  was  severely  wounded  by  the  same  shell.  Nothing 
but  the  poor  practice  of  the  fleet  saved  the  boys  from  utter 
destruction   on   this   perilous  march.     When   they   reached 

48  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Fort  Fisher  a  scene  of  desolation  met  their  gaze.  The  bar- 
racks had  been  destroyed  and  the  interior  of  the  fort  was 
honeycombed  by  holes  in  the  gro-und  large  enough  to  bury 
an  OK  team  made  by  the  huge  shells  from  the  fleet.  French's 
battalion  and  as  many  of  the  others  as  could  be  ac- 
commodated, wei*e  placed  in  the  already  over-crowded  bomb- 
proofs.  Those  who  could  not  obtain  protection  here  were 
carried  by  Major  Reece  to  the  breastworks  at  Camp  Wyatt, 
three  miles  above  the  fort.  The  gunboats  soon  discovered 
their  presence  there  and  enfiladed  the  trenches  with  a  terrific 
fire.  The  boys  sought  shelter  under  the  banks  of  the  river, 
where  tlaey  spent  the  day  listening  tO'  the  music  of  the  great 
guns  of  the  fleet  and  watching  the  great  shells  as  they  passed 
over  them  into  the  river — a  grand,  but  not  a  very  engaging 

It  was  after  dark  when  Major  Reece  determined  to  take  his 
command  back  tO'  the  fort.  Late  in  the  afternoon  he  heard 
the  report  of  small  arms  in  the  direction  of  the  fort.  He 
knew  that  a  land  force  was  attacking  the  fort,  and  he  felt 
that  it  was  his  duty  tO'  take  his  boys  to  the  rescue.  He 
marched  them  down  the  river  towards  the  fort  But  unfor- 
tunately he  failed  to  put  out  a  skirmish  line  and  fell  upon  a 
regiment  of  General  Weitzel's  troopsr  by  whom  he  and  a  ma- 
jority of  his  command  were  captured  and  carried  to  Point 
Lookout.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  officers  who  were 
taken  prisoners: 

Major  J.  M.  Reece;  Captain  J.  R.  Gaither,  First  Lieu- 
tenant J.  M.  Lawrencei,  of  Company  B,  Eighth  Battalion; 
First  Lieutenant  M.  G.  T'uttle,  Company  C,  Eighth  Battal- 
ion ;  Second  Lieutenant  George  W.  Yancey,  Company  C, 
Fourth  Battalion;  Second  Lieutenant  C.  P.  Pfohl,  Com- 
pany B,  Fourth  Battalion.  Those  officers  who  escaped 
were  Captain  A.  L.  Lancaster,  Company  B,  Fourth  Bat- 
talion ;  First  Lieutenant  G.  R.  White,  Company  A,  Eighth 
Battalion;  Second  Lieutenant  Amos  Guy,  Company  A, 
Eighth  Battalion;  Third  Lieutenant  S.  P.  Steele,  Company 
A,  Eighth  Battalion. 

First  Lieutenant  F.  M.  Hamlin,  Company  I),  Fourth  Bat- 
talion, a  brave  young  subaltern,  led  a  part  of  his  company  up 

Seventy-Second  Kegiment.  49 

the  river  and  escaped  capture.  Ttey  found  their  way  to 
Kirkland's  Brigade  at  Sugar  Loaf  and  rejoined  their  cora- 
mand  at  the  fort  next  day. 

The  fleet  bombarded  the  fort  until  12  o'clock  Christmas 
day,  when  Butler  landed  2,500  troops  near  tbe  Half  Moon 
Battery,  about  two  miles  north  of  Fisher.  He  immedi- 
ately pushed  up  Curtis'  Brigade  within  a  few  hundred  yards 
of  the  parapet  of  the  fort.  A  skirmish  line  was  then,  ad- 
vanced to  within  seventy-five  yaxds  of  the  fort.  Upon  the 
approach  of  the  enemy,  the  Junior  Reserves  sprang  to  the 
parapet  of  the  land  face  which  was  swept  by  tbe  guns  of  the 
fleet,  and  by  a  well-directed  fire,  delivered  with  a  coolness 
which  could  not  be  excelled,  they  repelled  the  attack.  One 
little  fellow  from  Columbus  County,  whope  name  is  not  re- 
membered, being  too  small  to  shoot  over  the  parapet,  mounted 
a  cannon  and  fired  from  there  as  coolly  as  if  he  were  shoot- 
ing squirrels,  until  he  fell  wounded.  About  dusk  the  Re- 
serves were  ordered  to  the  palisades  in  front  of  the  parapet 
and  immediately  under  the  guns  of  the  fort,  where  they  re- 
mained till  morning.  The  guns  of  the  fort  were  discharged 
over  their  heads.  The  rain  was  descending  in  torrents.  That 
night  the  Federals  re-embarked  most  of  their  men. 

General  Whiting  in  his  report  says:  "Colonel  Tansill 
was  ordered  to  the  command  of  the  land  front.  The  gallant 
Major  Reilly,  with  his  battalion  and  Junior  Reserves,  poured 
cheering,  over  the  parapet  and  through  the  sallyport  to  the  pal- 
isades. The  enemy  had  occupied  the  redoubt  (an  unfinished 
fort)  and  advanced  into  the  port  garden.  A  fire  of  grape 
and  musketry  checked  any  further  advance.  The  garrison 
continued  to  man  the  out-works  and  channel  batteries  through- 
out the  night,  exposed  to  a  pelting  storm  and  occasionally  ex- 
changing musket  shots  with  the  enemy.  The  fire  had  been 
maintained  for  seven  hours  and  a  half  with  unremitting 

Colonel  William  Lamb  who,  under  General  Whiting,  com- 
manded the  troops,  in  his  refport  says:  "At  4:30  p.  m.,  25 
December,  a  most  terrific  fire  against  the  land  face  and  pali- 
sades in  front  commenced,  unparalleled  in  severity.  Ad- 
miral Porter  estimated  it  at  130  shot  and  shell  per  minute. 

50  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

vanced  towards  the  works.  When  the  parapet  and  the  guns 
were  manned  by  regnlars  and  the  Junior  Reserves. 

"During  the  night  the  rain  fell  in  torrents,  wetting  the 
troops  and  their  arms,  but  it  did  not  dampen  their  spirits  nor 
interfere  with  their  efficiency.      *     *     * 

"On  Tuesday  morning  the  foiled  and  frightened  enemy 
left  our  shores.  I  cannot  speak  too  highly  of  the  coolness 
and  gallantry  of  my  command." 

Colonel  Lamb  at  another  time  said:  "Be  it  said  to  the 
eternal  credit  of  these  gallant  boys  that  they,  from  this  first 
baptism  of  fire,  emerged  with  a  reputation  for  bravery  estab- 
lished for  all  time,  and  that  to  no  troops  more  than  these  is 
due  the  honor  of  our  splendid  victory." 

The  troops  were  complimented  in  general  orders  by  Gen- 
eral Bragg  for  their  heroism  and  gallantry.  The  heaviest 
loss  suffered  by  any  one  command  in  the  fort  was  by.  the 
Junior  Reserves.  Thus  ended  the  first  glorious  defence  of 
Fort  Fisher. 

When  the  news  "s^'as  flashed  to  Raleigh  that  Butler's  ships 
had  appeared  off  Fort  Fisher,  Lieutenant-General  Holmes 
promptly  tendered  his  sendees  tO'  assist  in  repelling  the  threat- 
ened attack  and  was  assigned  to  duty  by  General  Bragg  in  the 
city  of  Wilmington,  where  he  was  put  in  charge  of  the  move- 
ment of  troops  at  that  point.  The  writer  who  accompanied 
Genera]  Tiolmes  as  his  Adjutant-General,  unfortunately  did 
not  participate  in  the  battle  of  Fort  Fisher.  He  is  indebted 
to  Lieiitenant-Colonel  French  for  most  of  the  foregoing  de^ 

On  26  December,  the  reserves  were  moved  to  camp  on  Bald 
Head  Island,  where  they  remained  on  guard  and  picket  duty 
for  several  days  when  they  were  ordered  to  Camp  McLean  at 
Goldsboro,  N.  G. 

On  6  December,  there  had  been  an  attempted  consolida- 
tion of  these  three  battalions  near  Sugar  Loaf,  when  Captain 
William  R.  Johns  was  elected  Colonel ;  Captain  C.  IST.  Allen, 
Lieutenant-Colonel ;  and  A.  B.  Johns,  Major.  Captain  W.  R. 
Johns,  a  disabled  officer,  was  then  in  the  enrollment  service 
under  Colonel  Peter  Mallett,  the  Commandant  of  Conscripts 
of  ISTorth  Carolina,  and  being  unable  to  undergo  the-  hardships 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  51 

and  exposure  of  camp  life,  declined  tlie  election.  Captain  Al- 
len, the  Lieutenant-Golonel,  declined  for  the  same  reasoii. 
Hajor  Johns  was  never  assigned  and  never  entered  upon  the 
discharge  of  the  duties  of  Major  and  so  the  battalions  con- 
tinued to  ser\-e  under  separate  organizations.  Major  Johns 
afterwards  formally  tendered  his  resignation,  which  was  ac- 


On  3  January,  1865,  while  the  regiment  was  at  Camp  Mc- 
Lean, near  Groldsboro,  it  was  finally  organized  by  the  elec- 
tion of  Captain  John  W.  Hinsdale,  Colonel;  W.  F.  Trench, 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  A;  B.  Ellington,  Major. 
On  7  January  the  last  two  were  assigned  to  duty.  Frank  M. 
Hamlin,  one  of  the  gallant  yovmg  officers  who  refused  to  sur- 
render with  Major  Eeece,  was  appointed  Adjutant.  But 
from  time  tO'  time  Lieutenants  W.  W.  King,  Andrew  J.  Bur- 
ton and  Frank  S.  Johnson,  son  of  Senator  R.  W.  Johnson,  of 
Arkansas-,  who  had  shortly  theretofore  left  the  University  of 
Korth  Carolina  and  volunteered  in  the  Third  Regiment,  acted 
as  Adjutant.  J.  K.  Huston  was  appointed  Quartermaster 
Sergeant,  and  George  B.  Haigh,  of  Fayetteville,  grandson  of 
the  Hon.  George  E.  Badger,  Co-mmissary  Sergeant.  Drs.  E. 
B.  Simpson  and  J.  S.  Robinson  were  assigned  to  the  regiment 
as  Surgeon  and  Assistant  Surgeon. 

The  companies  composing  the  regiment  were  then  lettered 
and  designated  as  follows: 

Company  A — From  Guilford  County — Captain,  John  W. 

Company  B — From  Alamance  and  Forsyth  Counties — 
Captain,  A.  L.  Lancaster. 

Company  C — From  Stokes  and  Person  Counties — Cap- 
tain R.  F.  Dalton. 

Company  D — From  New  Hanover,  Brunswick  and  Co- 
lumbus Counties — Captain,  John  D.  Kerr. 

Company  E — From  Catawba  County — Captain,  J.  R. 

Company  F — From  Iredell  and  Rowan  Counties — Cap- 
tain, W.  G.  Watson, 

52  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Company  G — From  Burke  and  Caidwell  Counties — Oap' 
tain,  L.  A.  Bristoe. 

Company  H — From  Gumherlcmd,  Boheson  and  Harnett 
Counties — Captain,  D.  S.  Byrd. 

Company  I — From  Richmond  County — Captain,  A.  B< 

Company  K — From  Rockingham  County — Lieutenant  F. 
M.  Hamlin. 

Colonel  Hinsdale,  upon  receiving  notice  in  the  city  of  Ral-- 
eigh  of  his  election,  at  once  signified  his  acceptance,  but  it 
was  questioned  by  General  Holmes  whether  he  was  eligible 
under  the  orders  of  the  War  Department,  by  reason  of  the 
fact  that  he  was  not  a  disabled  officer.  The  matter  was  re- 
ferred to  the  authorities  in  Eichmond  and  after  considera- 
ble delay  the  department  decided  in  Colonel  Hinsdale's  f  avoi' 
and  he  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  regiment  on  14 
February,  1865,  by  the  following  all  too  partial  general  or- 

"Headquaetees  Reserves  North   Carolina.. 

Ealeigh,  N.  C,  14  February,  18*65. 
General  Orders  No.  J^. 

"MajoT  C.  S.  Stringfellow,  Assistant  Adjutant-General 
C.  S.  P.  A.,  will  relieve  Captain  John  W.  Hinsdale,  Assist-^ 
ant- Adjutant-General  of  Reserves  of  North  Carolina,  and 
the  latter  officer  will  proceed  to  join  the  Third  Regiment  Re^ 
serves  of  North  Carolina  as  its  Colonel,  he  having  been  duly 
elected  to  that  office  on  3  January,  1865. 

"The  Lieutenant-General  commanding  in  taking  leave  of 
Colonel  Hinsdale,  tenders  his  warm  congratulations  on  his 
promotion  and  earnestly  hopes  that  the  intelligence,  zeal  and 
gallantry,  which  has  characterized  his  services  as  a  staff  officer 
may  be  matured  by  experience  into  greater  usefulness  in  his 
new  and  more  extended  sphere. 

"Theo.  H.  Holmes, 
"LieutenanIhGeneral  Commanding." 

While  at  Camp  McLean,  near  Goldsboro,  the  regiment  was 
ordered  to  Halifax  to  repel  another  Federal  raid.     It  re-- 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  63 

mained  there  only  a  day  or  two,  the  enemy  having  with- 
drawn. It  returned  to  Goldsboro  where  it  remained  drilling 
and  doing  guard  duty  until  the  last  of  January.  It  was  then 
ordered  to  Kinston  and  camped  near  the  beautiful  home  of 
Colonel  John  0.  Washington.  It  was  here  employed  in  con- 
structing the  breastworks  and  fortifications  for  the  defence 
of  the  town  and  especially  of  the  county  bridge  across  the 
Neuse  river.  Kinston  was  in  easy  reach  from  New  Bern 
.and  had  been  visited  by  many  Federal  raiding  parties  from 
time  to  time.  Our  boys  were  heartily  welcomed  by  the  good 
people  of  that  town. 

The  rations  which  were  issued  to  officers  and  men 
while  here  and  at  Goldsboro  were  very  scant.  They  con- 
sisted of  half  a  pint  of  black  sorghum  syrup,  a  pint  of  husky 
meal  every  other  day,  a  third  of  a  pound  of  pork  or  Il^assau 
bacon  and  a  few  potatoes  occasionally.  The  old  soldiers  will 
.all  remember  Nassau  bacon,  a  very  gross,  fat,  porky  substance 
which  ran  the  blockade  at  Wilmington  and  was  distributed 
among  Lee's  veterans  as  bacon.  When  a  ration  of  cornfield 
peas  was  issued  the  boys  were  in  high  jinks  indeed.  Eut 
never  was  there  collected  together  more  uncomplaining  men. 
They  recognized  the  fact  that  the  Confederacy  was  doing  for 
them  its  best. 


Upon  the  discovery  of  the  advance  of  the  enemy  from  New 
Bern,  whence  they  set  out  early  in  March,  General  Hoke's 
Division  was  ordered  to  Kinston.  On  6  March,  the  Junior 
Keserve  Brigade,  consisting  of  the  First  Uegiment  under 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  W.  Broadfoot;  the  Second  under 
Oolonel  John  PL  Anderson,  and  the  Third  under  Colonel 
Hinsdale,  and  Millard's  Battalion  under  Captain  0.  M.  Hall, 
nil  under  Colonel  F.  S.  Annistead,  marched  through  Kinston 
and  across,  to>  the  south  side  of  Neuse  river,  which  here  runs 
in  an  easterly  direction  past  the  breastworks  which  they  had 
so  laboriously  constructed.  They  marched  down  the  river 
road  which  leads  out  in  a  southeasterly  direction  to  Southwest 
creek.  This  creek  is  a  sluggish,  unfordable  stream,  which 
runs  in  a  northerly  direction  and  empties  into  the  river  about 

54  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

six  miles  below  Kinston.  The  regiment  was  placed  in  sorrie 
old  breastworks  on  the  margin  of  a  swamp,  about  a  hundred 
yards  from  the  creek.  Our  pickets  were  stationed  on  the 
creek.  The  nest  day  the  enemy  made  their  appearance  on 
the  other  side  of  the  stream  and  established  a  line  of  skir- 
mishers and  sharpshooters.  During  the  day  our  skirmishers 
were  engaged  and  occasionally  a  minie  ball  would  whistle 
over  the  breastworks  as  each  individual  boy  of  the  regiment 
believed,  "just  by  my  ear."  On  the  morning  of  8  March, 
General  Hoke,  whose  troops  were  also  stationed  along  the  line 
of  the  creek,  was  relieved  by  the  arrival  of  D.  H.  Hill's  troops. 
Hoke's  Division  crossed  the  creek  and  made  a  detour  down 
the  lower  Trent  road  which  crossed  the  British  road  at  Wise'a 
Fork,  about  three  miles'  in  our  front.  The  lower  Trent  road 
runs  in  a  southeasterly  direction  to  Trenton.  The  British 
road  runs  in  a  northeasterly  direction  towards  the  river.  Gen- 
eral  Hoke  with  his  usual  dash  surprised  a  Federal  brigade, 
captured  it  and  sent  it  to  the  rear.  The  reserves  held  the 
breastworks  throughout  the  8th.  On  the  morning  of  the  9th, 
the  reserves  crossed  Southwest  creek  on  an  improvised  bridge 
constructed  by  them  about  200  yards  above  the  bridge  on 
the  Dover  road  which  had  been  destroyed.  This  bridge  was 
made  by  felling  trees  across  the  creek  and  covering  them 
with  lumber  taken  from  Jackson's  mill  in  the  vicinity.  Line 
of  battle  was  formed  on  the  east  side  of  the  creek  on  swampy 
ground  and  the  brigade  was  ordered  forward  under  fire 
through  fallen  trees,  brush,  brambles,  and  bullets — making 
it  difficult  to-  preserve  the  alignment.  They  advanced  as 
steadily  as  veterans  driving  the  enemy  who  were  fresh  troops 
from  ISTew  Bern,  well  dressed,  well  fed,  well  armed  and  well 
liquored,  as  was  evidenced  by  the  condition  of  some  prisoners 
captured.  The  Third  Regiment  suffered  the  loss  of  a  num- 
ber of  brave  officers  and  men,  among  them  Lieutenant  John 
W.  Harper,  a  gallant  young  officer  of  Company  C,  from  Cald- 
well. Here  also  Lieutenant  Hamlin  was  wounded  in  the 
arm.  That  night  General  Hoke  imdertook  a  flank  movement 
down  the  British  road  and  the  ISTeuse  river  road,  the  Junior 
Reserves  being  a  part  of  his  command.  We  could  plainly  hear 
the  enemy  at  work  on  their  fortifications.     The  night  was 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  55 

rainy  and  so  dai'k  you  could  not  see  your  hand  before  you. 
After  marclimg  through  slush  and  rain  about  six  miles,  we 
countermarched  and  returned.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  10th 
all  .of  O'ur  troops  fell  back  to  the  entrenchments  on  the  British 
road,  and  later  in  the  day  we  re-crossed  the  ISTeuse,  burning  the 
bridge  behind  us,  and  marched  through  Kinston,  our  brigade 
camping  at  Moseley  Hall.  This  retrograde  movement  was 
the  consequence  of  the  arrival  of  Sherman's  army  in  North 

The  operations  near  Kinston,  sometimes  called  the  battle 
of  Kinston,  but  iisually  the  battle  of  South  West  Creek,  were 
upon  the  whole  a  Confederate  success,  and  when  the  dispar- 
ity in  numbers  between  the  contending  forces  is  considered, 
M'ere  very  creditable  to  the  Confederates.  General  Bragg  in 
general  orders  thanked  the  troops  for  their  heroism  and  valor 
and  complimented  them  upon  their  achievements. 

The  arrival  of  Sherman  in  Fayetteville  and  the  approach 
of  the  troops  from  Wilmington  to  form  a  junction  with  Sher- 
man at  Goldsboro,  made  it  necessary  for  us  to  Avithdraw  to 
prevent  being  cut  off  and  in  order  to  form  a  junction  with 
General  Johnston's  Army,  which  was  moving  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Smithfield.  On  15  March  Colonel  John  H.  Neth- 
ercutt,  of  tlie  Sixty-sixth  No^rth  Carolina,  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  our  brigade  which  was  permanently  assigned  to 
Hoke's  Division. 


Arriving  at  Smithfield  16  March,  we  remained  twO'  days 
and  there  witnessed  one  of  the  saddest  spectacles  of  the  war — 
a  military  execution.  The  regiment  constituted  a  part  of 
the  military  pageant  which  attended  the  shooting  to  death  of 
G.  W.  Ore,  a  private  of  Company  B,  Twenty-seventh  Georgia 
Regiment,  who  had  been  tried  for  mutiny  by  a  court-martial 
and  had  been  condemned.  The  poor  fellow  was  first  marched 
around  to  tlie  solemn  music  of  the  Dead  March,  in  front  of 
the  regiments  which  were  drawn  up  in  an  open  square,  facing 
inwards,  he  was  then  made  to  kneel,  and  was  tied  to  a  stake  on 
the  open  side  of  the  hollow  square.  A  detail  of  twelve  men 
drawn  up  at  ten  paces  performed  the  painful  duty  of  carry- 

66      NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ing  out  the  sentence  of  the  court.  At  this  late  stage  of  the 
war,  when  the  striiggle  wa^  perfectly  desperate  and  all  hope 
of  success  had  fled,  this  seemed  to  us  tO'  be  little  less  than  mur- 

On  18  March  we  marched  again,  not  tO'  the  West,  but  to 
the  South.  We  knew  that  Sherman  was  approaching  from 
that  direction,  and  we  surmised  that  there  was  serious  work 
befoire  us.  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston,  who  rode  for  a  short 
distance  on  that  day  at  the  head  of  the  Third  Junior  Ke- 
seiTes,  said  as  much  to  its  commander.  Sherman  was 
moving  from  Fayetteville  in  the  direction  of  Goldsboro  in 
two  parallel  columns,  about  a  day's  march  apart.  General 
Johnston  had  determined  to  take  advantage  of  the  fact  that 
Sherman's  left  wing"  was  thus  separated  from  the  right,  and 
to  strike  a  bold  blow  on  the  exposed  flank  at  Bentonville  in 
Johnston  County. 


As  soon  as  General  Hardee,  our  corps  conunander, 
reached  Bentonville  with  his  troops,  he  moved  by  the  left 
flank,  Hoke's  (our)  Division  leading,  to  the  ground  previ- 
ously selected  by  General  Hampton.  It  was  the  eastern  edge 
of  an  old  plantation,  extending  a  mile  and  a  half  to  the  west 
and  lying  principally  on  the  north  side  of  the  road  and  sur- 
rounded east,  south  and  no'rth  by  a  dense  thicket  of  black- 
jacks. There  was  but  one  road  through  it  Hoke's  Division 
formed  in  the  road  with  its  line  at  right  angles  to  it  on 
the  eastern  edge  of  tlie  plantation  and  its  left  extending 
some  four  hundred  yards  into  the  thicket  on  the  south.  The 
Junior  Reserves  constituted  the  right  of  Hoke's  Division  and 
supported  a  battery  of  Starr's  Battalion  of  artilleiT'  command- 
ed by  Captain  Geo-.  B.  Atkins,  of  Fayetteville.  The  brigade 
of  Juniors  were  led  by  Colonel  John  H.  JSTethercutt,  who  had 
superseded  Colonel  Armistead.  This  gallant  ofiicer  was  Colo- 
nel of  the  Sixty-sixth  ISTorth  Carolina  Regiment — a  plain, 
blunt  man,  but  every  inch  a  soldier.  The  Third  Regiment 
threw  out  a  skirmish  line  whioh  was  commanded  by  Captain 
Bristol  and  hurriedly  constructed  a  rail  fence  breastwork. 
Here  under  a  fire  of  artillery  we  suffered  many  casualties. 


iWKRASBORO,         N.C., 

fought  March  16ft>,ia65 . 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  57 

The  troops  belonging  to  the  Army  of  Tennessee  were  formed 
on  the  right  of  the  artillery.  A  wooden  farm  house  in  front 
of  the  Third  Regiment  for  soine  time  afforded  cover  for  a 
number  of  sharpshooters,  who  did  excellent  practice  on  our 
line,  until  Captain  Atkins,  with  a  few  well-directed  shells, 
caused  them,  to  pour  out  like  rats  out  of  a  sinking  ship. 

The  enemy  soon  thereafter  charged  Hoke's  Division,  but 
after  a  sharp  contest  at  short  range  was  handsomely  repulsed. 

On  the  morning  of  the  20th  it  was  reported  that  the  Fed- 
eral right  wing  had  crossed  over  to  unite  with  the  left  wing 
which  had  been  driven  back  and  was  coming  up  rapidly  upon 
the  left  of  Ploke's  Division.  That  officer  was  directed  to 
change  front  to  the  left.  By  this  movement,  his  line  was 
formed  parallel  to  and  fronting  the  road.  Here  light  en- 
trenchments were  soon  made  out  of  dead  trees  and  such  mate- 
rial as  could  be  moved  with  our  bayonets.  From  noon  to 
sunset  Sherman's  army  thus  united  made  repeated  attacks 
upon  Hoke's  Division  of  six  thousand  men  and  boys,  but 
were  uniformly  driven  back.  The  skirmish  line  of  our  bri- 
gade was  commanded  by  Major  Walter  Clark,  of  the  Seven- 
tieth Regiment  (First  Juniors),  on  the  20th  and  21st.  On 
the  21st  the  skirmishing  was  heavy,  and  the  extreme  of  the 
Federal  right,  extending  beyond  our  left  flank,  made  our  posi- 
tion extremely  hazardous  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  bridge 
over  the  creek  in  our  rear  was  our  only  chance  of  retreat. 
The  Seventeenth  Army  Co'rps  of  the  enemy  late  in  the  after- 
noon broke  tlirough  our  line  considerably  to  the  left,  but  by 
superhuman  effort,  its  leading  division  was  driven  back  along 
the  route  by  which  it  had  advanced. 

That  night  the  Confederate  Army  recrossed  the  creek  by 
the  bridge  near  Bentonville  and  were  halted  beyond  the  town 
two  miles  north  from  the  creek.  The  Federals  made  re- 
peated attempts  to  force  the  passage  of  the  bridge,  but  failed 
in  all.  At  noon  the  march  was  resumed  and  the  troops  camped 
near  Smithfield.  Sherman  proceeded  on  his  way  to  Golds- 
boro  to  form  a  junction  with  Schofield,  without  further  moles- 
tation. The  Confederate  losses  in  the  battle  of  Bentonville 
were  2,343,  while  that  of  the  Federals  was  nearly  double  as 
many.      (For  many  of  the  foregoing  facts,  see  Johnston's 

58  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Narrative,  pages  384  to  393,  from  which  liberal  extracts 
have  been  made. ) 

The  Confederates  never  fought  with  more  spirit,  and  the 
Federals  with  less,  than  in  the  battle  of  Bentonville.  Gen- 
eral D.  H.  Hill  remarked  upon  this  and  said :  "It  may  be 
that  even  a  Yankee's  conscience  has  been  disturbed  by  the 
scenes  of  burning,  rapine,  pillage  and  murder  so  recently 
passed  through." 

General  Hampton  said  of  this  last  great  battle  of  the  Civil 
War,  that  in  his  opinion  it  was  one  of  the  most  extraordinary : 
"The  infantry  forces  of  General  Johnston  amounted  to  about 
14,100  men,  and  they  were  composed  of  three  separate  com- 
mands which  had  never  acted  together.  These  were  Har- 
dee's troops,  brought  from  Savannah  and  Charleston ;  Stew- 
art's from  the  Army  of  Tennessee;  and  Hoke's  Division  of 
veterans,  many  of  whom  had  served  in  the  campaigns  of  Vir- 
ginia. Bragg,  by  reason  of  his  rank,  was  in  command  of  this 
latter  force,  but  it  was  really  Hoke's  Division,  and  the  latter 
directed  the  fighting.  These  troops,  concentrated  only  re- 
cently for  the  first  time,  were  stationed  at  and  near  Smith- 
field,  eighteen  mileS'  from  the  field,  where  the  battle  was 
fought,  and  it  was  from  there  that  General  Johnston  moved 
them  to  strike  a  veteran  army  numbering  about  60,000  men. 
This  latter  army  had  marched  from  Atlanta  to  Savannah 
without  meeting  any  force  to  dispute  its  passage,  and  from  the 
latter  city  tO'  Bentonville  unobstructed  save  by  the  useless  and 
costly  affair  at  Averasboro,  where  Hardee  made  a  gallant 
stand,  though  at  a  heavy  loss.  No  bolder  movement  was  con- 
ceived during  the  war  than  this  of  General  Johnston  when  he 
threw  his  handful  of  men  on  the  overwhelming  force  in  front 
of  him,  and  when  he  confronted  and  baffled  this  force,  holding 
a  weak  line  for  three  days  against  nearly  five  times  his  num- 
ber. For  the  last  two  days  of  this  fight  he  only  held  his  posi- 
tion to  secure  the  removal  of  his  wounded,  and  when  he  had 
accomplished  that  he  withdrew  leisurely,  moving  in  his  first 
march  only  about  four  miles." 

The  Junior  Reserves  lost  quite  a  number  of  officers  and 
boys  in  this  battle.  Their  conduct  was  creditable  to  the  last 
degree.     General   Hoke,   their   attached   and   beloved   com- 

Seventy-Second  Eegiment.  59 

ier,  thus  writes  concerning  them:  "The  question  of 
iourage  of  the  Junior  Reserves  was  well  established  by 
selves  in  the  battle  below  Kinston,  and  at  the  battle  of 
onville.  At  Bentonville  you  will  remember,  they  held 
•y  important  part  of  the  battlefield  in  opposition  to  Sher- 
's  old  and  tried  soldiers,  and  repulsed  every  charge  that 
made  upon  them  with  very  meagre  and  rapidly  thrown 
reastworks.  Their  conduct  in  camp,  on  the  march,  and 
he  battlefield  was  everything  that  could  be  expected  of 
I,  and  I  am  free  to  say,  was  equal  to  that  of  the  old  sol- 
5  who  had  passed  through  four  years  of  war.  On  the  re- 
through  Ealeigh  where  many  passed  by  their  homes, 
jely  one  of  them  left  their  ranks  tO'  bid  farewell  to  their 
ids,  though  they  knew  not  where  they  were  going  nor 
b  dangers  they  would  encounter." 


he  regiment  remained  in  camp  near  Smithfield  until  10 
il.  During  this  time  our  corps  under  command  of  Gen- 
Hardee  was  reviewed  by  General  Johnston,  General  Har- 
Governor  Vance  and  others.  There  was  not  in  the  grand 
,de  of  that  day — the  last  grand  review  of  the  Confederate 
ly — a  more  soldierly  body  of  troops  than  the  Junior  Jle- 
es.  Later  in  the  day.  Governor  Vance  made  a  stirring 
ch  to  the  ISTorth  Carolina  troops,  which  by  its  eloquence 
Lsed  enthusiasm  and  caused  fire  of  patriotism  to  burn 
e  brightly  in  our  hearts.  On  10  April  we  begun  our  last 
;at  before  Sherman. 


n  12  April  we  reached  Raleigh.  I  recall  how  we  marched 
ugh  Raleigh  past  the  old  Governor's  Mansion  on  Fay- 
dlle  street,  facing  the  Capitol,  then  up  Fayetteville  street 
west  by  tlillsboro  street  past  St.  Mary's  young  ladies 
ol  in  a  beautiful  grove  on  the  right  How  the  servants 
1  at  the  fence  with  supplies  of  water  for  us  to  drink! 
'  the  fair  girls  trooped  down  tO'  see  us  pass!  How  one 
beautiful  damsel  exclaimed:  "Why,  girls,  these  are  all 
ig  men,"  and  how  one  of  our  saucy  Sergeants  replied: 

60  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

"Yes,  ladies,  and  we  are  all  looking  for  wives  I"  It  was  in 
Raleigh  that  we  heard  the  heartrending  rumor  of  General 
Lee's  surrender. 

Our  line  of  march  was  through  Chapel  Hill.  The  TTniver- 
sity  at  that  place  was  deserted  and  many  refugees  from  the 
lower  counties  were  preparing  to  fly  again.  After  leaving 
Chapel  Hill  we  camped  on  the  Eegulators'  Battleground, 
thence  our  line  of  march  was  on  the  Salisbury  and  Hillsboro 
road,  over  which  200  years  before  the  Catawba  Indians  passed 
in  their  visits  to  the  Tuscaroras  in  the  East.  Governor  Tryon 
and  later  Lord  Cornwallis  had  led  their  troops  over  this  his- 
toric way  in  the  vain  endeavor  to  subdue  the  men  whose  sons 
now  trod  footsore  and  weary  over  the  same  red  hills,  engaged 
in  a  like  struggle  for  local  self  government. 

When  we  reached  Haw  river  on  Saturday,  15  April,  we 
found  the  stream  rising  rapidly.  In  crossing  the  river,  sev- 
eral of  our  boys  were  dro\vned  by  leaving  the  ford  to  reach 
some  fish  traps  a  short  distance  below  and  being  caught  by 
the  swift  current  and  swept  down  into  the  deep  water  below. 
On  i-eaching  Alamance  creek,  we  had  a  novel  experience. 
On  account  of  heavy  rains  the  stream  was  much  swollen 
and  the  current  very  strong.  General  Cheatham's  command 
was  moving  in  front  of  General  Hoke's  Division  and  on  at- 
tempting to  ford  the  stream  several  men  were  swept  down  by 
the  current,  whereupon  the  others  absolutely  refused  to  move. 
This  halted  the  entire  column,  and  as  the  enemy's  cavalry 
were  closely  pressing  our  rear,  the  situation  was  becoming 
critical.  General  Cheatham  rode  to  the  front  and  learning 
the  cause  of  the  halt,  ordered  the  men  to  go  forward,  but,  em- 
phasizing their  determination  with  some  pretty  lively  swear- 
ing, they  doggedly  refused  to  move,  whereupon  General 
Cheatham  seized  the  nearest  man  and  into  the  stream  they 
M^ent.  After  floxindering  in  the  water  awhile,  he  came  out., 
and  after  repeating  the  process  for  a  few  times,  they  raised  a 
shout  and  proceeded  to  cross.  Three  wagons,  two  with  guns 
and  one  with  bacon,  capsized  and  were  swept  down  the  river. 
Some  lively  diving  for  the  bacon  followed,  but  I  guess  the 
guns  are  still  rusting  in  the  bottom  of  the  creek.  I  am  sure 
none  of  them  were  disturbed  on  that  occasion. 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  61 

In  the  midst  of  the  peril  of  the  crossing  of  the  river,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel French  realizing  the  danger  to  which  the 
smaller  boys  were  exposed,  jumped  from  his  horse,  and  sta- 
tioning himself  in  mid-stream  just  below  the  line  of  march, 
rescued  several  of  the  brave  lads  from  inevitable  death. 
Standing  there,  watching  his  chance  to  save  life,  he  was  every 
inch  the  faithful  officer  and  brave  soldier,  and  no  wonder  the 
boys  loved  him.  Within  the  last  twelve  months  he,  too,  has 
crossed  over  the  river  and  is  now  resting  undeir  the  shade  of 
the  trees.     Farewell  my  dear  old  comrade! 

We  reached  Red  Cross,  twenty  miles  south  of  Greens- 
boro, late  on  16  April.  Here  we  stayed  until  the  following 
Easter  Sunday  morning.  On  Saturday  afternoon,  a  bright 
boy  from  Cleveland  County,  named  Froneberger,  was  killed 
in  camp  by  lightning  within  ten  steps  of  regimental  head- 
quarters. His  death  was  instantaneous.  The  next  morn- 
ing, 17  April,  after  a  scanty  breakfast  we  made  ready  as 
usual  to  resume  the  march,  but  i-eceived  no .  orders.  We 
waited  till  noon,  then  all  the  afternoon,  then  till  night,  and 
still  no  orders.  The  next  morning  we  heard  that  General 
Johnston  had  surrendered. 

We  camped  at  Red  Cross  for  a  few  days.  Meanwhile  it 
became  known  that  we  had  not  surrendered.  That  Johnston 
and  Sherman  had  undertaken  to  make  terms  for  the  surren- 
der of  all  the  then  existing  armies  of  the  Confederacy  and  for 
the  recognition  of  our  state  governments — about  the  only 
decent  act  of  Sherman's  life.  But  it  came  to  naught  by  rea- 
son of  its  disapproval  in  Washington.  The  armistice  which 
had  been  entered  into  for  this  purpose  was  terminated,  and 
the  toilsome,  weary,  hopeless  march  was  resumed,  but  we  all 
knew  that  the  war  was  over. 

It  wasi  at  this  time  that  a  quantity  of  silver  coin,  in  Greens- 
boro, belonging  to  the  Confederate  Government  was  seized 
by  General  Johnston  and  distributed  among  his  officers  and 
men — each  receiving  one  dollar  and  twenty-five  cents  without 
regard  to  rank.  The  writer  has  in  his  possession  the  identi- 
cal Mexican  milled  silver  dollar  which  came  to  him  on  this 
occasion.  On  one  side  of  it  has  since  been  engraved  "Bounty 
to  John  W.  Hinsdale  for  four  years'  faithful  service  in  the 

62  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Confederate  Array."  One  hundred  times  its  weight  in  gold 
woLild  not  purchase  this  old  piece  of  silver,  associated  as  it 
is  with  the  distressing  memories  of  the  heart  breaking  sur- 

The  regiment  marched  about  eight  miles  to  Old  Center 
Meeting  House,  in  Randolph  County,  staying  here  about 
three  days  and  then  we  moved  by  way  of  Coleraine's  Mills  to 
Bush  Hill  (now  Achdale) ,  and  came  to  a  halt  one  mile  from 
old  Trinity  College. 


General  Johnston  on  26  April  made  his  final  surrender  of 
the  army  to  General  Sherman  and  on  2  May,  1865,  at  Bush 
Hill,  what  remained  of  the  Third  Junior  Reserves  were 
paroled,  and  turned  their  faces  sorrowfully  homeward.  The 
regiment  had  been  disbanded  for  all  time. 

This  was  the  end  of  all  our  hopes  and  aspirations.  Might 
had  prevailed,  over  right  and  the  conquered  banner  had  been 
furled  forever. 

JSTorth  Carolina  has  much  to  be  proud  of.  She  was  first 
at  Bethel,  she  went  farth.est  at  Gettysburg,  she  w;:s  last  at 
Appomattox,  her  dead  and  wounded  in  battle  exceeded  in 
numbers  those  of  any  O'ther  two  States  of  the  Confederacy  to- 
gether. But,  her  last  and  most  precious  offering  to  the  cause 
of  Liberty  were  her  boy-soldiers,  who  at  her  bidding  willingly 
left  their  homes  and  marched  and  fought,  and  starved,  and 
froze,  and  bled,  and  died  that  she  might  live  and  be  free.  God 
bless  the  Junior  Reserves.  Their  memory  will  ever  be  cher- 
ished by  the  Mother  they  loved  so  well. 

The  following  patriotic  lines,  written  by  the  author  of  the 
"Conquered  Banner,"  will  appeal  to  the  heart  of  many  a 
mother  whose  young  son  marched  away  with  the  Junior  Re- 
serves : 

"  Young  as  the  youngest,  who  donned  the  Gray, 
True  as  the  truest  who  wore  it, 
Brave  as  the  bravest  he  marched  away 
(Hot  tears  on  the  cheeks  of  his  mother  lay), 
Triumphant  waved  our  flag  one  day- 
He  fell  in  the  front  before  it. 

Seventy-Second  Regiment.  63 

Firm  as  the  firmest  where  duty  led, 

He  hurried  without  a  falter ; 
Bold  as  the  boldest  he  fought  and  bled. 
And  the  day  was  won — but  the  field  was  red — 
And  the  blood  of  his  fresh  young  heart  was  shed 

On  his  country's  hallowed  altar. 

On  the  trampled  breast  of  the  battle  plain, 

Where  the  foremost  ranks  had  wrestled, 
On  his  pale  pure  face  not  a  mark  of  pain, 
(His  mother  dreams  that  they  will  meet  again), 
The  fairest  form  amid  all  the  slain, 

Like  a  child  asleep  he  nestled. 

In  the  solemn  shade  of  the  wood  that  swept 

The  field  where  his  comrades  found  him. 
They  buried  him  there — and  the  big  tears  crept 
Into  strong  men's  eyes  that  had  seldom  wept, 
(His  mother — God  pity  her — smiled  and  slept, 

Dreaming  her  arms  were  around  him). 

A  grave  in  the  woods  with  the  grass  o'ergrown, 

A  grave  in  the  heart  of  his  mother 
His  clay  in  the  one  lies  lifeless  and  lone  ; 
There  is  not  a  name,  there  is  not  a  stone. 
And  only  the  voice  of  the  winds  maketh  moan 
O'er  the  grave  where  never  a  flower  is  strewn. 

But  his  memory  lives  in  the  other." 

John  W.  Hinsdale. 

Raleigh,  N.  C, 

26  April,  1901. 

J.  F.  Hoke,  Colonel.    (Also  Colonel  of  Twenty-third.) 


(fourth  reserves.) 

By  the  editor. 

Tbe  Fourth,  Fifth,  Sixth,  Seventh  and  Eighth  Eegiments 
of  lieserves  (Seventy-third,  Seventy-fourth,  Seventy-sixth, 
Seventy-seventh  and  Seventy-eighth  North  Carolina)  being 
composed  of  men  at  that  time  between  45  and  50  years  of  age, 
those  few  still  living  are  over  81  years  of  age.  Hence  it  has 
been  impossible  to  get  their  histories  written  by  participants 
as  has  been  rigidly  required  of  other  commands.  We  have 
to  rely  for  our  scanty  data  upon  the  order  books  and  letter 
books  of  General  T.  H.  Holmes,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  ot- 
ganization  of  the  Keserves  in  this  State,  which  books  have 
been  fortunately  preserved  by  Colonel  John  W.  liinsdale,  his 
Adjutant-General,  and  upon  such  references  as  are  found  in 
the  "Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  armies." 
As  to  the  Seventy-seventh  North  Carolina  (Seventh  Reserves) 
alone  we  have  a  partial  sketch,  written  by  John  G.  Albright, 
First  Lieutenant  of  Company  A,  which  was  published  in 
"Our  Living  and  Dead"  October  1874,  pp.  134-137,  and 
which  is  used  as  the  basis  of  the  sketch  of  that  regiment.  We 
also  have  in  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  pp.  333-344,  the  muster 
rolls  of  six  companies  purporting  to  belong  to  the  Seventy- 
third  regiment,  but  the  Field  officers  and  all  the  companies 
except  Company  A  (which  belonged  to  the  Seventy-seventh) 
seem  to  have  belo'Uged  to  the  Seventy -eighth  (Eighth  Re- 
serves). At  pp.  345-358  are  the  muster  rolls  of  seven  of  the 
coinpajiiee  of  what  purports  to  be  the  Seventy-fourth  and  its 
•field  officers,  but  in  fact  they  seem  to  have  belonged  to  the 
Seventy -seventh  (Seventh  Reserves.)  To  those  should  be 
added  Company  A,  which  is  erroneously  given  on  pp.  333-335 
as  belonging  to  the  SeA'-enty-third. 

The  muster  rolls  of  all  the  regiments  of  Junior  and  Senior 
Reserves  were  captured,  with  the  other  Confederate  muster 

66  North  Carolina  Troops,  186l-'65. 

rolls,  after  the  fall  of  Richmond,  and  are  now  in  the  Bureau  of 
Pensions  and  Records  at  Washington,  but  to  an  application  by 
the  writer,  backed  by  an  official  request  of  Governor  Aycock, 
General  JP.  C.  Ainsworth,  in  charge  of  the  bureau,  gave  only 
the  list  of  the  field  officers  of  the  eight  regiments  of  reserves 
(which  we  already  had  in  General  Holmes'  Order  Book),  and 
stated  that  owing  to  the  precarious  condition  of  the  rolls  writ- 
ten on  Confederate-made  paper,  he  could  not  give  a  list  of  the 
company  officers  or  men  ^vithout  an  act  of  Congress.  We 
know  by  incidental  mention  in  General  Holmes'  letter  book 
that  Captains  Turner  and  Surratt  commanded  two  of  the  com- 

The  Fourth  Regiment  of  Reserves  (Seventy-third  North 
Carolina)  were  as  already  stated,  Senior  Reserves,  i.  e.,  men 
between  the  ages  of  45  and  50.  The  names  of  the  company 
officers  can  only  be  had  from  the  rolls  at  Washington,  which 
are  now  not  accessible.  The  regiment  was  organized  in 
July,  1864,  at  Salisbury,  by  the  election  of — 

Joiii\  F.  Hoke,  Colonel. 

Leeoy  W.  Stowe,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Jno.  ]Sr.  Prioe,  Major. 

All  three  of  these  had  seen  previous  service.  Colonel  Jno. 
r.  Hoke  in  the  beginning  of  the  war  was  Adjutant-General 
of  North  Carolina,  and  later  for  a  time,  Colonel  of  the  Twen- 
ty-third Regiment;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Stowe  and  Major 
Prior  had  both  served  in  Virginia,  and  been  wounded,  in  con- 
sequence of  which  the  former  (who  was  Captain  in  the  Six- 
teenth North  Carolina)  had  resigned,  and  the  latter  assigned 
to  light  duty  was  Lieutenant  and  Enrolling  Officer  when 
elected  Major  of  this  regiment.  R.  P.  Waring,  of  Meck- 
lenburg, who  had  served  as  Captain  Company  B,  Forty- 
third  North  Carolina,  was  appointed  Adjutant,  and  J.  M. 
Williams  Surgeon,  and  Daniel  W.  Perry  Assistant  Surgeon. 
John  F.  Hill  was  captain  of  one  of  the  companies.  A  portion 
of  the  regiment  was  assigned  to  the  important  duty  of  guard- 
ing the  bridges  on  the  lines  of  railways  upon  which  depended 
the  sustenance  and  recruiting  of  our  armies  and  the  remaining 
companies  were  sent  to  Salisbury  to  guard  the  thousands  of 

Seventy-Third  Regiment.  67 

prisoners  there  confined,  thus  relieving  other  troops  for  the 

The  regiment  was  ordered  to  Raleigh  21  August  for  service 
flt  Wilmington,  but  was  stopped  at  Greensboro  and  soon  after 
it  was  sent  to  Salisbtiry  where  it  performed  the  duties  above 
mentioned  till  4  March,  1865,  when  not  being  longer  needed 
to  guard  prisoners,  it  was  placed  in  the  Eighth  Congressional 
District  to  arrest  deserters  with  regimental  headquarters  at 

A  brigade  was  formed  in  November,  1864,  of  the  Fourth, 
Fifth  and  Sixth  Regiments  of  Reserves  (Seventy-third,  Sev- 
enty-fourth and  Seventy-sixth  ITorth  Carolina)  all  of  which 
were  on  the  same  service,  guarding  prisoners  at  Salisbury, 
bridges  on  railroads  and  arresting  deserters.  This  brigade 
was  placed  under  command  of  Colonel  Jno.  F.  Hoke  with 
headquarters  at  Salisbury.  The  services  performed  were 
useful  and  indispensable  and  relieved  other  troops  for  ser- 
vice in  the  field.  On  some  occasions  there  were  fights  with 
deserters  who  were  armed  and  when  banded  together  made 
themselves  a  terror  to  certain  neighborhoods.  The  only  time 
these  three  regiments  seemed  to  have  come  in  contact  with  the 
enemy  was  when  Stoneman  made  his  raid  to  Salisbury  to  re- 
lease the  prisoners  at  that  point. 

Upon  Johnston's  surrender,  some  few  of  the  regiment  were 
paroled,  but  the  majority  doubtless  went  home  without  cere- 


(fifth  reserves.) 

By  the  EDITOE. 

The  history  of  this  regiment  is  substantially  told  in  what 
has  been  said  of  the  Seventy-third.  It  was  organized  3  De- 
cember, 1864,  by  the  election  of — 

David  ,T.  CoRPENiiirG,  Colonel. 
GTsoEaE  C.  StowEj  LieutenanlhColonel. 
JosEPJi  K.  EuiiKE,  Major. 

All  these  were  doubtless  officers  who  had  seen  previous  ser- 
vice and  had  been  retired  or  had  resigned  on  account  of 
wounds.  The  only  company  officer  whose  name  is  accessi- 
ble (till  we  get  copies  of  the  captured  rolls  filed  at  Washing- 
ton) is  Captain  Nicholson,  of  Company  A.  The  companies 
composing  the  regiment  either  separately  or  organized  as 
battalions,  had  been  in  service  several  months.  Except  de- 
tachments guarding  prisoners  and  on  local  service  against  de^ 
sorters,  the  regiment  was  at  Salisbury  guarding  prisoners  till 
March,  1865,  when  being  no  longer  needed  for  that  service, 
they  were  sent  to  the  Sixth  Congressional  District  to  arrest 
deserters  and  patrol  and  protect  the  country  districts  with 
regimental  headquarters  at  Greensboro. 

Upon  Johnston's  surrender  some  of  them  were  paroled,  but 
the  bulk  of  them  probably  returned  quietly  to  their  homes. 












1.  John  A.  Collins,  1st  Lieut,,  Co.  F.  3.    E.  J.  Holt,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 

2.  W,  F.  Parker,  2cl  Lieut.,  Co.  F.  4.    W.  H.  Call.  Ord.  Sergeant. 


(seventh  cavalky.  ) 


COL.   JOHN  T.   KENNEDY,  and 
LIEUT,  W.  F.  PARKER,  Company  F. 

By  paragraph  8  of  Speoia]  Orders  JSTo.  161,  from  Adju- 
tant and  Inspector  General's  Office,  Kiciimond,  Ya.,  11  July, 
3  864,  it  was  ordered  as  follows:  "The  five  Xorth  Carolina 
companies*  of  the  Seventh  Confederate  Regiment,  the  three 
IS'orth  Carolina  companies,  D,  E  and  I,  of  the  Sixty-second 
Georgia  Regiment  and  Company  C,  of  the  Twelfth  North 
Carolina  Battalion  will  constitute  the  Sixteenth  Battalion 
ISTorth  Carolina  Cavalry  to  the  command  of  which  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Jno.  T.  Kennedy  is  hereby  assigned."  This  order 
will  he  found  in  82  Vol.  (Serial  JSTo.)  Off.  Bee.  Union  and 
Confed.  Armies  at  p.  763,  and  also  in  Serial  Vol.  129  of  same 
publication  at  page  536.  One  of  the  ISTorth  Carolina  com- 
panies (Kennedy's)  in  the  Sixty-second  Georgia  had  become 
so  large  that  it  had  already  been  divided  into  two  companies 
(Richardson  and  Dees),  so  that  at  the  time  of  above  order 
there  was  really  four  JSTorth  Carolina  companies,  which 
obeyed  the  order  of  transfer,  making  a  complete  regiment. 
This  was  to  be  the  Seventh  North  Carolina  Cavalry,  or  Sev- 
enty-fifth jSTorth  Carolina  Regiment,  of  which  John  T.  Ken- 
nedy was  Colonel,  Jno.  B.  Edelin  was  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and  Captain  Pitts  was  promoted  to  Major.  But  Colonel 
Kennedy  being  wounded,  was  placed  on  detached  service, 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Edelin  was  in  command  till  his  cap- 
ture in  March,  1865,  when  Major  Pitts  took  command.  In 
the  rush  of  events  the  formal  order  to  change  the  designation 
to  Seventh  Regiment  of  Cavalry  (or  Seventy-fifth  North 
Carolina)  was  either  not  issued  or  not  observed.  Though 
having  ten  companies  and  a  Colonel,  Lieutenant-Colonel  and 
Major,  it  was  in  fact  a  regiment  commanded  by  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Edelin,  it  officially  retained  the  designation  of  Six- 

72  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

teenth  Battalion  till  the  very  end.  Jno.  E.  Moore  was  Adju- 
tant and  W.  H.  Call,  of  Company  G,  was  made  Ordnance 
Sergeant;  Sergeant-Major  John  McGuy;  Surgeon,  Dr.  Eves. 
The  North  Carolina  companies,  D,  E  and  I,  of  the  Sixty- 
second  ■  Georgia,  were  all  raised  in  1862.  They  became  in 
the  new  command : 

CoMPAisrY  A — Wayne  and  Johnston — Captain,  W.  A. 

Company  B — M^ayne,  Wake,  and  Johnston — Originally 
commanded  by  Captain  J.  T.  Kennedy,  then  divided  into  two 
companies.  Captain  John  A.  Richardson  and  Geo.  T.  Dees. 

Company  C — Forsyth  and  Guilford — Captain,  T.  R.  Du- 
vall.  These  three  companies  had  been  assigned  to  Colonel 
Griffin's  Sixty-second  Georgia  in  August,  1862.  They 
served  in  1862-'63  and  till  May,  1864,  on  the  Blackwater  in 
Virginia  and  Eastern  North  Carolina.  This  command  was 
engaged  in  scouting  and  was  in  frequent  skirmishes  with  the 
enemy,  especially  around  Plymouth,  Washington,  N.  C,  and 
New  Bern.  Captain  J.  T.  Kennedy  was  elected  Major  of 
the  Sixty-second  Georgia. 

The  live  companies  transferred  from  Colonel  Claiborne's, 
later  Colonel  James  Dearing's  Seventh  Confederate  Cavalry, 
became : 

Company  D — Captain  J.  J.  Lawrence,  later  Captain  L.  G. 
Pitts,  from  Wilson  and  Johnston. 

CojuPANY  E — Captain  B.  C.  Clement,  from  Davie. 

Company  F — Captain  W.  K.  Lane,  of  Wayne.  The  com- 
pany was  froin  Halifax. 

CoirPANY  G — Captain  J.  A.  Clement,  from  Davie. 

Company  H — Captain  E.  A.  Martin  was  from  Northamp- 
ton and  had  been,  till  the  above  order.  Captain  Company  C 
in  the  Twelfth  (Wheeler's)  Battalion,  and  as  such  had  done 
service  since  its  organization  in  1862  on  the  Chowan. 

Company  I — Captain  F.  G.  Pitts,  from  Edgecombe,  and 
after  his  promotion  to  Major,  by  Captain  J.  B.  Edgerton. 

Company  K — The  fourth  company  transferred  from  Grif- 
fin's Sixty-second  Georgia,  and  which  had  been  created  by 
dividing  Kennedy's  original  company  became  Company  K  in 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  73 

the  new  regiment  and  was  commanded  by  Captain  George 
T.  Dees. 

The  Seventh  Confederate  Cavalry,  to  which  five  of  these 
companies  belonged,  was  broken  up  into  companies  and  squad- 
rons, and  performed  similar  duties  to  the  Sixty-second 
Georgia  throughout  Eastern  North  Carolina  and  Southeast 
Virginia.  In  May,  1864,  both  commands  were  ordered  to 
Petersburg  and  there  the  North  Carolina  companies  in  these 
regiments  ^vere  assembled  into  a  new  command,  entirely  com- 
posed of  North  Carolina  companies  as  above  stated.  In  the 
meantime,  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  T.  Kennedy  had  been 
severely  wounded  in  a  hot  fight  near  City  Point  in  June, 
1864,  and  was  not  able  to  be  with  the  new  regiment  after 
its  organization  but  very  little. 

To  give  a  history  that  will  embrace  these  companies  after 
their  organization  in  1862  up  to  the  formation  of  the  regi- 
ment in  1865,  it  will  be  necessary  to  give  something  of  their 
history  while  parts  of  Griffin's  Sixty-second  Georgia,  and 
while  the  others  were  in  Claiborne's,  later  Bearing's  Seventh 
Confederate  Cavalry,  and  then  of  their  career  after  the  for- 
mation of  the  Sixteenth  Battalion  (later  Seventy-fifth  Regi- 
ment) 11  July,  1864. 

The  Sixty -second  Georgia  Regiment  was  organized  at 
Garysburg-.  Joel  R.  Griffin  was  Colonel,  — .  — .  Towns,  of 
Georgia,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  J  no.  T.  Kennedy,  Major,  as 
an  acknowledgment  to  the  three  North  Carolina  companies 
in  the  regiment.  We  were  drilled  by  General  Beverly  H. 
Robertson,  an  officer  who  had  been  in  the  cavalry  service  in 
the  West.  There  were  seven  companies  of  Georgia  and 
three  from  North  Carolina,  which  were  afterwards  increased 
to  four  by  the  division  of  Kennedy's  old  company  as  above 
stated.  Captain  Duvall's,  from  Guilford  County;  Captain 
W.  A.  Thompson's,  from  Wayne  County ;  Captain  J.  A.  Rich- 
ardson's, of  Wayne,  Avho  succeeded  the  writer,  who  was  then 
Major,  and  G.  T.  Dees,  of  Wayne  also.  The  Seventh  Con- 
federate Regin-ient  drilled  with  iis.  In  November,  1862, 
the  camp  of  instruction  was  left  for  active  service.  Colonel 
Griffin  was  ordered  to  Franklin,  Va.,  and  remained  there 

74  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

during  the  winter  of  1862,  doing  duty  the  most  of  the  time 
between  Franklin  and  Suffolk,  where  his  services  seemed  to 
be  most  needed.  Also  Colonel  Claiborne's  Eegiment  went 
up  the  Blackwater  with  headquarters  at  Ivor,  in  the  same  sec- 
tion, near  enough  to  combine  their  forces  when  necessary. 
It  did  excellent  and  gallant  work  on  every  occasion. 


In  the  spring  of  1863,  both  regiments  were  brought  back 
to  Worth  Carolina  and  were  carried  down  to  a  little  village 
on  the  railroad  a  few  miles  this  side  of  Morehead  City  called 
JSTewport,  in  order  to  capture  some  guns  and  other  stores 
which  were  being  deposited  there  by  the  Federals.  In  this 
expedition  Major  Kennedy  was  not  a  party,  having  been  sent 
home  with  a  critical  case  of  typhoid  pneumonia.  When  the 
troops  returned  from  this  expedition  the  Sixty-second 
Georgia  was  sent  to  the  vicinity  of  Greenville,  on  the  Tar 
river,  where  they  remained  only  a  few  days  on  picket  and 
camp  duty. 

Colonel  Griffin  was  then  ordered  to  take  half  his  regiment 
and  report  to  Petersburg  with  it  in  person.  Soon  after  he 
left  Major  Kennedy  was  ordered  to  take  a  position  between 
Greenville  and  Washington,  and  stop  all  communication  be- 
tween us  and  the  Federals  either  by  land  or  water.  The 
plantation  of  Mr.  William  Grimes,  the  older  brother  of  Gen- 
eral Bryan  Grimes,  was  selected  for  headquarters,  and  every 
effort  was  made  to  enforce  the  order,  keeping  pickets  both  on 
the  creeks  and  river  and  on  all  the  public  roads  and  private 
landings  leading  across  the  river  and  into  the  town  of  Wash- 
ington. This  was  a  hard  order  to  fill,  but  no  exemption  was 
made  except  in  one  single  instance,  and  that  was  in  the  case 
of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Kenerly,  who  was  allowed  to  go  every  Sun- 
day to  fill  his  engagement  to  his  congregation.  But  we  lost 
nothing  by  extending  him  this  courtesy. 


The  service  just  named  was  on  the  south  side  of  the  Tar 
river  and  extended  down  to  Hill's  Point,  below  Washington, 
IST.  C,  and  often  below  Blount's  Creek  Mills.     Also  on  the 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  75 

nortli  side  of  the  Tar  and  over  to  the  Eoanoke  at  William- 
ston,  a  line  was  kept  up,  Captain  Gray  was  in  charge,  a  very 
vigorous  and  careful  officer,  and  it  may  be  added,  one  who 
was  not  easily  frightened.  Seeing  our  long  lines  of  picket 
duty  to  be  kept  up  and  orders  to  stop  all  intercourse  between 
the  sections,  the  enemy  conceived  the  idea  that  they  would  re- 
open communications  and  trespass  on  the  adjacent  country. 
Aware  of  their  intent,  we  caused  a  large  cypress  seven  feet  at 
the  stump,  standing  near  the  road  in  the  swamp  below  the 
Red  PTill,  two  and  a  half  miles  from  Washington,  to  be  felled 
across  the  road  as  a  protection  for  us,  and  flattening  the  top 
so  that  a  log  one  foot  in  diameter  would  lay  easily  on  it,  we 
then  cut  trenches  for  the  guns  to  protrude  under  the  small 
log.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kennedy  selected  good  men  in  camp 
that  were  able  for  duty  and  got  behind  our  work. 

Wo  had  double-barrel  guns  heavily  charged  with  buck-shot 
and  only  twenty-five  men  behind  the  log.  In  this  position 
we  waited  until  the  enemy  made  their  appearance  on  the  op- 
posite side  of  the  swamp,  about  four  hundred  j'ards  from  us. 
A  couple  of  guns  were  unlimbered  and  placed  in  position  and 
two  rounds  from  each  were  discharged  at  our  work,  making 
the  splinters  fly,  but  not  affecting  our  log.  They  then  got 
up  their  tools  with  which  to  move  the  obstruction  and  by 
fours  took  the  march  on  the  causeway.  ISTot  a  man  showed 
himself  until  the  enemy's  first  four  were  in  about  twenty 
paces  of  us,  wlien  the  command  to  rise  and  fire  was  given. 
One  barrel  only  was  discharged.  Though  this  was  the  first 
time  any  of  these  men  had  been  called  on  to  show  what  they 
would  do,  the  order  was  executed  Avith  great  unanimity,  and 
evidently  many  of  the  shot  struck  far  down  the  line.  This 
caused  a  halt  in  their  column  and  just  at  that  time  the  order 
to  fire  the  other  barrels  was  given  and  to  mount  oiir  work  with 
a  yell.  This  last  action  completely  demoralized  them  and  of- 
ficers and  men  all  seemed  only  too  anxious  to  get  out  of  the 
swamp  and  back  to  Washington,  the  most  of  our  little  force 
in  pursuit  to  the  bridge.  The  result,  seven  prisoners,  two  of 
whom  were  thought  to  be  mortally  woiinded,  and  the  others 
onh-  gun  shot  wounds.  ISTo  casualties  to  us  nor  any  firing 
from  the  enemy  save  desultory  pistol  shots   as  they   ran. 

76  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

About  the  time  we  were  getting  back  from  the  pursuit  and 
caring  for  the  prisoners,  General  D.  H.  Hill  arrived  at  the 
Red  Hill  to  make  a  demonstration  against  Washington. 


Colonel  Leventhorpe  with  others  was  sent  down  the  river 
as  far  as  the  Blount's  Creek  Mill  (then  Ruff's  Mill),  our  com- 
mand being  familiar  with  the  country  leading  thither.  At  the 
mill  a  considerable  little  iight  occiirred,  chiefly  artillery,  in 
which  Colonel  Leventhorpe  did  himself  and  regiment  credit, 
as  well  as  all  the  troops  engaged  with  him.  There  was  an 
old  path  at  the  head  of  the  mill  pond  leading  from  the  plan- 
tation of  General  Blount  across  the  creek  out  to  the  New  Bern 
road.  KnoA^'ing  of  this  pass  Colonel  Leventhorpe,  was  in- 
formed of  it,  and  a  part  of  our  little  command  was  sent  over 
in  order  to  strike  them  on  the  flank,  but  their  videttes  were  on 
the  lookout  and  when  that  movement  was  discovered  they 
Imrriedly  withdrew  all  their  forces  towards  New  Bern,  and 
the  Blount's  creek  affair  ended,  the  enemy  having  been  pur- 
sued several  miles  on  their  retreat. 

General  Hill  and  most  of  his  command  went  down  to  Rod- 
man's farm  and  did  some  handsome  artillery  practice  at  the 
block  house  and  other  objects  of  interest  over  in  Washing- 
ton. The  companies  of  Captain  Pitts  and  Captain  Barrett 
were  with  us  doing  their  whole  duty  around  Washington  and 
afterwards  until  we  went  out  to  recuperate,  when  they  were 
allowed  to  take  their  choice  for  a  resting  place.  They  were 
with  us  so  much  that  we  called  them  ours,  though  they  were 
Colonel  Claiborne's  companies  of  the  Seventh  Confederate 

General  liill  left  in  a  day  or  two  after  this  and  was  frank 
enough  to  say  he  believed  he  had  found  a  few  cavalrymen 
who  would  fight  if  they  got  the  opportunity.  He  left  with- 
out giving  us  any  orders  except  to  do  the  best  we  could  with 
opportunities  presented.  Not  more  than  48  hours  after  this 
General  Wessell,  from  New  Bern,  came  over  to  Washing- 
ton with  about  5,000  men,  it  was  said.  We  did  not  fight 
him  much,  but  got  one  man  killed  and  Captain  John  A.  Rich- 
ardson captured.     Captain  Richardson,  with  a  number  of 

Seventy-Fifth  Kegiment.  77 

others,  was  i^laced  on  board  of  some  craft  (name  not  re- 
membered) and  started  to  Fortress  Monroe.  When  off 
against  Elizabeth  City  or  Edenton,  they  managed  to  get  con- 
trol of  it  and  went  into  port.  Kichardson  was  only  gone 
from  his  company  about  a  month,  and  died  not  long  after  his 
return,  very  suddenly  of  heart  failure.  He  was  a  young 
man  of  splendid  character  and  much  esteemed  not  only  by 
his  men,  but  by  all  who  knew  him.  He  died  in  camp  at 
Greenville,  Pitt  County,  and  an  escort  was  sent  with  his  re- 
mains to  his  home  in  Wayne  Coiinty,  where  he  was  interred. 
We  had  had  a  busy  winter  and  spring,  having  done  duty 
steadily  and  without  complaining.  The  horses  had  given 
way  considerably  and  General  Martin  knew  that  a  rest  was 
needed  both  by  men  and  horses  and  so  ordered. 

We  got  pasturage  from  Mrs.  Virginia  Atkinson  and  moved 
headquarters  to  the  place  known  as  the  Clark  place,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river.  This  section  was  selected  because  it 
was  easy  to  secure  supplies  of  anything  necessary  to  our  con- 
sumption and  here  Captains  Edgerton,  Thompson  and  Ellis 
were  encamped  from  about  the  middle  of  May  until  after  Pot- 
ter's raid  on  Eocky  Mount.  Captain  Gray  was  encamped 
twelve  miles  below  Greenville  near  Mr.  Gray  Little's,  and 
kept  pickets  over  near  Williamston,  as  well  as  on  the  Tar. 
Gray's  and  Ellis'  companies  were  Georgians,  the  other  three 
companies  were  ISTorth  Carolinians,  and  half  of  them  from 
Wayne  County. 

.    » 


On  the  morning  of  19  July,  1863,  a  courier  from  General 
Martin  ordered  Major  Kennedy  to  take  the  gallop  and  report 
at  once  to  Colonel  Martin,  of  the  Seventeenth  ISTorth  Carolina 
Troops,  near  Hamilton.  Collecting  every  available  man  in 
camp,  amounting  to  only  eighty-four,  including  the  wagoners, 
he  proceeded  as  per  order.  Colonel  Martin  being  sick,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Lamb  was  in  command,  and  by  him  the  order 
was  given  to  take  the  gallop  for  Tarboro,  where  he  expected  we 
would  meet  the  enemy  on  his  return  from  Eocky  Mount,  and 
if  so,  hold  them  in  check  until  he  could  get  up  with  his  regi- 
ment and  artillery.     The  order  was  obeyed  as  promptly  as 

78  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

could  be  done  until  we  reached  Daniels'  school  house,  some 
three  or  four  miles  from  town,  when  it  was  thought  pru- 
dent to  send  videttes  ahead  and  feel  our  way.  Accordingly 
Captain  J.  B.  Edgerton  was  detailed  for  the  work  and  ordered 
to  take  such  men  with  him  as  he  chose  and  taking  iive  men 
with  him,  he  went  forward.  He  did  not  find  the  enemy 
until  he  arrived  at  the  bridge.  Their  attention  was  directed 
to  his  posse  by  one  of  his  men  firing  at  them  contrary  to  his 
orders.  They  mounted  as  soon  as  they  could  collect  their 
scattered  forces  and  started  after  him.  He  reported  at  once 
that  their  whole  force  had  come  over  the  bridge  and  were 
feeling  their  way  and  were  then  two  miles  from  us.  He  was 
then  instructed  to  go  back  and  make  a  shoAV  of  fight  and  he 
could  toll  them  on  our  way  perhaps.  This  would  give  time 
to  make  arrangements  to  meet  them.  To  our  right  and  on 
the  north  side  of  the  road  was  a  little  flat  land,  pretty  well 
timbered,  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  and  between  the 
school  house  and  a  field  by  which  they  were  bound  to  come,  if 
they  continued  to  pursue  our  detachment,  was  another  flat 
or  pond  wooded  also.  Two  hundred  yards  to  our  rear  was 
a  nice  old  pine  field  where  the  horses  could  be  concealed  from 
sight.  They  were  hurriedly  carried  around  with  the 
wagons,  the  men  dismounted  and  two  men  beside  the  wag- 
oners left  with  the  horses.  We  then  hurried  back  to  the  school 
house  and  the  men  were  placed  three  paces  apart  on  each  side 
of  the  road  and  about  fifteen  paces  (or  ste^js)  from  the  road, 
forming  a  long  triangle  with  legs  nearly  the  same  length. 
■We  calmly  awaited  the  report  of  Captain  Edgerton. 


He  soon  appeared  at  the  crook  in  the  road  up  at  the  field ; 
then  cautioning  the  men  to  be  sure  to  hold  their  fire  until  or- 
dered and  not  to  aim  at  any  one  above  the  stirrups,  Edgerton 
and  Major  Kennedy  with  his  detachment,  took  their  stand  in 
the  road,  there  being  only  six  or  seven  mounted  men.  The 
whole  number  engaged  was  81,  as  follows:  Captain  Edger- 
ton, 34;  Captain  Ellis,  28;  Captain  Thompson,  19.  Captain 
Edgerton  was  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  with  his  men  and 
Major  Kennedy  was  on  the  north  side  with  his.     This  was 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  79 

what  we  baited  with,  and  the  enemy  very  carelessly  took  the 

When  they  came  to  the  corner  of  the  fence  in  full  view 
they  unlimbered  a  small  piece  of  cannon  and  give  us  a  couple 
of  rounds,  but  did  not  move  us.  They  then  thought  perhaps 
it  was  the  same  little  party  that  had  been  showing  up  before 
them  all  the  way  from  Ta.rboro,  jjrepared  for  a  charge  and 
made  the  movement  handsomely  until  fired  upon  from  the 
right  and  left,  and  seventeen  of  their  horses  were  shot  down 
at  a  single  volley.  The  command  to  fire  was  not  given  until 
it  was  believed  by  firing  at  that  time  we  would  succeed  in  cut- 
ting off  as  much  as  we  would  be  able  to  take  care  of,  and  this 
so  proved  for  being  only  a  few  of  us  mounted,  many  that 
were  dismounted  ran  off  before  us  and  we  could  not,  help  our- 
selves, our  horses  being  two  hundred  yards  from  us  back  in 
the  old  field.  In  making  the  charge  they  could  see  none  of 
the  men  in  the  woods  and  all  whom  they  could  see  being 
mounted  it  emboldened  them  not  to  surrender  when  asked; 
and  when  their  column  was  cut  in  two  and  their  rear  had 
gone  tilting  back  for  Tarboro  these  fellows  in  front  kept 
right  on  fighting,  using  their  sabers  after  their  pistols  and 
carbines  had  been  discharged. 

Captain  Edgerton  and  the  moimted  men,  as  well  as  Major 
Kennedy,  had  their  hands  full  for  a  while  in  hand-to-hand  en- 
counters. Captain  Edgerton  had  the  Yankee  Major  (Clark- 
son)  on  his  side  of  the  road,  and  right  vigorously  he  gave  him 
the  saber  as  he  went  by  him  in  the  road.  The  Yankee  Cap- 
tain (Church)  was  on  the  other  side  of  the  road,  but  did  not 
have  as  good  luck  as  the  Major — not  that  any  did  his  duty 
any  better  than  Captain  Edgerton,  for  he  was  just  as  good  as 
a  true  soldier  ought  to  be — but  Major  Kennedy  had  shot  out 
all  he  had  loaded  and  did  not  have  time  to  draw  saber  before 
the  Captain  and  others  were  pressing  him,  and  having  his 
rifle  in  his  hand  he  raised  himself  in  his  stirrups  and  gave  the 
Captain  such  a  blow  as  sent  him  reeling  off  his  horse.  Those 
of  us  who  were  mounted  then  had  some  exciting  races  to  catch 
those  of  them  w^ho,  seemingly,  had  gone  completely  wild  since 
the  little  fight  commenced. 

The  dismounted  men  having  done  all  they  could  in  secur- 

80  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ing  prisoners  and  horses  were  ordered  to  procure  their  horses 
and  mount  preparatory  to  a  pursuit,  and  while  this  prepara- 
tion was  being  made  the  six  of  us  who  were  already  mounted 
had  some  exciting  races  through  the  woods  and  paths  adja- 
cent to  the  school  house  in  running  do-wn  and  catching  a 
number  who  had  got  cut  off  from  the  Major  in  his  rapid  flight 
in  the  direction  of  Mr.  John  Daniels'. 

The  enemy  lost  in  this  melee  seventeen  horses  killed,  forty- 
five  captured,  five  prisoners  left  in  the  school  house,  two  of 
whom  were  thought  to  be  mortally  wounded,  and  ten  of  the 
last  captured  sent  back  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lamb,  who  was 
only  a  few  miles  iu  oiir  rear ;  also  Captain  Church,  severely 
wounded,  and  sixty-two  saddles  and  equipments.*  The  gallop 
was  then  taken  to  the  bridge  at  Tarboro  in  the  hope  to  cut  off 
any  who  might  not  have  had  the  fortune  to  pass  the  bridge  be- 
fore our  arrival.  As  we  approached  the  bridge  we  found  a 
small  portion  of  it  torn  up  and  that  portion  next  to  town  on 
fire.  Dismounting  and  going  as  far  as  we  could,  for  the  fire 
on  the  bridge,  we  called  on  the  town  to  aid  us  with  all  the  help 
and  buckets  they  could  and  we  would  save  the  bridge.  The 
call  met  a  hearty  response  from  the  citizens.  The  first  bucket 
handed  was  from  Governor  Clark,  who  happened  to  be  in 
town  on  that  day.  The  bridge  was  saved  and  by  8  p.  m., 
we  could  have  been  across,  and  why  we  were  not  allowed  to 
continue  the  pursuit  at  once  we  never  were  able  to  under- 
stand. The  next  morning  after  the  enemy  had  had  a  whole 
night  to  travel  we  were  ordered  to  pursue  them,  but  had  not 
at  that  time  any  idea  of  overtaking  them  before  they  were 
captured.  Claiborne  with  a  part  of  his  regiment  and  a  bat- 
tery of  artillery,  was  in  his  front  and  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  creeks  which  the  enemy  had  to  cross,  and  below  him 
still  were  Colonel  Martin's  troops;  but  in  some  way  the, bat- 
tery and  troops  at  the  bridge  near  Scuffleton  were  removed, 
giving  the  only  gap  whereby  he  could  possibly  have  escaped 
and  as  the  gap  had  been  opened  for  him  he  accepted 
and  went  on  his  way  rejoicing  with  many  mules,  horses,  car- 

NoTB. — The  Federal  account  of  this  raid  will  be  found  in  44  Off.  Sec. 
Union  and  Confed.  Armies  963—974-  At  p.  973  Major  Clarkson  13  N.  Y. 
Cav.  admits  2  killed,  15  wounded  and  16  prisoners,  at  this  skirmish. — Ed. 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  81 

riages,  wagons  and  a  large  quantity  of  bacon,  to  say  nothing 
about  negroes  to  eat  it.  Having  safely  crossed  the  creek  he 
had  smooth  sailing  until  he  could  get  to  the  neighborhood  of 
Xew  Bern  imless  some  one  could  get  in  his  front,  which  in 
that  locality  was  bad  to  do,  as  nearly  all  parties  you  met  down 
there  were  doubtful  until  you  had  time  to  understand  them 
fully.  Our  command  followed  them  on  some  miles  after 
crossing  the  creek  and  finally  commenced  to  press  them,  when 
perhaps  a  wagon  load  of  meat  and  negroes  would  be  dropped. 
We  pursued  the  most  of  the  day,  occasionally  capturing 
women  and  children  and  vehicles  of  various  kinds  with  varied, 
supplies.  About  half  an  hour  before  sun  down  we  came  up 
with  the  main  body  on  the  road  leading  from  Swift  creek  to 
Street's  Ferry,  across  the  Neuse  river. 


By  this  time  Colonel  Jno.  jST.  Whitford  (then  Major  Whit- 
ford)  with  a  part  of  his  battalion  had  come  in  from  the  river 
road  and  joined  us;  his  command  and  our  exhausted  little 
force,  made  a  dash  or  two  at  them  until  dark  shut  in  iipon 
us.  So  we  concluded  to  delay  further  operations  until 
next  morning  and  demand  a  surrender,  and  if  refused,  go 
at  them  determined  to  win.  While  we  were  arranging  our 
plans  of  operation,  the  Fiftieth  ITorth  Carolina  Infantry 
came  up  and  struck  camp  near  us.  After  supper  (such  as 
we  had)  Lieutenant-Colonel  Washington,  of  the  Fiftieth, 
came  around  to  see  us  and  while  we  were  discussing  the 
chances  for  an  immediate  surrender  the  next  morning  a  cour- 
ier arrived  instructing  him,  as  the  ranking  officer,  to  at  once 
move  all  troops  from  that  locality  and  as  hurriedly  as  possi- 

This  was  a  bloAV  entirely  unexpected  and  well  calculated  to 
vex  and  perplex  troops  who  had  been  doing  faithful  duty  and 
cheerfully  looking  forward  to  the  time  when  they  could 
march  the  enemy  jjroudly  out  to  our  own  headquarters.  The 
enemy,  though  only  eight  miles  from  itTew  Bern,  remained 
where  we  left  them  the  whole  of  the  next  day.  They  were 
without  rations  and  not  a  round  of  ammunition,  and  would 

82  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

not  have  made  a  demoTistration  the  next  morning  and  were 
amazed  to  find  us  all  decamped.  These  facts  we  knew  then 
from  accounts  given  by  a  few  stragglers  taken  up  on  our 
march  and  since  then  we  have  seen  parties  who  certify  to  the 
same  thing,  men  who  were  eye  witnesses  and  knew. 


After  this  transaction  we  were  ordered  back  to  our  camp 
where  we  rested  until  about  the  last  of  August,  when  we  went 
back  to  our  work  on  the  Tar  river,  doing  only  picket  duty. 
Captain  Gray  in  the  meantime  was  keeping  his  pickets 
straight  between  the  Roanoke  as  far  down  as  Jamesville 
and  Tranter's  creek  on  the  Tar.  The  companies  were  or- 
dered to  the  neighborhood  of  Kinston  in  October  and  directed 
to  build  winter  quarters ;  this  work  was  soon  finished  and  ex- 
cept regular  picket  duty  nothing  of  importance  transpired 
through  the  winter,  so  the  next  spring  (1864)  the  command 
was  ready  for  active  and  full  work,  and  they  got  it.  Gen- 
erals Barton  and  Ransom  demonstrated  as  far  as  Evans'  Mill, 
below  New  Bern.  They  sent  us  down  to  the  mill  (Evans') 
near  the  block  hoiise  where  we  surrounded  the  troops  at  the 
block  house,  making  them  leave  and  only  getting  two  horses 
and  one  man  and  about  fifty  of  as  fine  chickens  as  I  ever  saw. 
Coming  back  over  to  our  old  camp  we  only  had  a  little  time  to 
rest  before  an  order  was  sent  from  General  Dearing  to  meet 
him  at  a  specified  time  at  Williamston.  He  was  at  that  time 
Colonel  of  Artillery  and  was  in  command  of  Griffin's  Regi- 
ment and  the  Seventh  Confederate  Regiment,  and  also  of  a 
battery  (if  not  all  the  artillery  carried  on  the  field)  at  the  bat- 
tle of  Plymouth.  He  displayed  in  that  engagement  in  the 
management  of  that  branch  of  the  service  as  much  coolness 
and  discretion  as  he  could  had  he  been  60  years  old. 

Though  a  young  Virginia  officer,  no  one  will  ever  be  able  to 
say  more  tlaan  deserves  to  be  said  of  his  generous  kindness,  of 
hi3  stately  and  manly  qualities  of  head  and  heart,  and  of  his 
genuine  and  affectionate  appreciation  of  the  love  and  esteem 
of  his  friends  and  companions  in  arms.  Much  like  General 
R.  E.  Lee,  to  see  him  one  time  was  to  always  know  and  love 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  83 


Major  Kennedy  was  not  present  at  the  disposition  of  the 
troops  to  make  the  assault  on  the  town  of  Plymouth,  but  ar- 
rived in  time  to  find  where  the  command  of  Dearing  was 
placed  and  went  in.  A  portion  of  Griffin's  Eegiment,  also 
the  Seventh  Confederate,  were  occupying  positions  to  the 
right  and  soon  it  became  necessary  to  change  and  cross  Cona- 
by  creek  in  order  to  cut  off  any  who  might  attempt  to  leave  the 
town  in  the  direction  indicated,  as  many  were  already  passing 
over  in  the  hope  to  save  themselves  from  being  captured. 
Many  were  so  badly  frightened  that  when  asked  to  halt 
and  surrender  they  kept  running  and  were  fired  upon  and 
killed ;  but  I  saw  none  killed  who  promptly  obeyed  the  order 
to  halt.  The  troops  under  Bearing's  command,  it  is  allowa- 
ble to  say,  contributed  their  full  share  in  proportion  to  num- 
bers in  the  hasty  reduction  of  the  little  town,  and  while  there 
were  quite  a  number  killed  and  wounded  we  were  truly  glad 
to  see  it  no  worse,  and  to  be  convinced  that  victorious  as  we 
were,  mercy  had  not  been  dethroned. 

The  next  day  the  march  was  taken  up  for  Washington  on 
the  Tar  river,  and  being  familiar  with  the  country.  Major 
Kennedy  was  ordered  to  proceed  at  once  with  that  portion  of 
the  Sixty-second  Georgia  present  and  the  Seventh  Confed- 
erate was  sent  with  him  and  we  were  followed  by  Colonel 
Mayo's  infantry  regiment.  We  found  no  obstruction  until 
we  came  to  the  works  near  the  town.  A  few  shots  and  a 
charge  disposed  of  all  forces  in  our  front  and  we  went  quietly 
in  and  taking  the  gallop  down  to  the  river  a  few  shots  were 
fired  at  the  transports  as  they  made  their  way  slowly  down 
the  river.  The  rejoicings  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  once 
lovely  and  beautiful  little  town  can  be  better  imagined  than 
described.  No  people  in  the  State  nor  any  where  else  had 
more  of  the  milk  of  human  kindness  in  their  hearts  and  could 
come  nearer  making  a  stranger  feel  like  he  was  at  home.  We 
had  seen  and  knew  some  of  them  before  the  war  and  also  quite 
a  number  in  the  surrounding  country,  who  were  equal  to  the 
occasion  at  all  times  when  generous  kindness  was  in  demand. 
A  courier  from  Dearing  ordered  us  off  and  the  next  morn- 
ing we  breakfasted  at  Mr.  Bradford  Perry's,  on  the  road  to 

84  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Greenville.  Before  Ave  got  to  Greenville  Washington  was 
burning  we  were  informed.  We  can  not  believe  that  any 
Confederate  soldier  after  having  been  as  well  treated  as  they 
were  by  the  citizens  wonld  have  applied  the  torch  to  that 


Plymouth  and  Washington  having  both  fallen  into  Confed- 
erate hands  in  a  few  days  a  start  was  made  by  General  Hoke 
for  Kew  Bern.  After  passing  Kinston  and  Trenton,  on  the 
Trent  river,  Major  Kennedy  was  ordered  to  take  a  guide 
whom  he  could  trust  and  make  through  the  swamp  (or  Dismal 
as  designated  by  the  settlers)  to  a  crossing  of  the  creek  a  short 
distance  from  Fort  Croatan  on  the  railroad,  twelve  miles  be- 
low l^ew  Bern.  This  was  a  very  tiresome  order  to  carry  out. 
The  road  we  had  to  travel  was  only  a  cattle  path  and  used 
only  by  pedestrians  as  a  hunting  path,  and  I  think  that  over 
half  of  the  surface  was  from  fetlock  to  knee-deep  in  water. 
We  tried  it  by  twos  the  first  half  mile  and  then  concluded  that 
single  file  would  do  better.  This  did  better,  but  by  no  means 
well,  for  by  the  time  300  horses  follow  one  another  through 
mud  and  water  the  last  that  pass  in  the  track  are  as  muddy  as 
coons  and  often  they  go  up  to  stirrups  and  even  to  the  saddle 
skirts,  so  that  in  this  march  through  that  Dismal  it  often 
happened  that  it  was  necessary  to  make  a  new  track  in  order 
to  get  along  at  all  for  we  had  about  300  horses,  and  "get  there" 
was  the  word  of  command.  Finally  we  came  to  the  creek 
about  100  yards  from  the  county  road  leading  by  the  fort. 
Where  we  struck  it  the  banks  were  high  for  that  country  and 
the  water  deep.  There  was  a  large  oak  lying  across  it  which 
had  the  appearance  of  having  been  used  as  a  foot-log  for 
years,  so  we  concluded  to  use  this  log  as  a  causeway  for  our 
horses  by  adding  to  its  breadth  a  foot  on  each  side ;  so  at  it  we 
went.  Taking  the  measurement  of  the  stream,  we  cut  down 
two  pines  standing  a  little  way  off  and  hewing  them  as  best 
we  could  at  3  o'clock  in  the  night,  we  brought  them  \\p  to  our 
old  oak  and  milling  them  on  it  until  we  could  balance  them 
round  to  the  desired  localities,  we  placed  them  by  the  side  of 
the  old  oak.  They  were  flattened  on  the  top  and  sides,  and 
then  we  went  on  top  of  our  old  oak  and  flattened  it  to  corre- 

Seventy-Fifth  REGiivfENT.  85 

epond  to  those  just  put  by  its  side,  and  to  complete  the  tem- 
porary striicture  we  hastily  put  on  some  railings  extending 
from  one  bank  to  the  other.  All  things  being  ready  to  re- 
sume the  march  the  horses  were  led  across  and  the  order  to 
mount  given. 

As  we  mounted,  and  before  the  order  to  march  was  given. 
General  Bearing  and  Colonel  Folk  rode  up.  The  sun  had 
just  risen  and  as  we  got  out  to  the  road  with  Captain  Edg- 
erton  and  Captain  Pitts,  a  few  of  the  enemy  came  in  sight,  a 
daph  was  made  at  them  by  about  four  men,  catching  only  one. 
As  soon  after  this  as  the  troops  could  be  .collected  and  proper 
dispositions  made  the  attack  on  the  fort  was  ordered.  The 
advance  on  Ihe  work  was  participated  in  by  all  the  troops 
present  and  without  any  disposition  to  show  the  white  feather 
anywhere  along  the  line  of  attack.  A  few  well  directed  vol- 
leys and  the  white  flag  appeared  as  we  advanced.  A  few  over 
200  well  equip]7Gd  soldiers  were  captured  and  what  there  was 
of  supplies,  of  all  kinds,  in  the  camp. 


The  city  of  New  Bern  was  not  well  supplied  with  troops 
and  was  ready  to  capitiilate  had  an  attack  been  made,  with 
a  ])roper  demand,  but  an  order  from  General  Lee  hurried 
General  Hoke  at  once  back  to  the  Army  of  ISTorthern  Vir- 
ginia and  but  a  few  days  elapsed  before  all  our  cavalry  were 
ordered  there,  arriving  just  in  time  to  aid  in  what  should 
have  been  the  decimation  or  bottling  \ip  of  the  whole  of  But- 
ler's army.  After  Butler  was  disposed  of  then  five  compa- 
nies of  our  regiment,  with  two  of  Claiborne's  (Pitts  and  Bar- 
rett) were  ordered  to  dislodge  the  enemy  from  Dunn's  farm. 
We  went  for  them  and  they  hastened  to  Bermuda  Hundreds 
and  Port  Walthall,  taking  refuge  in  the  boats  and  under 
cover  of  their  guns. 

One  whole  night  they  shelled  us  without  any  casualty,  for 
without  knowing  it  at  the  time  we  had  selected  a  position 
which  gave  us  all  the  protection  we  needed.  The  next  morn- 
ing a  foAv  ventured  out  but  in  a  very  short  while  they  were 
glad  to  get  back  under  tlie  protection  of  their  guns.  We  re- 
mained on  this  farm  only  a  few  days  when  General  Bearing 

86  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

himself  took  us  across  the  river  and  below  Petersburg  to  the 
front  of  our  last  work  on  the  City  Point  road.  Here  we  en- 
camped and  got  a  few  hours  rest  for  our  men  and  horses ;  and 
it  was  fully  appreciated  and  much  needed,  for  we  had  not 
had  any  solid,  good  rest  in  eight  or  ten  days.  An  old  .sol- 
dier knows  how  to  appreciate  such  opportunities. 


Having  rested  here  about  two  days,  we  were  ordered  to  go 
down  the  river  to  an  old  church  called  Broadway,  and  dis- 
lodge any  of  the  enemy  we  might  find.  When  in  about  a 
half  mile  of  the  church  one-half  the  command  was  halted  and 
the  front  comipanies  carried  forward;  when  in  plain  view  a 
considerable  force  made  its  appearance  which  was  imme- 
diately attatiked  with  such  determination  as  to  demoralize 
and  scatter  them,  driving  them  from  their  camp  and  its  equip- 
age. It  was  here  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kennedy  received 
wounds  that  partially  disabled  him  from  a  full  participation 
in  the  remainder  of  the  struggle — one  through  his  leg,  one 
throiigh  his  arm  and  one  through  the  body,  entering  the  right 
side  just  above  the  kidney  and  passing  by  the  other  in  a 
straight  line.  The  enemy  Avere  moved  and  the  command  un- 
der General  Dearing  was  brought  back  to  camp  and  remained 
on  the  south  side  until  Grant's  grand  move,  on  Petersburg, 
when  it  was  called  upon  and  did  as  much  gallant  service  as  it 
was  possible  for  any  troops  to  have  done  under  the  circum- 

When  wounded  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kennedy  was  carried 
to  the  hoiise  of  a  friend  who  lived  near  and  in  full  view  of  our 
first  line  of  works  which  had  to  be  carried  before  the  enemy 
could  proceed.  This  was  a  long  line  and  the  only  troops  en- 
gaged on  our  side  were  a  part  of  Bearing's  Brigade  (cavalry), 
General  Wise's  Brigade  (infantry),  and  Sturdivant's  Bat- 
tery of  artillery.  Unable  to  be  removed  he  was  in  their  lines 
and  near  enough  to  the  road  to  see  every  one  of  the  enemy's 
detachments  as  they  passed  by  to  the  attack,  and  there  were 
so  many  that  he  could  not  believe, it  possible  for  our  small 
force  to  withstand  them  at  all.  As  they  marched  up  the 
hill  he  had  his  bed  moved  to  a  window  that  commanded 
a  view  of  the  whole  situation  and  with  his  field  glasses  could 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  87 

see  distinctly  every  charge  made  and  the  repulsed  blue 
coats  hurriedly  retreating  to  their  main  body.  On  our  line 
of  works  he  could  also  see  the  brave  Wise  and  the  gal- 
lant Bearing  leading  and  encouraging  their  little  forces. 
Dearing  seemed  to  be  most  in  the  work  and  most  conspicuous 
in  repulsing  every  charge  made,  but  he  was  a  cavalry  officer, 
and  naturally  a  leader,  of  great  courage  and  ability.  The 
writer  saw  during  the  day  several  lines  of  the  enemy  advance 
and  retire,  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  at  times.  The 
gallantry  and  determination  of  our  officers,  and  men  held  them 
in  check  until  the  evening  when  they  were  reinforced  by  20,- 
000.  At  this  time  Dearing  and  Wise  retired  in  good  order  to 
our  next  line  and  continued  the  fight  until  General  Hoke's 
Division  came  to  their  aid.  The  charges  were  very  daringly 
executed  and  repulsed,  almost  hand-to-hand,  and  all  the  of- 
ficers of  Dearing's  Brigade  who  were  in  the  engagement  unite 
in  the  belief  that  Dearing's  gallantry  and  the  determined 
bravery  of  his  men  and  officers  saved  Petersburg  from  then 
falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 


The  next  day  Lieutenant-Colonel  Kennedy  was  cared  for 
by  Gen.  Burnside's  division  surgeon,  and  to  him  and  many  of- 
ficers of  this  division  he  is  thankful  for  many  acts  of  gener- 
ous kindness.  As  soon  as  he  was  able  to  be  moved  he  was 
sent  down  to  Fortress  Monroe  and  exchanged  for  an  officer 
of  his  rank  who  had  been  captured  at  the  Crater  in  Peters- 
h\iTg.  "From  this  time  he  was  not  with  the  regiment  nor  bri- 
gade a  great  portion  of  his  time,  but  was  with  it  occasionally 
and  some  times  on  duty.  What  is  said  after  this  will  be  in 
part  what  he  has  learned  from  the  officers  and  men  as  well  as 
from  personal  knowledge. 


After  the  investment  of  Petersburg  until  the  surrender 
there  were  many  conflicts  in  which  the  brigade  participated. 
At  Blacks  and  Whites  we  had  a  heavy  engagement,  losing 
Major  Claiborne  and  several  men,  and  the  brigade  will  always 
remember  with  pride  and  pleasure  the  timely  aid  of  the  First 

88  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ISTorth  Carolina  Brigade  in  this  conflict,  for  we  had  fully 
as  much  as  we  desired  to  handle.  After  the  capture  of  many 
of  the  enemy  and  their  supplies  by  our  commanding  General, 
W.  H.  F.  Lee,  and  the  return  of  the  troops  to  their  camps. 
General  Bearing  remarked  if  "Aunt  ISTancy"  (Gen.  Barrin- 
ger)  had  not  got  there  just  at  the  time  he  did,  that  he  would 
have  had  a  much  harder  time,  for,  said  he,  they  outnumbered 
us  three  to  one.  In  all  the  fighting  along  the  Wilmington  & 
Weldon  Railroad,  the  Davis  House,  Peebles'  Farm,  Burgess' 
Mill,  Hatcher's  Eun,  and  along  the  Squirrel  Level  Eoad, 
Five  Forks  and  the  Boisseau  House,  these  troops  under  Gen- 
erals Eoberts  and  Bearing  did  their  full  share,  leaving  no 
stain  on  their  shields. 

Soon  after  the  fight  of  Burgess'  Mill  a  reorganization  of 
the  cavalry  was  effected  and  General  Eosser  was  made  a 
Major-General  and  General  Bearing  was  assigned  to  Eosser's 
Brigade,  and  General  W.  P.  Eoberts,  who  had  been  the  gal- 
lant young  Colonel  of  the  Second,  was  placed  in  command  of 
our  (Bearing's)  Brigade. 


At  the  reorganization  the  Georgia  material  was  placed  to- 
gether in  Georgia  commands,  and  the  North  Carolina  troops 
in  North  Carolina  commands.  When  General  Bearing  left 
to  take  charge  of  the  Virginia  Brigade  he  brought  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Kennedy  official  notice  of  promotion  to  Colonel  and 
assignment  to  the  Seventh  North  Carolina  Cavalry,  which 
was  the  Seventy-fifth  North  Carolina  Eegiment.  Being  then 
on  crutches  he  was  assigned  to  duty  as  commandant  of  the 
post  at  Stoney  Creek. 

As  Colonel  Kennedy  was  leaving  for  his  post  General 
Hampton  started  to  City  Point  after  2,500  head  of  cattle, 
General  Bearing  being  familiar  with  the  country  led  the  way, 
taking  our  regiment  with  him.  The  cattle  were  brought  out 
as  desired  and  the  finest  ever  seen,  there  were  2,485  brought 
out,  as  stated  in  Major  Bates'  report.  This  was  a  hand- 
some and  a  very  acceptable  acquisition  to  General  Lee's 
commissariat  at  that  time,  and  that  winter  the  beef  ration 
was  fine.     About  this  time  a  raid  was  made  on  Belfield  and 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  89 

the  warehouse  burned.  A  part  of  our  regiment,  especially 
Dees'  company,  did  very  fine  work  there  in  aid  of  the  IS'orth 
Carolina  Junior  Reserves  who  acted  very  gallantly.  When 
it  was  known  the  raiders  had  gone  in  the  direction  of  Belfield, 
Colonel  Kennedy  was  ordered  to  take  every  available  man 
and  join  in  the  pursuit.  When  we  got  to  Belfield  they  were 
a  few  hours  ahead  of  us  and  having  been  very  handsomely  re- 
pulsed at  the  bridge  they  turned  back  for  their  own  lines. 
We  followed  until  it  was  considered  useless  to  go  further, 
when  we  were  ordered  back  to  Belfield. 

The  weather  was  very  cold,  but  we  camped  in  a  very  finely 
timbered  piece  of  woodland  and  soon  had  good  fires  made  of 
just  such  logs  as  the  men  chose  to  tise.  The  writer  went  to 
sleep  that  night  with  a  chunk  of  wood  for  his  pillow,  throwing 
a  light  oil-cloth  over  and  covering  him  entirely.  The  next 
morning  when  he  awoke  there  was  at  least  four  inches  of  snow 
on  his  oil-cloth,  but  our  fire  was  not  quite  extinguished.  His 
cnitches  were  also  completely  covered  up  with  the  snow  and 
it  took  several  minutes  to  locate  and  scratch  them  out.  We 
remained  in  this  camp  near  a  week  before  orders  to  return  to 
the  lines.  The  weather  was  cold,  good  wood  was  plentiful, 
we  had  good  rations  and  good  fires  to  warm  by  and  much  of 
our  beef  was  consumed. 


Soon  after  Teturning  to  our  line  the -gallant  and -brave 
young  General  W.  P.  Koberts,  took  command  of  our  brigade, 
and  a  Maryland  officer,  Major  Edelin,  was  assigned  as  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel to  the  Sixteenth  Battalion  (for  so  we  were 
still  styled,  though  really  a  regiment).  He  did  not  succeed 
well  and  soon  was  captured  and  it  was  thought  by  those  who 
ought  to  know  that  the  capture  was  coveted  by  him — at  any 
rate  men  and  officers  agree  that  his  capture  was  no  loss  to  us, 
as  he  was  not  a  favorite  of  either  men  or  officers.  General 
Grant  continued  to  push  his  numberless  cohorts  against  Gen- 
eral Lee's  constantly  decreasing  army  until  the  bloody  fight- 
ing at  the  Boisseau  house  and  Five  Forks  demonstrated  the 
necessity  of  giving  up  Richmond  and  Petersburg.  On  2 
April  the  retreating  army  commenced  to  move.      General 

90  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Sheridan's  Cavalry,  elated  with  recent  victory,  vigorously 
'  piirsned,  but  they  were  so  gallantly  and  defiantly  held  in 
check  by  Koberts'  Brigade  that  they  not  only  surprised  their 
enemies,  but  attracted  their  admiration  and  esteem.  Again 
on  the  3d  when  every  brigade  of  cavalry,  including  Bushrod 
Johnson's  Division  of  infantry,  became  panic-stricken  and 
gave  way  it  was  the  Sixteenth  Battalion  (Seventy-fifth  Regi- 
ment) more  than  any  other  that  checked  General  Sheridan's 
impetuous  onslaught,  holding  his  whole  corps  of  cavalry  at 
bay  for  over  two  hours  and  until  General  W.  H.  F.  Lee  could 
rally  his  forces  and  restore  confidence. 

This  command  was  complimented  by  General  Lee  himself 
and  many  other  prominent  officers  for  its  gallant  conduct,  and 
its  ofiicers  received  the  thanks  of  all  for  their  Tar  Heel  pluck 
and  fortitude  which  became  known  throughout  the  command ; 
and  again  at  Jetersville  the  Seventy-fifth  did  good  -work,  not 
failing  to  charge  time  and  again  until  General  Roberts  saw 
that  it  was  useless  to  continue  to  throw  his  weak  line  against 
Sheridan's  vast  army  in  the  vain  endeavor  to  break  through, 
so  as  to  enable  General  Lee  to  retreat  by  Burkeville  to  Dan- 
ville. Then  followed  constant  skirmishing  to  Appomattox 
Court  House,  in  all  of  which  the  brigade  acted  a  conspicuous 
part,  and  especially  the  Seventy-fifth,  led  by  Lieutenant  E.  J. 
Holt,  who  gallantly  helped  to  lead  the  last  cavalry  charge 
made  by  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  When  first  organ- 
ized its  true  worth  was  not  known,  but  when  placed,  under 
command  of  General  Dearing  it  soon  became  entitled  to  be 
classed  among  the  best  troops  sent  to  the  war  from  North 
Carolina.     Not  in  a  single  action  was  it  known  to  falter. 

At  Blacks  and  Whites,  at  Battery  7,  below  Petersburg  (the 
heaviest  fight  we  ever  had),  at  Plymouth,  at  Broadway,  Bur- 
gess' Mill,  the  Davis  House,  Peebles'  Farm,  Hatcher's  Run, 
Boisseau  House,  Newport,  Croatan,  Tarboro  or  Daniels' 
School  House,  Chinquepin,  Evans'  Mill,  Red  Hill,  Blount's 
Creek,  Ruff's  Mill,  and  many  other  minor  engagements,  our 
companies  exhibited  the  sticking  qualities  of  a  true  soldier 
which  did  so  much  to  immortalize  that  army. 
GoLDSBOEo,  N.  C,  J.  T.  Kennedy^, 

Enfield,  N.  C,  W.  E.   Paekee. 

9  April,  1901. 


By  E.  J.  HOLT,  First  Lieutenant,  Company  A. 

In  the  spring  of  1862,  there  were  several  companies  of 
mounted  troops  raised,  in  North  Carolina  as  independent  com- 
panies, with  the  understanding  that  they  were  to  remain  in 
the  State  and  were  to  be  used  only  in  its  defense. 

Captain  W.  A.  Thompson,  sheriff  of  Wayne  County,  raised 
a  company  in  February  and  March,  1862,  in  Wayne  and 
Johnston.  First  Lieutenant,  E.  J.  Holt;  Second  Lieuten- 
ants, W.  P.  Holland  and  H.  B.  Ham.  This  company  had  a 
sharp  encounter  with  the  enemy  at  Kenansville.  Captain  J. 
T.  Kennedy  raised  in  Wayne,  Johnston  and  Wake  Coimties 
in  July  another^company.  On  his  promotion  to  Major  this 
company,  which  had  become  very  large,  was  divided  into  two, 
Captain  Jno.  A.  Eichardson,  with  Jas.  B.  Edgerton  First 
Lieutenant;  M.  Whitley,  James  H.  Parker,  and  later  Wil- 
liam Hooks,  Second  Lieutenants ;  and  Captain  Geo.  T.  Dees, 
with  A.  M.  G-.  Wiggins  First  Lieutenant,  and  John  M.  Mil- 
ler Second  Lieutenant.  Captain  T.  R.  Duvall  raised  a  com- 
pany in  Forsyth  and  Guilford,  of  which  S.  S.  Lindsey  was 
First  Lieutenant,  and  S.  C.  Thornton  Second  Lieutenant. 
Captain  E.  A.  Martin's  company  was  from  ^Northampton ; 
Jesse  B.  Boone  was  First  Lieutenant,  and  Jesse  T.  Britton 
with  Jas.  G.  Odom  Second  Lieutenants.  Captain  W.  K. 
Lane,  of  Wayne,  a  company  from  Halifax  County,  of  which 
Jno.  H.  Branch  was  First  Lieutenant  and  Jno.  A.  Collins 
and  W.  Fletcher  Parker  were  Second  Lieutenants.  Cap- 
tain J.  J.  Lawrence  a  company  in  Wilson  and  Johnston 
Counties,  of  which  later  L.  J.  Barrett  became  Captain,  with 
First  Lieutenants  Moses  T.  Mays  and  then  E.  P.  Edwards 
(promoted  from  Second  Lieutenant),  and  Second  Lieuten- 
ants Joseph  B.  Davis  and  Joseph  W.  Taylor.  Captain  F.  G. 
Pitts  a  company  in  Edgecombe,  with  Van  B.  Sharpe  First 
Lieutenant,  and  B.  P.  Jenkins  and  Mark  B.  Pitts  Second 
Lieutenants.     Captain  B.  C.  Clement  a  company  from  Davie 

92  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

County,  of  Avhich  S.  M.  Johnson  was  First  Lieutenant,  and 
S.  L.  Lander  and  John  A.  Welch  were  Second  Lieutenants. 
Captain  .J.  A.  Clement  a  company  from  Davie,  with  L.  G. 
Gaither  First  Lieutenant,  and  B.  F.  Nichols  and  C.  E.  Har- 
per Second  Lieutenants. 

In  August,  18fi2,  Thompson's,  Kennedy's  and  Duvall's 
companies  became  a  part  of  the  Sixty-second  Georgia  Kegi- 
ment,  in  which  they  served  through  1862,  IS'CS  and  till  11 
July,  1864.  T^Tien  it  was  organized  in  1862,  Captain  J.  T. 
Kennedy  was  made  Major,  and  Captain  R.  P.  Howell  Quar- 
termaster. These  officers  were  all  the  recognition  the  North 
Carolina  companies  received  at  the  hands  of  their  Georgia 

The  Sixty-second  Georgia,  during  the  fall  of  1862  and 
the  whole  of  1863  till  May,  1864,  was  on  picket  duty  and  fre- 
quently engaged  with  scouting  and  raiding  parties  of  the  en- 
emy who  were  in  strong  force  in  Plymouth,  Washington,  New 
Bern,  N.  C,  and  in  Suffolk,  Va.,  and  from  the  Spring  of 
1863  it  and  the  Seventh  Confederate  Cavalry  were  all  the 
cavalry  between  Petersburg,  Ya.,  and  Wilmington,  N.  C. 
They  were  broken  up  into  companies  and  squadrons  and  for 
months  at  a  time  the  men  were  on  picket  every  other  day. 
They  were  forced  to  depend  for  forage  for  their  horses  and 
food  for  themselves  on  the  co\mtry  in  which  they  happened 
to  be. 

They  were  present  and  borei  their  full  share  in  the  capture 
of  Plymouth  and  the  investment  of  Washington  and  New 
Bern.  Near  Tarboro  the  three  North  Carolina  companies 
imder  the  command  of  Major  Kennedy,  engaged  a  largely 
.superior  force  of  tbe  enemy  in  Potter's  raid,  and  in  an  open, 
square  fight,  killed,  wounded,  captured  or  put  to  flight  every 
Yankee  in  the  party.  We  pursued  the  raiders  to  the  banks 
of  Neuse  river,  near  New  Bern,  N.  C,  and  if  the  infantry 
Colonel  who  was  in  command  at  that  point  had  yielded  to 
Major  Kennedy's  request  to  push  them,  the  whole  force 
would  have  been  captured.  The  whole  of  1863  and  till  May, 
1864,  was  spent  in  guarding  the  eastern  part  of  the  State  and 
the  southern  part  of  Virginia. 

In  May,  1864,  we  marched  to  Petersburg,  Ya.,  and  were  a 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  93 

part  of  General  Beauregard's  forces  that  met  and  successfully 
drove  back  the  first  assault  on  Petersburg,  and  were  on  hand 
ou  the  north  side  of  the  Appomattox  when  Butler  was  bottled 
up  at  Bermuda  Himdreds.  In  June  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kennedy  was  severely  wounded  in  a  hot  fight  near  City  Point, 
below  Petersburg,  Va.  We  were  then  in  Brigadier-General 
James  Bearing's  Brigade.  We  were  kept  busy  all  through 
the  summer  of  1864  in  g^iarding  General  Lee's  right  and  in 
June  we  followed  the  Wilson  raiders  from  the  time  they 
crossed  the  Weldon  Railroad  to  near  Danville,  Va.,  and  back 
to  Reams  Station.  On  that  raid  we  were  hotly  engaged  at 
Blacks  and  Whites,  on  the  Richmond  &  Danville  Railroad, 
and  had  several  running  fights.  It  was  a  sorry  lot  of  Yan- 
kees we  let  go  back.     A  few,  however,  did  go  through. 

There  was  more  or  less  fighting  almost  every  day  on  our 
part  of  General  Lee's  line  in  that  awful  summer  of  1864. 
General  Grant  was  moving  south  and  stretching  General 
Lee's  line  continuously  and  our  brigade  was  always  expected 
to  meet  them  on  every  move,  and  we  did,  at  Jones'  farm, 
Reams  Station,  the  Davis  farm.  Burgess'  Mill,  Armstrong's 
Mill,  Poplar  Spring  Church  and  several  other  points  which 
have  passed  from  the  writer's  memory.  In  July,  1864,  the 
North  Carolina  companies  were  taken  out  of  the  Sixty-sec- 
ond Georgia  Regiment  and  Captain  E.  A.  Martin's  company 
from  the  Twelfth  Battalion,  and  added  to  the  Sixteenth 
ISTorth  Carolina  Battalion,  which  had  been  formed  by  the 
North  Carolina  companies  of  Captain  W.  K.  Lane,  Captain 
B;  C.  Clement,  Captain  J.  A.  Clement,  Captain  L.  J.  Bar- 
rett, and  Captain  F.  G.  Pitts,  which  had  been  taken  from  the 
Seventh  Confederate  Cavalry. 

During  Colonel  Kennedy's  absence  Lieutenant-Colonel  J. 
B.  Edelin,  of  Maryland,  was  in  command  of  the  Seventy- 
fifth  Regiment,  Avhich  was  thus  formed,  though  it  was  still 
styled  usually  the  Sixteenth  Battalion.  Captain  F.  G.  Pitts 
was  promoted  to  Major,  John  R.  Moore  Adjutant,  W.  H. 
Call,  of  Company  G,  Ordnance  Sergeant. 

In  February,  1865,  General  Dearing  was  transferred 
to  a  Virginia  command.  He  was  a  splendid  officer  and 
his    whole    brigade    regretted    his    change    of    command. 

94  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Brigadier-General  Roberts,  of  Worth  Carolina,  was  assigned 
to  a  new  brigade  composed  of  our  regiment  and  the  Fifty- 
ninth  JSTorth  Carolina  in  February,  and  commanded  us  till 
the  end.  In  December,  1864,  we  were  moved  from  General 
Lee's  right,  near  Dinwiddie  Cotirt  House,  and  went  into  win- 
ter quarters  at  Belfield,  Va.  We  built  nice,  cozy  quarters 
and  hoped  to  pass  the  winter  in  resting  our  tired  and  run- 
down horses,  but  there  was  hardly  a  week  we  did  not  have  to 
meet  a  raiding  or  scouting  party  of  Grant's  cavalry.  In 
February  we  hurriedly  marched  to  Dinwiddie  Court  House 
and  for  -five  days  we  were  in  the  worst  snow  and  sleet  of  the 
winter  and  what  was  worse,  were  absolutely  without  food  of 
any  kind  for  men  or  horses.  Some  of  the  men  found  some 
spoiled  corn  where  artillery  horses  had  been  fed  and  eat  that. 
For  four  days  the  Avriter  never  tasted  even  corn.  It  was  fear- 
ful, but  the  men  did  not  complain. 

The  brigade  returned  to  Belfield  for  only  a  short  time.  We 
went  back  to  General  Lee's  right  flank  and  were  there  28 
March  when  Grant  began  his  flank  movement  which  forced 
the  Confederates  back  till  we  were  on  the  White  Oak  road. 
The  Seventy-fifth  was  engaged  every  day  from  the  28th  till 
Richmond  and  Petersburg  were  evacuated  and  the  retreat  to 
Appomattox  was  begun,  and  on  31  March  in  a  charge  made 
on  a  portion  of  Sheridan's  cavalry,  captured  a  beautiful  silk 
flag,  which  is  now  in  the  possession  of  a  member  of  my 
old  company.  On  1  April  Captain  B.  C.  Clement,  a  ser- 
geant, and  thirteen  men,  were  captured  by  a  small  squad  of 
the  enemy  who  had  gotten  in  our  rear.  96  {Serial')  Yol. 
Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  827. 

About  the  30th  our  commander,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Edelin 
charged  a  solid  line  of  battle  by  himself.  We  were  drawn  up 
in  line  of  battle  expecting  to  either  make  an  assault  or  receive 
one  when  Colonel  Edelin  drew  his  sabre  and  charged  alone 
directly  upon  a  large  body  of  cavalry.  The  Yankees  quietly 
opened  ranks  and  oiir  brave  Lieutenant-Colonel  rode  through, 
waving  his  sabre  a,nd  yelling  like  a  maniac.  That  was  the  last 
we  saw  or  heard  of  him. 

Major  Pitts  took  command  and  held  it  till  about  2  April, 
when  he  literally  broke  down  from  exhaiistion  and  was  sup- 

Seventy-Fifth  Regiment.  95 

posed  to  be  captured.  On  the  morning  of  28  March  the  Sev- 
enty-fifth had  about  315,  rank  and  file,  but  the  constant  fight- 
ing, marching  and  the  want  of  rations  and  sleep  had  caused 
all  but  the  strongest  to  give  out,  and  by  5  April  I  am  sure 
there  was  not  over  one  hundred  men  for  duty.  The  losses  con- 
tinued till  at  the  surrender  we  numbered  only  51.  On  3 
April  General  Roberts  with  our  regiment,  stopped  a  stampede 
which,  if  allowed  to  have  gone  further,  would  have  ruined 
General  Lee's  chance  of  ever  getting  his  army  beyond  Amelia 
Court  House. 

Our  brigade  was  the  rear  guard  on  the  covmty  road  just 
south  of  the  Appomattox  river,  and  another  regiment  had 
been  posted  with  orders  to  hold  the  Yankees  in  cheek  while 
ours  fell  back  to  another  position.  We  had  not  gone  a  mile 
when  a  cavalry  regiment  hastily  pursiied  by  a  squadron  of 
cavalry  came  at  a  dead  run  and  in  wild  disorder  upon  us. 
Our  regiment  got  panic-stricken  and  joined  in  the  race,  but 
General  Roberts  placed  himself  in  the  road  in  their  front  and 
managed  to  halt  about  fifty  men;  he  had  us  to  aboiit  face  and 
in  a  hurry  we  sent  the  pursuing  force  back  on  their  main 
column.  If  General  Roberts  had  not  halted  us  when  he  did 
there  is  no  telling  what  the  result  would  have  been — disas- 
trous certainly.  That  day  General  Roberts  placed  the  writer 
in  command  of  the  regiment  and  he  held  it  till  9  April. 

There  was  not  a  mile  that  we  did  not  fight  over  from  the 
time  the  retreat  begun  till  we  reached  Appomattox  Ooui't 
House.  The  losses  from  wounds  were  not  very  heavy,  but 
the  constant  fighting  and  marching  day  and  night  just  wore 
men  and  horses  completely  out.  On  the  5th  the  writer  was 
shot  from  his  horse,  but  -was  not  severely  wounded,  and  did 
not  leave  the  command. 

On  the  night  of  8  April  the  brigade  halted  about  half  a 
mile  east  of  the  Court  Hotise,  at  daybreak  on  the  9th  we  were 
mounted  and  marched  to  the  west  side  of  the  village,  and  at 
sunrise  were  in  line  of  battle.  Shortly  after  a  battery  in 
our  front  opened  on  us  and  General  Roberts  promptly 
ordered  a  drawn  sabre  charge.  We  as  promptly  made  it  and 
captured  the  battery  (four  brass  guns)  and  about  fifty  of  Sher- 
idan's dismounted  cavalry.     We  took  the  guns  and  prisoners 

96  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

back  to  the  point  where  we  had  formed  a  line  that  morning 
and  while  there  the  writer  saw  about  fifty  dismounted  en- 
emy in  a  piece  of  woods  about  half  a  mile  in  our  front  and  a 
little  to  the  right  of  where  we  had  captured  the  battery.  I 
informed  General  Roberts  and  he  ordered  us  to  charge 
them,  which  we  did  with  drawn  sabres.  We  had  an  open 
field  to  cross,  cut  up  by  ditches.  We  passed  the  ditches 
safely  and  reached  a  point  not  over  fifty  yards  from  the  en- 
emy, who  had  taken  shelter  behind  a  rail  fence  built  on  the 
bank  of  a  five  or  six  foot  canal.  Of  course  we  knew  nothing 
of  the  canal  till  we  were  nearly  at  it.  We  saw  that  we  could 
not  reach  the  boys  in  blue  with  cold  steel  and  we  returned 
sabres,  unslung  carbines  and  fired  a  volley  at  them,  and  then 
fell  back;  just  as  the  men  fired  my  horse  was  killed,  so  I  had 
to  go  out  on  foot.  Two  or  three  of  my  men  were  wounded, 
but  kept  their  seats. 

That  was  the  last  charge  ever  made  by  our  command,  and 
was  as  gallant  as  any  it  ever  made,  and  was  certainly  the  last 
made  by  any  part  of  General  Lee's  army.  I  think  I  had 
ample  opportunity  to  know  that  it  was  the  last  charge  made, 
for  I  went  back  alone  and  on  foot  and  I  noticed  there  was  no 
firing  any  where  along  the  lines. 

When  I  got  back  where  I  had  left  the  brigade.  General  Rob- 
erts and  a  few  others  had  got  news  of  the  surrender  and  had 
made  their  escape.  I  might  have  done  so  too,  but  I  was  with- 
out a  horse  and  was  too  tired  to  walk.  General  Roberts'  ab- 
sence left  the  writer  in  command  of  the  brigade,  and  we  were 
soon  camped  in  a  field  near  the  Court  House  where  we  made 
out  a  roll  of  men  and  officers  present,  drove  our  guns  into  the 
hard  earth  to  tie  our  horses  to,  made  a  fire,  burned  our  flag  to 
keep  the  Yankees  from  getting  it,  and  waited  for  further  or- 
ders and  something  to  eat. 

The  next  day  we  lay  and  rested.  On  Tuesday  evening  we 
got  our  paroles  ready  and  left  for  our  homes  in  North  Car- 
olina. The  writer  signed  all  the  paroles  (95)  for  Roberts' 
Brigade  and  Barringer's  Brigade  (23) — in  all  118  men.  A 
copy  of  my  own  parole  is  hereto  appended. 

E.  J.  Holt. 

Smithfibld,  N.  C, 

9  April,  1901. 


(sixth  reserves.) 

By  the  editor. 

This  regiment  was  organized  in  October  or  E^ovember, 
1864,  at  Wilmington,  by  electing  the  following  Field  Officers: 

A.  A.  Moss,  Colonel. ' 

James  V.  Symons,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Tebrell  BeookSj  Major. 

The  companies  composing  the  regiment  seem  to  have  been 
in  continuous  service  since  July  and  were  all  ordered  to 
Wilmington  22  October.  They  were  commanded  as  fol- 
lows : 

Captain  John  M.  Beawley,  Kowan. 
Captain  Levi  Carrot,l,  Rowan. 
Captain  T.  W.  Geiffin,  Union. 
Captain  J.  M.  Stewaet,  Union. 
Captain  Joshua  Rouse,  Lenoir. 
Captain  J.  Powell,  Columbus. 
Captain  J.  L.  Cobb,  Robeson. 
Captain  Geoege  E.  Knox,  Brunswick. 
Captain  John  W.  Tuenee, . 

Captain  Duncan  Kelly,  Bladen. 

LeRoy  Jones  is  also  mentioned  as  Captain  in  this  regiment 
in  General  Holmes'  Order  book.  The  above  were  Captains 
in  the  Senior  Reserves,  but  it  is  not  certain  that  they  were  all 
in  this  regiment. 

Dr.  G.  H.  Cox  was  Assistant  Surgeon,  and  J.  M.  Williams 
was  transferred  to  the  regiment  as  Surgeon  from  the  Sev- 

The  Seventy-sixth  was  sent  to  Salisbury  24  I^Tovember 

probably  to  relieve  the  Sixty-eighth  JSTorth  Carolina,  which 

was  soon  thereafter  ordered  tO'  the  Roanoke  section.     It  was 

placed  with  the  Seventy-third  and  Seventy-fourth  in  John  F. 


98  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

Hoke^s  Biigade  and  seems  to  have  performed  the  sam.e  duties 
as  those  regiments  of  guarding  the  prisoners  at  Salisbury, 
with  details  for  bridge  guards  and  arresting  deserters  and 
keeping  order  in  neighborhoods  disturbed  by  them. 

On  4  March,  1865,  being  no  longer  needed  to  guard  the 
prisoners  at  Salisbury,  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  High 
Point  and  then  was  placed  in  the  Seventh  Congressional  Dis- 
trict to  arrest  deseorters  with  regimental  headquarters  at  Ash- 
boro.  On  16  March  it  was  ordered  to  Greensboro.  At  John- 
ston's surrender,  they  were  either  paroled  or  went  home  with- 
out that  ceremony. 


(seventh  reserves.) 

By  JOHN  G.  ALBRIGHT,  First  Lieutenant  Company  A. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  Greensboro  in  July,  1864, 
by  tlie  temporary  appointment  of  Chas.  E.  Shober,  Colonel; 
J.  A.  Barrett,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  J.  C.  Dobbin,  Major. 

These  last  two  were  disabled  officers  on  light  duty  and  were 
released  in  November  when  their  successors  were  selected. 

From  Lieutenant  Albright's  sketch  and  from  General 
Holmes'  order  book  also,  it  appears  that  their  successors  were 
elected  at  Camp  Davis,  on  Masonboro  Sound,  in  November, 
when  Lieutenant-Colonel  Barrett  and  Major  Dobbin  were 
ordered  to  other  duties,  upon  the  regiment  being  sent  south. 

In  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  p.  345-358,  where  it  is  errone^ 
ously  given  as  the  Seventy-third,  we  find  the  muster  rolls  of 
seven  companies,  the  names  of  whose  officers  were  given  below, 
and  on  pages  333-335  we  find  the  muster  roll  of  what  is  given 
there  as  Company  A,  Seventy-third  Regiment,  but  which  we 
know  from  Lieutenant  Albright's  narrative,  printed  in  "Our 
Living  and  Our  Dead,"  October,  1874,  pp.  134-137,  was 
Company  A,  of  this  regiment.  The  roster  of  officers,  if  those 
given  in  Moore's  Roster  (amended  by  adding  Company  A)  is 
correct  is  as  follows  : 

Company  A — Alamiance — Captain,  W.  S.  Bradshaw; 
First  Lieutenant,  Jno.  G.  Albright;  Second  Ijieutenants,  Al- 
fred Sharp  and  James  Gilliam.  This  company  was  organ- 
ized 13  June,  1864. 

CoMPAisrY  B — Guilford — Captain,  Jacob  Boon;  First 
Lieutenant,  George  Kirkman;  Second  Lieutenants,  T.  M. 
Woodbum  and  John  Soots.  This  company  was  organized 
18  June,  1864. 

Company  C — Guilford — Captain,  W.  B.  Johnston;  First 
Lieutenant,  W.  R.  Pearson ;  Second  Lieutenants,  John  Blay- 

100  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

lock  and  Frederick  Smith.  This  company  was  organized.  13 
June,  1864. 

Company  1) — Person — Captain,  R.  S.  Davis;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, T.  H.  Brooks;  Second  Lieutenants,  Chesley  Hicks 
and  Alfred  Blalock.     This  company  was  organized  21  June. 

CoMPA2vY  E — Stohes—Cajptam,  W.  H.  Watts;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, W.  G.  Haynes;  Second  Lieutenants,  Dempsey  Bailey 
and  ilatthew  Phillips.  This  company  was  organized  28 
June,  1864. 

CoMPAKY  F — Caswell — Captain,  A.  A.  Mitchell;  First 
Lieutenant,  J.  S.  Glass;  Second  Lieutenants,  A.  M.  Fuller 
and  J.  J.  Chandler.  This  company  was  organized  23  June, 

Company  G — Forsyih — Captain,  E.  E.  TTolland;  First 
Lieutenant,  Jno.  H.  Shore:  Second  Lieutenants,  David 
Shouse  and  Solomon  Tice. 

Company  H — Stolces — Captain,  William  Clinard;  First 
Lieutenant,  IST.  S.  TVIcGee;  Second  Lieutenants,  E.  B.  Cook 
and  Israel  Moser. 

The  muster  rolls  of  the  other  two  companies  are  not 
given  in  Moore's  Boster. 

This'  regiment  was  ordered  to  Raleigh  27  October,  1864, 
and  on  1  November  General  Holmes  telegraphed  General 
Bragg  at  Wilmington  that  he  had  sent  him  this  regiment  to- 
gether with  Erwin's  Battalion  (Seniors)  ;  three  companies  of 
Millafd's  Battalion  (Juniors)  and  thirteen  other  companies 
of  Seniors,  and  that  there  were  no  others  except  those  guard- 
ing prisoners  at  Salisbury.  The  thirteen  companies  of  Sen- 
iors were  probably  the  ten  soon  after  organized  intO'  the 
Eighth  Reserves  and  the  three  companies  that  formed  Little- 
john's  Battalion.  On  10  November  it  was  reported  at  Wil- 
mington with  nine  other  companies  of  Seniors,  89  Off.  Rec. 
Union  and  Oonfed.  Armies,  1207,  at  Masonboro  Sound.  On 
28  November  the  regiment  elected 

Chas.  E.  Shobee,  Colonel. 

EzEKiEi,  W.  Hancock,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  who  was  pro- 
moted Colonel  26  January,  1865,  upon  the  resignation  of  Col- 
onel Shober. 

Seventy-Seventh  Regiment.  101 

James  R.  McLean,  Major. 

It  was  soon  sent  south  and  as  appears  from  the  above  Of- 
ficial Records  it  left  Charleston  for  Savannah  7  December  and 
on  9  December  was  in  the  battle  of  Coosawhatchie  under  the 
command  of  General  Beverly  H.  Robinson,  92  Off.  Bee. 
Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  4-Jf6,  and  on  26  December  it  was 
in  the  skirmish  at  Tiillifinny  Iron  Works,  130  of  the  regi- 
ment being  present.  Another  detachment  of  263  were  in 
Harrison's  Brigade  at  Coosawhatchie,  same  Vol.,  pp.  992, 
999.  From  January  to  March,  1865,  inclusive,  it  was  in  a 
brigade  commanded  by  Colonel  Wash.  M.  Hardy,  of  the  Six- 
teenth North  Carolina,  composed  of  this  regiment,  the 
Fiftieth  ISTorth  Carolina  and  Tenth  E"orth  Carolina  Battal- 
ion, Avhich  brigade  belonged  to  McLaw's  Division. 

So  far  this  sketch  has  been  taken  fromx  General  Holmes' 
Order  Books  and  the  above  Official  Records  published  by  the 
United  States  Government.  What  follows  is  the  above  cited 
sketch  of  Lieutenant  Albright,  of  Company  A.  It  probably 
gives  a  fair  idea  of  the  scope  of  duties  imposed  upon  the  Sen- 
ior Reserves.  To  read  it  causes  us  to  regret  that  the  histories 
of  the  other  regiments  of  Senior  Reserves  were  not  obtained 
from  members  of  those  commands,  while  it  was  possible  to 
do  so.  Lieutenant  Albright's  interesting  sketch  is  as  fol- 
lows : 


The  Senior  Reserves  of  Alamance  County,  having  been 
conscripted,  met  in  Graham  in  June,  1864,  and  elected  the 
following  officers:  W.  S.  Bradshaw,  Captain;  John  G.  Al- 
bright, First  Lieutenant;  Alfred  Sharp,  Second  Lieutenant; 
James  Gilliam,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant.  These  officers 
were  never  commissioned,  but  were  ordered  into  the  service. 
Fifteen  men  were  selected  out  of  the  company  and  were  sent 
to  Greensboro  as  a  guard  at  that  place.  In  a  short  time  the 
remainder  were  ordered  into  the  southern  part  of  the  county  to 
catch  deserters  from  the  army.  A  detachment  under  the 
First  Lieutenant  was  sent  to  scour  the  Cane  Creek  Mountains, 
where  they  caught  a  deserter  and  found  five  caves,  dug  for 
the  purpose  of  hiding  provisions,  etc.,  in  which  was  found  one 
quilt,  one  large  jug,  tin  cups,  eitc,  which  had  just  been  de- 

102  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

serted  by  the  proprietors.  Tlie  detaclinient  went  on  to  Cane 
Creek  factory.  The  officer  in  command  sent  to*  a  man's 
house  to  see  if  he  was  at  home,  when  two  men  leaped  out  of 
the  back  door  and  started  through  a  com  field  at  the  top  of 
their  speed.  One  of  them  was  a  large  man  and  the  other  a 
small  one.  At  first  the  superior  strength  of  the  large  one 
gave  him  the  advantage,  but  before  they  got  to  the  end  of  the 
field  the  small  one  was  before.  It  was  the  most  ludicrous 
foot  race  ever  witnessed  by  the  writer.  Each  one  ran,  not  as 
riinning  from  danger,  but  as  if  for  a  thousand  dollar  wager. 
The  large  man  was  at  first  supposed  tO'  be  a  deserter,  but  was 
not,  for  he  had  once  been  taken  to  Camp  Holmes  and  pre- 
sented for  service,  but  not  accepted.  The  small  one  was  the 
one  to  whom  the  house  belonged.  After  the  race  was  over 
the  officer  went  in  and  told  the  good  woman  that  the  running 
would  be  of  no  service  to  her  husband,  and  told  her  to  tell 
him  that  the  company  had  to  go  to  Greensboro,  and  that  he 
must  come  on  immediately,  which,  be  it  told  tO'  his  credit,  he 
did.     He  belonged  to  our  company. 

From  C.ane  Creek  Factory  we  went  to  Greensboro,  where 
we  were  put  in  a  regiment  of  other  reserves,  and  a  set  of  field 
officers  placed  over  the  company.  Our  next  move  was  to  Ash- 
boro.  Here  our  small  man  who  ran  so  at  the  factory  came  up 
and  delivered  himself  to  the  authorities.  He  had  gone  to 
Greensboro  just  in  time  to  be  too  late,  and  had  followed  us  to 
this  place.  At  Greensboro  he  was  furnished  with  gun  and 
cartridge  box.  On  his  way  to  Asheboro  he  came  across  one, 
like  himself  who  was  a  deserter  and  Senior  Reserve,  and  on 
whom  he  prevailed  to  go  with  him  to  camp. 

We  drove  over  the  mountains  in  Eandolph  County,  scaring 
up  wild  turkeys,  foxes  and  owls  in  great  abundance,  but  no 
deserters.  The  turkeys  were  scared  so  terribly  that  they 
could  not  get  out  of  the  way.  One  of  the  men  wanted  to 
shoot,  and  when  the  officer  would  not  let  him,  tried  to-  bayo- 
net it. 

About  this  time  we  received  orders  to  forage-  on  those  who 
had  sons  in  the  bushes,  which  was  done  to  some  extent.  This 
rigid  system  brought  up  a  great  many  who  were  sent  off  as 
conscripts,  and  not  deserters. 

Seventy-Seventh  Regiment.  103 

We  were  sent  from  Ashboro  to  Wilmington.  From  Wil- 
mington we  were  ordered  to  Camp  Whiting,  thence  to  Ply- 
mouth, thence  back  to  Wilmington,  thence  to  Camp  Davis,  on 
Masonboro  Sound,  where  our  young  field  officers  disappeared. 

There  we  had  an  election  for  the  officers  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  and  Major.  Wheeler  Hancock,  of  Eookingham,  was 
elected  to  the  former  and  J.  Robert  McLean,  of  Guilford,  to 
the  latter  office.  We  had  no  fight  there  but  could  see  the  en- 
emy frequently  in  their  vessels. 

From  Camp  Davis  we  were  ordered  to  Savannah,  from 
thence  to  Coosawhatchie  river.  The  next  day  after  our  ar- 
rival we  got  in  a  fight  with  General  Foster's  forces,  which 
numbered  about  seven  thousand  men,  while  ours  were  only 
about  three  thousand.  We  held  the  fort  (at  Savannah)  for  37 
day?  and  nights  they  shelling  us  nearly  all  the  time  from  a 
fort  near  by.  We  had  nothing  but  rifle  pits  to  protect  us  from 
their  fire.  After  the  fall  of  Savannah,  Sherman  being  about 
to  surround  us,  we  evacuated  our  position,  setting  fire  to'  the 
bridge  across  the  Tullifinny  river,  which,  not  burning  rapidly, 
was  cut  down  by  a  detachment  which  had  been  felling  trees 
across  the  road.  When  we  reached  ISTew  Pocataligo  the  en- 
emy were  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  us.  We  would  have 
been  captitred  had  it  not  been  for  the  Fiftieth  North  Carolina 
Regiment,  which  kept  the  enemy  at  bay  until  we  got  by. 
We  retreated  across  the  Salltehatchie  river,  about  a  mile  above 
the  railroad  crossing,  where  we  remained  some  time.  There 
our  commanding  CVdonel  (Shober)  left  us,  and  the  command 
devolved  upon  Wheeler  Hancock,  the  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
but  the  brigade  was  commanded  by  Colonel  (Wash.)  Hardy, 
(Sixtieth  IsTorth  Carolina),  for  we  were  brigaded  with  the 
Fiftieth  Regiment  and  T'enth  Battalion,  otirs  being  called 
the  Seventh  Regiment  of  Reserves.  We  were  marched 
up  the  Salkehatchie  river  to  Buford's  bridge  to  prevent  Sher- 
man's crossing.  While  we  were  there  he  succeeded  in  cross- 
ing at  Rivers'  bridge,  after  having  a  pretty  lively  time  with  a 
Georgia  regiment,  who  captured  some  of  his  advance  guard. 
We  were  next  marched  to  Branchville  and  stationed  on  the 
Edisto  river,  while  Sherman  passed  on  towards  Columbia. 
We  next  went  to  a  place  called  Ridgeville,  where  a  great  many 

104  North  Carolina  Tkoops,  1861-65. 

wounded  and  sick  men  were  relieved  from  duty  by  Dr.  Oher^ 
ry,  the  only  man  who  seemed  to  have  any  mercy  or  humanity. 
Several  of  those  relieved  died  soon  after  getting  home. 

From  Eidgeville  we  were  marched  to  Florence,  where  we 
got  on  the  train  and  went  to  Gheraw,  and  from  Cher  aw  to 
Wall's  Ferry.  While  there  the  men  got  completely  dishearlr 
ened,  went  to  the  officers  and  asked  them  what  thef  must  do 
for  something  to  eat,  who  told  them  that  they  could  do  noth- 
ing for  them.     Upon  this  some  of  the  men  went  ho'me. 

From  there  we  were  marched  fifteen  miles  west  of  Fayette- 
ville,  where  General  Wade  Hampton  charged  Kilpatrick,  cap- 
turing some  of  his  men,  and  from  there  to  Averashoro,  where 
we  halted  for  a  day  or  two.  We  were  marched  back  a  mile 
or  SO',  where  we  threw  up  breastworks  by  cutting  down  pine 
trees  and  chinking  underneath  with  pine  knots.  There  we 
were  attacked  by  Sherman's  forces.  The  line  of  battle  ex- 
tended from  the  Capo  Fear  to  a  small  stream  eastwards.  If 
two  brigades  next  to  the  river  had  not  given  way,  we  could 
have  held  oiir  own,  but  as  they  did  Sherman  proved  too  hard 
for  us.  Under  cover  of  the  darkness  we  retreated  from  the 
place  in  good  order  and  marched  on  to  Bentonville,  where  we 
engaged  iSherman  on  one  Sunday  morning  (19  March).  In 
the  evening  our  brigade  was  double-quicked  from  the  left  to 
the  right  of  the  line,  where  Colonel  Hardy  rushed  us  up 
within  twenty  feet  of  the  enemy's  breastworks,  telling  the  of- 
ficers it  was  to  relieve  our  men.  We  received  a  terrible  vol- 
ley, upon  which  one  of  the  officers  called  O'Ut  to  cease  firing, 
that  they  were  shooting  their  own  men.  Still  the  firing  went 
on.  We  took  shelter  the  best  we  could  behind  the  pine  trees, 
except  some  of  us  who  were  in  a  pond  about  sixty  or  seventy 
yards  wide.  These  retreated  across  the  pond,  the  officers 
shouting  all  the  time,  "Yoii  are  shooting  your  own  men." 
There  we  lost  about  _fifty-one  men  in  about  half  a  minute, 
out  of  about  four  hundred.  When  the  firing  ceased  .Captain 
Eradshaw  ordered  Lieutenant  Blalock  to  go  forward  and  see 
if  they  were  our  own  men  who  fired  intO'  us.  When  he  got 
within  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  of  their  works,  two  videttes 
leaped  out,  took  him  by  the  ai-ms  and  led.  him  across  the 

Seventy-Seventh  Regiment.  105 

breastworks.     Then,  knowing  who  they  were,  we  fired  into 
and  drove  them  from  their  works. 

After  the  firing  ceased  two  of  the  officers  gathered  up  all 
the  men  they  could  find,  marched  out  about  three  hundred 
yards  and  built  small  fires  of  pine  rails — one  for  Colonel 
Wortham's  Ii(^iment  (Fiftieth  North  Carolina)  and  one  for 
the  Senior  Keserves. 

The  men  being  ordered  to  look  after  the  wounded,  split 
lightwood  rails,  and,  having  lighted  them,  went  back  to  the 
breastworks  and  brought  them  out  to  the  fires,  where  they 
were  placed  into  ambulances  and  carried  away.  We  marched 
back  about  half  a  mile,  where  we  encamped  for  the  night. 
At  daylight  the  firing  was  renewed,  and  continued  until  Tues- 
day night  at  12  o'clock.  The  enemy  never  broke  our  lines 
during  the  whole  fight. 

After  the  battle  we  were  marched  four  miles  out  towards 
Smitlifield,  when  we  were  ordered  into  line  of  battle  again. 
Sherman's  forces  ceased  to  pursue  us,  and  we  went  on  to 
within  about  two  miles  of  Smithfield,  where  we  rested  two  or 
three  days.  Here,  to  the  gratification  of  all.  Hardy  was  re- 
lieved, the  Tenth  Battalion  and  Fiftieth  Eegiment  being  or- 
dered into  Haygood's  and  Kirkland's  Brigades.  Here,  also, 
we  were  joined  by  those  who  had  left  us  at  Wall's  Ferry. 
From  Smithfield  we  went  to  Ealeigh  (27  March)  when  Gen- 
eral Holmes  gave  our  regiment  a  furlough  for  twenty  days. 
Two  days  before  this  had  expired  Johnson  had  surrendered. 

Thus  ended  the  connection  of  the  Senior  Reserves,  of  Ala- 
mance County,  with  "The  Lost  Cause." 

Jno.  G.  Albright. 

Graham,  N.  C, 

37  March,  1874. 


(eighth  reserves.  ) 

By  the  editor. 

This  regiment  is  erroneously  given  in  Vol,  4  of  Moore's 
Roster  at  pp.  333-344-,  as  the  Seventy-third.  The  muster 
rolls  of  only  six  of  the  ten  companies  are  there  given,  of  which 
we  know  that  Company  A  belonged  to  the  Seventy-seventh 
(Shober's  Seventh  Reserves). 

The  officers  of  the  remaining  five  companies  there  given 

Company  B- — Eobeson  and  Richmond — Captain,  l^athan- 
iel  McLean  (afterwards  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  regi- 
ment) ;  First  Lieutenant,  Kenneth  McXenzie ;  Second  Lieix- 
tenants,  William  McRae  and  J.  B.  McRae.  This  company 
was  organized  5  July,  1S64. 

Company  C — New  Hanover  and  Brunswick — Captain, 
Benj.  J.  Jacobs;  First  Lieutenant,  Edwin  W.  Grissett;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenants,  Eichai'd  L.  Bordeaux  and  Boney  Souther- 
land.  From  the  dates  of  the  commissions  of  the  officers  and 
enlistments  of  the  men,  this  company  was  raised  22  April, 

Company  D — Bladen — Captain,  David  Callahan;  First 
Lieutenant,  James  LI.  Tyson ;  Second  Lieutenants,  Joseph 
Hester  and  R.  A.  Williamson.  This  company  was  raised 
early  in  May. 

Company  E — Cvmberland  and  Harnett — Captain,  James 
Hockaday;  First  Lieutenant,  W.  H.  Senter;  Second  Lieu- 
tenants, E.  Adams  and  W.  Johnson.  This  company  was  em- 
bodied early  in  August. 

CoMPA:5rY  F — Cumberland — Captain,  W.  J.  Kelly,  First 
Lieutenant,  Randall  McDaniel;  Second  Lieutenants,  Jno.  T. 
Wright  and  John  Shaw.  This  company  was  organized  11 
April,  1864. 

The  order  book  of  General  Holmes  mentions  as  also  belong- 
ing to  this  regiment  Captain  F.  A.  Hart. 

108  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  oiKcers  of  the  other  companies  and  the  counties  where 
raised  can  not  now  be  ascertained  until  the  copies  of  the 
rolls  can  be  had  from  Washington.  Indeed  it  is  not  certain 
that  Moore's  Eoster  has  correctly  placed  the  above,  for  the 
dates  of  the  organization  of  the  companies  do  not  correspond 
with  the  letters  given  them,  which  were  usually  bestowed  ac- 
cording to  seniority. 

Three  of  the  companies-  were  organized  at  Goldsboro  in 
May  into  a  battalion  commanded  by  Major  B.  F.  Hooks,  who 
did  service  in  guarding  the  bridges  along  the  line  of  the  Wil- 
mington &  Weldon  Eailroad,  relieving  other  troops  to  go  to 
the  front.  On  1  June,  1864,  160  men  of  Hook's  Battalion 
were  guarding  the  bridge  over  the  ISTeuse  just  south  of  Golds- 
boro, which  had  once  been  destroyed  by  the  enemy. 

On  22  December,  1864,  at  Wilmington,  it  was  organized 
with  other  companies  into  the  Eighth  Regiment  of  Reserves 
by  the  election  of — 

Allmand  a.  McKoy,  Colonel. 

Nathaniel  A.  MgLeaw^  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

BoAz  F.  Hooks,  Major. 

— .  — .  McAlister  was  appointed  Adjutant,  David  Berry 
Assistant  Surgeon. 

Colonel  McKoy  was  elected  Judge  of  the  Superior  Court 
in'  1874,  and  served  as  such  till  his  death  in  1885. 

This  regiment  was  in  garrison  in  the  forts  below  Wilming- 
ton and  in  December  was  brigaded  with  the  Fourth  (Beece), 
Seventh  (French),  Eighth  (Ellington)  Battalions  of  Junior 
Reserves.  This  brigade  commanded  by  Colonel  J.  K.  Con- 
ally,  of  the  Fifty-fifth  JSTorth  Carolina,  mustered  1,200  men 
present  for  duty  and  assisted  in  the  defence  of  Fort  Fisher 
24  and  25  December,  1864.  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed. 
Armies,  Serial  Vol.  87,  p.  1021. 

The  regiment  was  also  in  the  vicinity  of  Wilmington 
during  the  second  assault  of  Fort  Fisher. 

Whether  it  was  at  Bentonville  or  in  reserve,  does  not  posi- 
tively appear,  but  it  was  at  Goldsboro  9  March  and  was  proba- 
bly in  the  brigade  commanded  at  Bentonville  by  Colonel 
George  Jackson.  It  was  ordered  to  Raleigh  2Y  April  and 
disappeared  from  view  with  Johnston's  surrender. 


1.    RobertLColerrian,  Colonel.  g.    George  Tait,  Colonel. 

John  W.  Woodfln,  Major,  on  his  horse  "  Prince  Hal  " 
from  whose  back  he  was  killed.  ' 


(eighth   CA.VALKY.  ) 

By  S.  V.  PICKENS,  Adjutant. 

This  regiment  had  its  nucleus  in  three  companies  known 
as  11'  oodfin's  Battalion.  Afterwards  it  was  raised  to  six  com- 
panies and  Avas  then  knovm  and  reported  officially  as  the 
Fourteenth  Battalion.  It  was  only  in  the  Spring  of  1865 
that  it  was  raised  to  a  regiment  by  the  addition  of  four  more 
companies.  It  is  therefore  proper  to  give  some  account  of 
these  battalions. 

wooufin's  battalion  of  cavalry. 

In  order  to  give  a  connected  history  of  this  command  it  is 
not  amiss  to  write  something  of  a  sketch,  at  the  outset  of 
Company  G  of  the  First  North  Carolina  Cavalry,  for  this 
was,  in  a  sense,  and  to  a  limited  degree,  the  nucleus  of  said 
battalion.  It  was  one  of  the  earliest  organizations  in  the 
State  for  the  Confederate  service,  made  up  of  men  and  boys 
from  Buncombe,  Henderson  and  Rutherford,  with  a  few  from 
other  western  counties,  aggregating  in  numbers  one  hundred 
and  twenty.  Many  of  them  were  from  the  very  best  fami- 
lies of  the  country,  some  of  them  attaining  distinction  in  the 
long  and  bloody  war  which  followed.  The  commander,  Jno. 
W.  Woodfin,  a  born  horseman  and  as  chivalrous  as  any  knight 
of  the  olden  time  and  full  of  patriotism  and  devotion  to  the 
dear  Southland,  was  an  inspiration  to  this  gallant  band  he  had 
gathered  around  him,  and  it  is  not  surprising  that  they  were 

110  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ond  Lieutenant.  Leven  Edney,  Orderly  Sergeant,  siicceeded 
very  soon  by  Henry  Coleman. 

The  company  was  quartered  for  a  short  time  at  the  Jesse 
Smith  house,  corner  of  West  College  and  Hay^vood  streets 
(now  the  "villa"  property),  it  then  went  into  camp  of  instruc- 
tion north  of  Asheville,  about  one  and  a  half  miles  out,  near 
the  foot  of  Woodfin  Mountain  (now  called  "Lookout"), 
the  horses  being  temporarily  stabled  in  the  barns  at  the  negro 
quarters  of  Captain  Woodfin.  This  camp,  the  first  in  West-- 
ern  ISTorth  Carolina,  was  named  in  honor  of  the  commanding 
ofiicer  and  his  elder  brother  Nicholas,  a  true  and  most 
thorough  Southerner,  giving  liberally  of  his  ample  means 
to  the  advancement  of  the  Soiith's  interests.  After  the 
lapse  of  a  month  or  two  "Camp  Woodfin"  was  vacated,  the 
company  removing  to  Ridgeway,  JST.  C,  leaving  Asheville  9 

At  Kidgeway  the  company  was  assigned  to  Colonel  Bob. 
Ransom's  Ninth  North  Carolina  (First  Cavalry),  and  the  men 
were  engaged  in  perfecting  their  drill  \mtil  late  in  the  fall, 
vvhen  they  were  ordered  to  Manassas,  Va.  Here  they  wore  put 
on  outpost  duty,  scouting  and  skirmishing  almost  daily, 
eventually  going  into  winter  quarters  and  remaining  until 
Spring,  when,  about  March,  they  were  returned  to  North 
Carolina,  first  stopping  at  Groldsboro,  thence  to  PoUocks- 
ville,  near  New  Bern,  and  there  put  on  picket  duty,  remain- 
ing in  that  locality  until  some  time  in  May,  when  they 
were  again  sent  back  to  Virginia,  this  time  to  Richmond, 
thence  to  Culpepper  and  Brandy  Station,  doing  picket  duty 
and  scouting  on  both  the  Rapidan  and  Rappahannock  rivers. 
On  9  June  was  engaged  in  the  heavy  cavalry  fight  at  Brandy 

On  23  September,  1861,  Captain  Woodfin  was  pro- 
moted to  Major  and  transferred  to  the  Nineteenth  Regiment 
(Second  Cavalry),  commanded  at  the  time  by  Colonel  M.  L. 
Davis,  Jr.,  of  Rutherford  County,  and  later  by  James  L. 
Gaines,  of  Asheville,  who  lost  an  arm  at  Five  Forks  in  April, 
IS 65.  Henry  Coleman,  also  a  Bimcombe  man,  having  suc- 
ceeded to  the  Captaincy  of  Company  G,  of  which  as  I  have 
noted,  he  was  orderly,  was  killed  at  same  time  and  place. 

Seventy-Ninth  Regiment.  Ill 

Although  kit  little  more  than  a  boy,  he  had  established  a  rep- 
utation for  cool  courage  and  daring.  Lieutenant  West  and 
others  mentioned  as  leaving  Company  G,  returned  to  West- 
ern North  Carolina  and  set  to  work  to  organize  another  com- 
mand and  very  soon  the  former  had  a  company  and  with  two 
others,  Captains  Harris  and  Fortune,  formed  a  battalion,  the 
composition  of  which  was  as  follows : 

FiEST  CoMPATSTT — Buncombe — Wm.  E.  West,  Captain; 
William  Henry,  First  Lieutenant ;  A.  E.  Posey,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant; F.  M.  Corn,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant. 

Second  Company' — Transylvania — I.  A.  Harris,  Captain ; 
Ben  Erittain,  First  Lieutenant;  Branch  Johnston,  Second 
Lieutenant ;  Thomas  Harkins,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant. 

TiiiBD  Company — Buncombe — Wm.  P.  Fortune,  Captain; 
Wm.  Gilliam,  First  Lieutenant ;  James  Wilson,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant; B.  F.  Fortune,  John  Step,  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 

On  account  of  ill  health  Major  Woodfin  had  resigned  his 
position  in  the  Nineteenth  Regiment  and  on  returning  to 
Ashev'ille,  impelled  by  that  same  spirit  that  prompted  him  to 
offer  himself  as  a  sacrifice  upon  his  country's  altar  in  the 
early  days  of  1861,  he  accepted  the  leadership  of  this  bat- 

The  Federal  army  having  taken  possession  of  Knoxville 
and  occupying  other  sections  of  East  Tennessee,  it  became 
necessary  for  Western  North  Oaxolina,  and  more  especially 
the  town  of  Asheville,  having  taken  so  early  and  active  a  part 
in  furnishing  troops  and  giving  aid  in  every  possible  Avay 
to  the  Confederate  forces  as  tO'  embitter  all  in  sympathy  with 
the  other  side,  to  defend  its  own  borders  from  invasion,  pil- 
lage and  robbery.  Hence  this  newly  organized  battalion 
was  the  nucleus  of  a  small,  "defensive  army"  and  was  ac- 
tively engaged  in  repelling  demonstrations  made  along  the 
border  lines  of  North  Carolina  and  Tennessee  principally  by 
a  band  of  marauders  under  the  command  of  the  notorious 
George  W.  Kirk,  made  rnore  bold  and  aggressive  by  the  near- 
ness of  the  regular  army  at  Knoxville  and  less  distant  points. 
Ever  on  the  alert  and  guarding  with  zealous  care  all  inva- 

112  North  Carolina  Troops,  186l-'65. 

sioiis  of  this  territory,  when  his  scouts  on  or  about  20  JSTovem- 
ber,  18 G3,  reported  a  small  force  as  having  crossed  the  Tennes- 
see line  into  jSTorth  Carolina  and  advancing  in  the  direction  of 
Warm  Springs,  M'ajor  Woodiin,  with  a  hastily  gotten  together 
detachment  of  his  battalion,  then  at  Marshall,  sixteen  miles 
from  the  Springs,  dashed  with  that  impetuosity  characteristic 
of  the  man,  down  the  French  Broad  river,  hoping  to  roach 
that  point  before  the  invaders.  But  in  this  he  failed,  and  in 
turning  an  abrupt  angle  in  the  road  not  far  from  "Lover's 
Leap"  and  in  close  proximity  to  the  bridge  across  the  river 
leading  to  the  hotel,  he  found  himself  confronted  by  a  larger 
force  than  he  expected.  Being  several  paces  in  advance  of 
his  "troop,"  he  waved  it  to  hold  up,  presumably  with 
the  purpose  of  alloAving  him  to  take  in  more  fully  the  situa- 
tion, so  as  to  intelligently  direct  further  movements,  but 
unfortunately  he  had  gotten  into  the  outer  circle  of  an  am- 
buscade, and  was  ruthlessly  shot  from  his  horse  by  a  party 
hidden  under  a  small  building  near  the  road  side.  A 
young  man  of  Captain  West's  company  named  Jake  Davis 
was  at  the  same  time  woiinded,  and  afterwards  died.     J.  J. 

Ramsay,  of  same  company,  and  Smith,  of  Harris' 

comjjany,  were  also  wounded.  The  detachment  being  out- 
numbered and  having  lost  its  leader,  fell  back  to  Marshall. 
A  committee  of  citizens,  headed  by  Esquire  Albert  T.  Sum- 
mey,  of  Asheville,  went  down  under  flag  of  truce  to  recover 
the  body  of  the  much  lamented  citizen  and  soldier.  They 
found  it  stripped  of  all  valuables,  but  glad  to  get  the  life- 
less remains  tliey  brought  it  to  his  bereaved  family  and 
friends,  and  with  all  the  honors  that  could  be  paid  a  martyred 
hero,  he  was  laid  to  rest  in  the  Methodist  cemetery  on  Church 
street  and  later  removed  to  Eiverside.  In  the  funeral  cortege 
was  his  favorite  charger  "Prince  Hal,"  upon  which  he  was 
killed,  fully  caparisoned,  being  led  by  his  trusted  camp  ser- 


The  battalion,  after  the  death  of  Major  Woodfin,  continued 
in  this  defensive  work  for  a  time,  acting  rather  independently 
as  companies ;  not  a  great  while  elapsed  however,  until  there 
united  with  these  three  companies  three  others,  making  what 

Seventy-Ninth  Regiment.  113 

was  afterwards  known  as  the  Tourteentli  Battalion.  The 
additional  companies  were  as  follows: 

Wiley  F.  Parker,  Captain,  of  Buncombe;  Joe  Hale 
Smith,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Buncombe,  killed  in  1865  by  a 
band  of  marauders;  Wm.  Eilcr,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Bun- 

E.  Russell,  Captain,  of  Haywood. 

Jim  Ray,  Captain,  of  Madison;  Whitfield  Morgan,  Lieu- 
tenant, killed  in  1865,  by  band  of  marauders;  and  — .  • — . 
Boone,  Lieutenant. 

Of  this  battalion,  James  L.  Henry  was  made  Lieutenan1>- 
Colone]  and  Charles  M.  Roberts  Major.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Henry  had  been  Adjutant  of  the  Ninth  North  Carolina 
(First  Cavalry)  under  Colonel  Robert  Ransom,  and  when 
the  latter  had  been  promoted  Brigadier-General,  had  became 
Captain  and  Assistant  Adjutant-General  of  his  brigade.  After 
the  war  he  was  judge  of  the  Superior  Courts  from  1868-18Y4. 
Major  C.  M.  Roberts  had  also  seen  previoiis  service.  The 
staff  were  A.  M.  Alexander,  Quartermaster;  Robert  Farns- 
worth.  Commissary;  Washington  Morrison,  Surgeon;  Wil- 
liam Murdock,  Assistant  Surgeon ;  S.  V.  Pickens,  Acting  Ad- 
jutant; Aaron  Wright,  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  and  W.  L. 
Norwood,  Sergeant  Major.  The  last  has  since  been  judge  of 
the  Superior  Court. 

The  writer,  who  had  from  20  May,  1861,  served  as  a  pri- 
vate in  Company  G,  Ninth  North  Carolina  (First  Cavalry), 
about  1  March,  1864,  transferred  to  this  battalion  and  be- 
came its  Adjutant.  He  found  the  command,  officered  as  above 
stated,  encamped  at  Webster,  Jackson  County.  The  services 
of  Woodfin's  Battalion  and  of  this  larger  battalion  had  been 
manifold  in  guarding  this  section,  picketing  roads,  fighting 
bushwhackers,  with  occasional  brushes  with  the  enemy,  but 
the  details  are  now  irrevocably  lost. 

Major  Roberts-  was  fatally  wounded  in  September,  1864,  in 
an  engagement  on  Laurel,  in  Madison  County,  with  Kirk's 
men,  and  other  bushwhackers.  He  was  a  true  and  brave  sol- 
dier, beloved  while  living  by  the  entire  command,  and 
lamented  when  dead.  His  remains  were  taken  by  a  military 
escort,  in  command  of  the  writer,  and  buried  in  his  own  yard 

114  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

T^'ith  military  honors.  All  his  assailants  were  slain  on  the 
spot  and  houses  burned  from  which  they  fired.  Captain 
Harris  then  became  Major,  and  Lieutenant  James  P.  Deaver 
became  Captain  of  Company  A. 

Lieutenant  Morgan  and  Sergeant  Robert  Wells,  of  Com- 
pany T>,  were  shot  down  in  cold  blood  near  Asheville  by  some 
of  Kirk's  men,  pending  the  armistice  agreed  upon  by  Gen- 
erals Sherman  and  Johnston.  Lieutenant  PTale  Smith  died 
or  was  killed,  near  the  same  date. 

This  command  had  much  good  material  among  the  men 
and  officers,  many  of  whom  had  been  long  in  active  service 
in  Virginia,  or  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  and  had  been  sent 
here  to  defend  their  immediate  homes  against  the  ravages 
and  outrages  of  men  who  were  true  to  neither  side. 

The  Fourteenth  Battalion  was  kept  in  that  part  of  North 
Carolina  near  to,  and  west  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  with  frequent 
raids  intO'  East  Tennessee. 

The  service  was  a  peculiar  service  and  a  particularly  hard 
and  dangerous  one.  Men  who  had  grown  fat  in  General 
Lee's  army  wasted  away  tO'  skin  and  bones  amidst  the  hard- 
ships of  these  mountain  campaigns,  having  no  assurance  of 
safety  in  the  day  or  night,  in  camp  or  on  the  march,  these 
mountain  gorges  serving  as  cities  of  refuge  for  deserters  and 
bushwhackers.  Truly  the  men  of  this  command  needed  to 
be  always  on  the  alert  and  wide  awake. 

If  time,  space  and  memory  would  allow,  it  woaild  be  a 
great  pleasure  for  me  to  enroll  the  names  of  more  than  five 
hundred  of  the  noble  men  who  served  in  the  ranks  of  the 
rourteenth  (sometimes  called  the  "One  Eyed  Battalion" 
from  the  fact  that  LieutenantrColonel  Henry  had  lost  one 
of  his  eyes)  who  marched  over  these  mountains  through  heat 
and  cold,  and  fearlessly  met  and  fought  foes  whO'  forced  guer- 
rilla war  upon  them  in  and  around  their  homes  and  firesides- ; 
and  foes,  too,  who  had  lived  in  this  section  and  were  familiar 
with  the  roads,  rivers  and  locations  of  houses,  and  very  many 
of  them  deserters  from  the  Confederate  army  and  of  the 
cause  they  had  sworn  to  support.  In  April,  1864,  the  battal- 
ion was  at  the  mouth  of  Ivy  and  reported  221  present  out  of 
a  total  of  510.     59  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  865. 

Seventy-Ninth  Regiment.  115 

This  command  had  several  engagements  with  the  enemy 
on  Laurel  in  Madison  County,  on  Indian  creek,  Red  Banks 
and  other  points  in  Tennessee  during  the  years  1864  and 
1865.  It  was  in  its  last  line  of  battle  in  thfe  city  of  Asheville, 
about  four  hundred  yards  to  the  north  of  the  female  college, 
about  15  April,  1865. 

This  battalion  was  with  Colonel  Palmer,  who  commanded 
the  Western  District  of  ISTorth  Carolina,  at  Greenville,  Tenn., 
on  the  day  after  that  brave  soldier.  General  John  H.  Morgan, 
was  betrayed  and  killed  in  Mrs.  Williams'  garden,  or  vine- 
yard; the  writer  saw  the  spot,  marked  by  two  rude  stakes, 
placed  at  his  head  and  feet  where  he  died,  and  it  was  shown 
me  by  Mrs.  Williams. 

In  the  Fall  of  1864,  J.  E.  Rankin  v/as  made  Ad]\itant. 
He  was  for  many  years,  since  the  war,  chainuan  of  the 
Board  of  County  Commissioners  for  Buncombe  and  is  now  a 
prominent  banker  of  Asheville. 


In  the  spring  of  1865  four  companies  were  added  as  fol- 
lows : 

Job  Barnard,  Captain,  of  Buncombe;  Hezekiah  E.  Bar- 
nard, Eirst  Lieutenant  of  Buncombe;  Taylor  Buckner,  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  of  Buncombe. 

A.  E.  Posey,  Captain,  of  Henderson;  Ben.  Brittain,  Lieu- 
tenant, of  Henderson ;  F.  M.  Corn,  Lieutenant,  of  Henderson. 

William  Gilliam,  Captain,  of  Buncombe;  John  Step,  Lieu- 
tenant, of  Buncombe. 

— .  — .  Galloway,  Captain,  of  Transylvania;  William 
Ducker,  Lieutenant,  of  Transylvania;  Dick  Owens,  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Transylvania. 

This  made  us  a  full  regiment,  being  the  Eighth  Cavalry,  or 
Seventy-ninth  TSTorth  Carolina  Regiment.  Of  this  regiment 
Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Tait,  of  the  Fortieth  JSTorth  Car- 
olina (Third  Artillery)  was  first  appointed  Colonel,  but  not 
liking  the  service  for  some  reason,  resigned  and  Robert  L. 
Coleman,  who  had  been  Captain  A.  C.  S.  in  the  Sixtieth 
IvTorth  Carolina,  and  later  the  Chief  Commissary  of  the  De- 
partment of  Western  JSTorth  Carolina,  was  made  Colonel.  He 
was  a  splendid  soldier  and  a  most  excellent  man. 

116  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

In  one  of  the  darkest  hours  towards  the  last,Captain  "Jim" 
Eay,  with  part  of  his  company  ajid  part  of  another,  deserted 
to  the  enemy. 

The  last  service  of  the  command  was  around  Asheville.  On 
6  April,  1865,  the  regiment  aided  to  repel  Colonel  Kirby's 
raid  coming  in  from  Greenville,  Tenn.,  and  as  news  travelled 
slowly  then,  there  being  no  railroad  or  telegraph  station 
nearer  than  the  then  terminus  of  the  Western  N'orth  Carolina 
Railroad,  six  miles  below  Morganton,  a  part  of  the  command 
was  in  a  skirmish  as  late  as  10  May.  On  being  made  certain 
of  Johnston's  surrender  the  regiment  quietly  dissolved  and 
the  men  went  home  without  being  paroled. 

I  am  much  indebted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  M.  Eay,  of 
the  Sixtieth  Regiment,  for  aid  in  preparing  this  sketch  of 
the  Eighth  Cavalry. 

Incidentally  it  may  here  be  noted  that  the  eight  cavalry 
regiments  from  this  State  were  all  odd  numbers,  i.  e.,  Ninth, 
Mneteenth,  Forty-first,  Fifty-ninth,  Sixty-third,  Sixty-fifth, 
Seventy-fifth  and  Seventy-ninth,  while  the  three  artillery 
regiments  were  all  even  numbers — Tenth,  Thirty-sixth  and 

Though  in  no  great  battles  the  experience  of  the  command 
was,  in  many  respects,  perhaps  more  trying  and  it  performed 
faithfully  and  well  the  duties  assigned  to  it.  It  well  merits 
its  place  in  the  Military  History  of  North  Carolina  in  the 
Great  War  of  1861-'65. 

S.  V.  Pickens. 
Hbndeesonvillb,  N.  C, 

30  May,  1901. 

A.  L.  "Welch,  Sergeant,  Co.  A. 


(walker's  regiment  op  THOMAS'  LEGION.) 

By  captain  R.  A.  AIKEN,  Company  H. 

This  command  was  organized  as  a  battalion  on  1  October, 
1862,  in  the  city  of  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  under  orders  from 
Major-General  E.  Kirby  Smith,  commander  of  East  Tennes- 
see and  Western  North  Carolina,  and  was  a  part  of  Thomas' 
Legion.  The  separate  companies  had  been  mustered  into 
service  a  few  months  prior  to  this,  and  had  been  guarding  the 
bridges  between  Bristol  and  Chattanooga,  Tenn. 

The  organization  was  effected  by  the  election  of  the  fol- 
lowing field  officers. 

W.  C.  Walkee,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  Cherokee  County, 
N.  C. 

James  A.  McKamy,  Major,  Blount  County,  Tenn. 

Thomas  D.  Johnson,  A.  Q.  M.,  Asheville,  'N.  C. 

Perey  C.  Gaston,  Adjutant,  Franklin,  IST.  C. 

De.  Benj.  Mayfiei^d,  Surgeon,  Murphy,  N".  C. 

De.  Chas.  H.  Geeen,  Assistant  Surgeon,  Tennessee. 

De.  Chas.  F.  Walkee,  Sergeant  Major,  Murphy,  N.  C. 

Wm.  M.  ISTelson,  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  Cherokee 
County,  IST.  C. 

En.  P.  McGehee,  Ordnance  Sergeant,  Cherokee  County, 
N.  C. 

For  the  greater  part'  of  its  service  it  was  known  as  Walk- 
er's Battalion.  When  it  was  raised  to  ten  companies  in  the 
spring  of  18(54,  W.  C.  Walker  became  Colonel,  J.  A.  Mc- 
Kamy  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  Stephen  Whitaker, 
of  Company  E,  became  Major. 


Company  A — From  Cherokee — C.  C.  Berry,  Captain,  18 
July,  1862 ;  J.  IST.  Bryson,  First  Lieutenant,  18  July,  1862 ; 

118  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Elisha  Burgin,  Second  Lieutenant,  18  July,  1862 ;  Andrew 
C.  Berry,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  18  July,  1862.  Officers 
and  men,  125. 

Company  B — From  Cherokee — ^W.  C.  Walker,  Captain, 
19  July,  1862 ;  W.  B.  ISTelson,  Captain,  1  October,  1862 ;  W. 
J.  McGehee,  First  Lieutenant;  G.  E".  Loudermilk,  IL.  C. 
Fowler,  D.  C.  F.  Walker,  Wm.  H.  Phillips  and  Jno.  H.  Kirk- 
land,  Second  Lieutenants.     Officers  and  men,  113. 

Company  C — J.  A.  McKamy,  Captain,  10  September, 
1862,  promoted  Major  1  October,  1862,  and  Lieutenanl^Colo- 
nel  4  January,  1864,  Blount  County,  Tenn. ;  James  M.  Sin- 
gleton, First  Lieutenant,  10  September;  Captain  4  January, 
1864,  Blount  County,  Tenn. ;  Wm.  Ashley,  First  Lieutenant, 
10  September;  James  A.  Paul,  Second  Lieutenant,  10  Sep- 
tember; John  W.  McKamy,  Second  Lieutenant,  September, 
1862;  Lenoir  R.  Young,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Septem- 
ber, 1862.     Officers  and  men,  105. 

Company  D — Ccwalry — W.  C.  Wallace,  Captain,  1  Sep- 
tember, 1862,  Knoxvillei,  Tenn. ;  James  Carnes,  First  Lieu- 
tenant, 28  September,  1862,  Blount  County,  Tenn.;  F. 
M.  Lauter,  Second  Lieutenant,  28  September,  1862,  Blount 
County,  Tenn. ;  Jos.  Harden,  28  September,  1862,  Blount 
County,  Tenn.      Officers  and  men,  83. 

Company  E — Cherokee  County — Stephen  Whitaker,  Cap- 
tain, 8  September,  1862,  promoted  Major  4  January,  1864; 
John  A.  Robinson,  First  Lieutenant  and  Captain ;  W.  C.  Ta- 
tum.  First  Lieutenant;  W.  A.  Wiggins,  Second  Lieutenant. 
Officers  and  men,  129. 

Company  F — Graham  County,  Cavalry — D.  C.  Ghormley, 
Captain,  24  September,  1862  ;  John  G-rant,  First  Lieutenant; 
E.  E.  ISTelson  and  D.  S.  Kurkholder,  Second  Lieutenants. 
Officers  and  men,  75. 

Company  G — Camalry — David  ISTeff,  Captain,  24  Septem- 
ber, 1862 ;  Jas.  F.  Cawsey,  First  Lieutenant,  24  September, 
1862;  Benj.  F.  Ward,  Stecond  Lieutenant,  24  September, 
1862 ;  W.  W.  Cowan,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  24  Septem- 
ber, 1862.      Officers  and  men.  111. 

Company  H — Cherokee  County — G.  IST.  Loudermilk,  Cap- 
tain, 19  July,  1862 ;  Robert  A.  Aiken,  First  Lieutenant  and 

Eightieth  Regiment.  119 

Captain;  Hiram  Ledford,  First  Lieutenant;  John  Habbitt, 
Second  Lieutenant.     Officers  and  men,  90. 

Company  I — Indian  Company  from  CheroTcee  County — 
James  Welch,  Captain;  Cam.  H.  Taylor,  First  Lieutenant; 
Indian  Second  Lieutenant;  Indian  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 
ant.    Officers  and  men,  90. 

Company  K — Indian  Company  from  Jackson  County — 
'■'Black  Fox,"  Captain ;  Indian  First  Lieutenant ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant.     Officers  and  men,  90. 

Company  L — Artillery  Battery ^  Four  Guns — J.  T.  Levi, 
Captain,  "Louisiana  Tigers;"  Jno.  W.  Barr,  First  Lieuten- 
ant, Abingdon,  Va. ;  J.  M.  Shipp,  Second  Lieutenant,  Abing- 
don, Va. ;  R.  P.  Searcy,  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Tennes- 
see. Officers  and  men — Louisiana,  Tennessee,  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina — 104. 

Total  officers  and  men  in  above  companies,  eleven  hundred 
and  fifteen.  About  200  of  these  were  Tennesseeans  and  50 
from  Virginia  and  Louisiana,  in  battery.  For  the  roster 
while  a  battalion  see  Moore,  Vol.  IV,  pp.  196-216. 

Immediately  after  its  organization,  these  companies  com- 
posing the  battalion,  were  scattered  along  the  Bristol  and 
Chattanooga  Railroad,  guarding  bridges,  towns,  block  houses, 
etc.,  also  arresting  conscripts,  deserters,  and  doing  other  pro- 
vost duties.  In  April,  1863,  the  battalion,  commanded  by 
Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  C.  Walkear,  was  in  A.  E.  Jackson's 
Brigade  at  Jonesboro,  Tenn.,  35  (Serial  Vol.)  Off.  Bee. 
Union  arid  Confed.  Armies,  792.  On  31  July  it  was  at  Zol- 
licoffer,  Tenn,  same  volume,  page  946. 

After  the  occupation  of  East  Tennessee  by  General  Burn- 
side,  5  September,  1863,  Companies  C,  E  and  H  were  in  up- 
per East  Tennessee,  with  Colonels  Love  and  Stringfield  and 
most  of  the  Sixty-ninth  Regiment  of  Thomas'  Legion,  and 
were  then  cut  off  from  the  battalion  under  Colonel  Walker. 

There  were  alsc  three  or  fo'ur  companies  of  "sappers  and 
miners,"  masons,  carpenters,  blacksmiths,  gunsmiths,  salt 
and  salt  petre  and  alum  makers.  Captain  R.  C  McCalla,  a 
Scotchman,  and  a  most  excellent  gentleman,  is  the  only  officer 
whose  name  I  can  recall. 

120  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Nearly  half  of  these  were  from  North  Carolina,  and  in 
their  line  did  faithful  service.  They  were  detached  from  us 
and  taken  to  Bragg's  and  Johnston's  army,  at  and  below  Chat- 

Having  no  names  or  data,  or  reports  of  any  kind,  I  can  say 
nothing  about  them,  only  that  in  a  general  way  they  were 
good  men.     Captain  McCalla  was  made  Major  later  on. 

In  Lindsey's  History  of  the  Civil  War  in  East  Tennessee, 
there  is  an  account  of  the  court-martial  and  shooting  of 
twenty  North  Carolina  soldiers  as  deserters.  I  have  been 
unable  to  trace  those  men  to  any  regiment  unless  perchance 
they  belonged  to  these  companies  of  sappers  and  miners,  and 
were  the  East  Tennessee  recruits  to  those  companies,  and  I 
really  fear  they  were,  and  though  Tennesseeans,  belonged  to 
"Thomas'  Legion."  I  fear  they  were  unjustly  and  cruelly 
treated — for,  to  my  personal  knowledge,  many  of  them  joined 
with  the  promise  that  they  were  not  to  be  taken  out  of  the 
State  except  in  the  North  Carolina 'mountain  line  of  defense. 
The  records  show  that  General  Bragg  had  a  dislike  for  Ten- 
nessee, and  North  Carolina  troops,  yet  without  them  he  and 
his  army  would  have  been  crushed  as  an  empty  egg  shell  by 
General  Sherman. 

The  history  of  all  Countries  and  of  all  States  in  Civil 
War  shows  that  when  the  army  of  its  defense  falls  back  and 
leaves  them  to  a  merciless  foe,  many  good  soldiers  under  other 
circumstances,  will  leave  for  their  homes.  If  any  of  these 
men  joined  the  enemy,  of  course  they  forfeited  their  lives, 
otherwise  they  were  cruelly  treated. 

As  elsewhere  stated,  all  these  were  mountain  people  from 
North  Carolina  and  Tennessee  who  are  as  a  rule,  high  strung 
and  independent.  They  will  brook  no  insult  in  or  out  of  an 

They  were  not  as  ignorant,  nor  were  their  forefathers,  as 
newspaper  scribblers  and  sensation  loving  writers  like 
"Charles  Egbert  Craddock,"  et  id  omne  genus,  would  make 

These  slanders  have  been  ably  refuted  by  Professor  Eben 
Alexander,  of  our  own  University,  by  Rev.  D.  Atkins,  D.  D. 
and  by  Hon.  Wm.  Rule,  of  the  Knoxville  Journal  Tribune. 

Eightieth  Regiment.  121 

Mr.  Rule  says:  "Such  writers  are  either  fools  or  liars. 
There  is  more  ignorance,  vice,  loathsome  men  and  women, 
under  the  shadow  of  Trinity  Spire,  'New  York,  than  in  all 
the  mountains  of  ISTorth  Carolina,  T'eimessee,  Kentucky,  Al- 
abama and  GreoTgia  combined." 

Colonel  Wm  H.  Tho^mas,  commanding  Legion,  mentioned 
quite  fully  in  the  sketch  of  the  Sixty-ninth  Regiment  here- 
tofore, is  really  entitled  to  a  larger  notice  than  can  be  given 
to  any  individual  officer,  although  quite  a  number  of  officers 
and  men  will  have  to  be  more  fully  noticed  herein  than  in 
ordinary  regimental  historiesi,  for  the  reason  that  the  work  or 
service  done  was  largely  by  individuals,  squads  and  compa- 

During  the  latter  part  of  1862  and  first  eight  months  of 

1863,  most  of  the  duty  performed  by  these  men  was  tiresome, 
thankless,  disagreeable,  galling  and  verging  on  the  unmanly. 
Enforcing  conscription  was  always  a  disagreeable  duty  to  a 
soldier  and  gentleman.  Colonel  Thomas  took  the  Indian 
companies  and  fell  back  across  the  Smoky  Mountains  towards 
Waynesville  and  Webster,  and  practically  remained  in  that 
locality  during  the  balance  of  the  war.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walker,  witli  several  companies,  foot  and  horse,  reported  to 
and  obeyed  the  orders  of  Generals  Bragg  and  John  C. 

On  8  September,  1863,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Walker  with  his 
battalion,  300  strong,  are  reported  at  the  battle  of  Limestone 
Bridge,  East  Tennessee,  where  they  charged  gallantly  and 
aided  in  capturing  350  prisoners,  51  (Serial  Vol.)  Off.  Bee. 
Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  dJfS.  From  October  to  Decem- 
ber, 1863,  the  battalion  commanded  by  Major  McKamy,  was 
in  A.  E.  Jackson's  Brigade,  Robert  Ransom's  Division.  On 
6  November  it  reported  399  total  present  for  duty.     In  April, 

1864,  it  was  still  in  Jackson's  Brigade  and  at  Carter's  Depot, 
but  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  McKamy,  59  Off. 
Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  802,  having  been  raised  to 
a  regiment.  At  the  same  date  the  three  Indian  companies  are 
officially  recorded  as  being  at  the  mouth  of  Tuckaseege,  206 
present  out  of  283  total,  same  volume,  p.  865. 

There  was  much  hard  and  dangerous  service  done,  both  in 

122  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Tennessee  and  Wortli  Carolina.  The  four  counties  of  Cheiro- 
kee,  Clay,  Grraham  and  Swain  were  disputed  territory  all  this 
time.  While  large  bodies  of  Federals  seldom  came  out,  yet 
small  scouts  were  constantly  depredating  upon  and  killing  tlie 
citizens  and  taking  off  many  tO'  prison.  Colonel  Walker  was 
murdered  at  his  home  near  Murphy  on  the  night  of  3  Janu- 
ary, 1864,  while  there  on  sick  leave. 

In  order  to  properly  realize  and  appreciate  the  work  done, 
the  reader  should  bear  in  mind  how  these  Worth  Carolina 
conntics  before  named,  are  situated.  Cherokee,  in  the  eix- 
treme  west,  is  wedged  in  bet^s'een  Tennessee  and  Georgia, 
its  east  end  between  Graham  and  Clay  Counties,  the  former 
with  a  long,  rugged  and  tortuO'US,  but  not  impassable  mo'un- 
tain  line,  bordering  on  East  Tennessee  and  reaching  from 
Tennessee  river  and  the  gi-eat  butt  end  of  the  "Great  Smoky 
Mountains"  out  towards  "Hanging  Dog"  westward,  while  the 
latter — Clay  County — borders  on  Georgia  and  crosses  the 
Blue  Eidge,  or  embraces  its  western  limit. 

It  should  be  said  of  Colonel  AValker  that  he  was  a  man  of 
more  than  ordinary  ability  and  influence.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Legislature  in  1857-'58,  and  when  the  "call  to  arms" 
resounded  in  his  State,  he  raised  the  first  company  from  Cher- 
okee, was  soon  made  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  Regiment 
(Twenty-ninth  ISTorth  Carolina),  but  failing  health  compelled 
him  to  resign.  Recovering  somewhat  his  health,  he  promptly 
assisted  his  old  friend.  Colonel  W.  H.  Thomas,  in  forming  the 
"Legion,"  where  he  was  always  regarded  as  a  prompt  and 
faithful  officer  and  loyal  soldier  of  the  South.  After  his 
death,  LieutenantrColonel  McKamy  was  entitled  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Eightieth,  but  he  was  with  Colonel  Love  in  Vir- 
ginia, doing  valiant  service  till  his  capture  at  Winchester, 
Ya.,  19  September,  1864,  where  he  lost  most  of  his  men  by 
wounds,  'capture  and  death. 

Let  the  reader  still  beiar  in  mind  the  geography  and  topog- 
raphy of  this  region.  The  eastern  botmdaries  of  these  three 
counties  practically  jut  up  against  the  great  ISTantahala  Moun- 
tains, connecting  the  Smoky  and  Blue  Ridge — the  culminat- 
ing points  of  both — for  really,  both  do  disappear  from  the 
maps  hereabouts. 

Eightieth  Regiment.  123 

Tlie  Smoky  Mountains  and  Tennessee  line  "round  up"  a 
few  miles  east  of  Tennessee  river,  at  an  altitude  of  about 
6,700  feet  on  "Clingman's  Dome."  This  great  and  grand 
mountain,  terrible  to  view  from  a  distance,  yet  beautiful 
and  useful  in  reality  on  its  great  broad  top,  was  most  of 
the  time  inhabited  during  the  war  or  occupied  by  the  soldiers 
of  this  regiment,  especially  the  Indians. 

The  cavalry  companies  of  JSTeff  and  Wallace  did  mvich  ac- 
tive service  for  Generals  Bragg  and  Johnston,  and  were  per- 
manently out  off  from  the  battalion  as  well  as  the  regiment. 
After  the  murder  of  Colonel  Walker  and  during  almost  all 
the  year  1864,  the  remaining  companies  of  this  battalion 
were  on  duty  along  the  mountain  gaps  and  passes,  making 
and  repelling  attacks  upon  and  from  the  enemy  similar  work 
to  that  heretofore  delineated  in  the  sketch  of  the  Sixty-ninth 

The  cavalry  companies  of  the  regiment,  especially  Wal- 
lace's and  Neff's,  did  no  service  in  ISTorth  Carolina  at  all  after 
Btimside's  occupancy  of  East  Tennessee,  but  were  attached 
to  General  J.  O.  Vaughn's  East  Tennessee  cavalry  brigade  un- 
der orders  of  General  Bragg.  They  did  good  service,  and 
like  all  soldiers  in  this  East  Tennessee  and  Western  North 
Carolina  Department,  were  always  on  the  move,  and  as  subse- 
quent events  have  proven,  were  of  invaluable  service  to  the 

"\\'lien  Longstreet  failed  to  capture  Knoxville,  and  fell  back 
up  eastwards  towards  Virginia,  he  was  soon  followed  by 
Bumside,  Sherman,  and  as  far  as  Strawberry  Plains  by  Gen- 
eral Grant,  with  an  army  of  50,000  men.  At  this  tim.c  ar,d 
place  a  "council  of  war"  was  held  by  these  three  great  Union 
Generals  in  the  house  and  at  the  then  home  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Stringfield,  of  the  Sixty-ninth  North  Carolina,  of 
our  Legion,  and  in  a  house  built  by  his  father  for  his  great 
grandfather.  Colonel  James  King,  a  King's  Mountain  hero. 

In  this  council  of  war  the  idea  was  advanced  and  pressed 
almost  to  a  certainty  tO'  cut  the  army  intO'  four  divisions  and 
send  10,000  each  ixp  Little  Tennessee  toward  Macon  County ; 
10,000  to  Waynesville,  and  10,000  up  French  Broad,  towards 
Asheville  and  Burnsville,  IST.  C,  and  20,000  towards  Bristol 

124  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

and  Lynchburg.  TMs  matteir  was  held  in  abeyance  till  Gen- 
eral Grant  could  personally  inspect  the  line,  or  base  of  oper- 
ations. So  he  mounted  his  horse  and  rode  175  miles  through 
Tennessee  and  Kentucky  and  finding  the  roads  so'  terrible,  he 
abandoned  the  idea.  But  the  project  was  not  a  bad  one, 
with  Chattanooga  and  Knoxville  as  bases  for  operations. 

Colonel  Thomas  often  contended  that  that  would  be  done. 
Such  being  possible  it  will  be  seen  that  upper  Georgia  and 
South  Carolina  would  have  been  threatened  and  also  South- 
west Virginia  with  the  salt  works  and  all  that  fine  region  ex- 

It  is  no  secret  that  General  Lee  seeing  he  could  not  hold 
Richmond  much  longer  began  to  look  towards  the  mountains 
of  Tennessee,  Kentucky  and  North  Carolina  to  fall  back  to. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Stringfield  was  consulted  by  General 
Breckinridge  about  East  Tennessee  and  ISTorth  Carolina  while 
we  were  together  in  the  Valley  Campaign.  Colonel  Thomas 
doubtless  had  been  consulted  also,  hence  his  tenacity  to  hold 
every  mountain  pass  towards  Tennessee.  The  men  were  often 
detailed  to  build  roads  across  Smoky  Mountains  and  to  ac- 
quaint themselves  with  all  the  mountain  trails,  etc. 

At  that  time  the  Cherokee  Indians,  400  of  whom  were  in 
the  two  regiments  of  Thomas'  Legion  (Sixty-ninth  and  Eigh- 
tieth JSTorth  Carolina),  occupied  almost  the  center  of  this  vast 
mountain  country  along  the  Tennessee  line,  and  there  is  no 
doubt  that  their  presence  here  was  a  great  protection  to  the 
people.  They  were  loyal  to  us  to  an  intense  degree.  Colonel 
Thomas,  as  has  been  stated  in  the  sketch  of  the  Sixty-ninth, 
had  been  their  friend,  patron,  chief  and  agent  for  twenty-five 
years  prior  to  the.  war. 

But  of  the  whites  we  must  say  that  these  mountain  people 
were  rather  unique  in  their  individuality.  Their  stern  inde- 
pendence of  speech  and  action  sometimes  cast  a  doubt  upon 
strangers  as  to  what  they  would  do  next,  as  sometimes  they 
would  talk  strangely  to  a  loyal  Southron,  but  when  fighting 
was  needed  history  shows  that  they  "fought  as  never  man 
fought  before." 

Judge  0.  P.  Temple,  of  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  in  his  history 
of  "Civil  War  in  East  Tennessee,"  has  much  to  say  in  defence 

Eightieth  Regiment.  125 

of  all  of  them,  especially  the  Union  element.  President  Lin- 
coln early  in  1862  began  to  inaugurate  measures  to  relieve 
the  "loyal"  East  Tennessee  people,  and  in  his  December  mes- 
sage to  Congress,  1861,  he  strongly  recommended  their  re- 
lief, and  in  January,  1862,  a  strong  army  started  thither, 
which  met,  defeated  and  killed  General  ZoUicoff er  at  Eishing 
Creek.  This  defeat  thrilled  the  entire  populace.  Southern 
and  Union.  This  failure  of  General  Thomas  to  follow  up  hia 
advantage  soon  disheartened  his  people,  and  all  the  Southern 
people  flew  to  arms. 

The  conscript  law  was  now  passed  and  the  bitterness  and 
the  "uncivil"  war  began  in  earnest. 

Counties  were  arrayed  against  counties,  townships,  com- 
munities and  families  were  divided — split  up,  estranged,  em- 
bittered and  finally  out  in  open  arms  against  each  other.  Un- 
der such  surroundings  our  men  lived,  camped,  marched, 
drilled  and  some  few  deserted  us.  It  was  a  very  unsatisfac- 
txjry  state  of  affairs,  and  the  sterling  manhood  of  our  men 
was  often  brought  to  the  test.  It  was  painful  and  hu- 
miliating to  have  to  arrest  any  one,  but  after  living  among 
and  associating  with  people  for  weeks  and  months  it  was  a 
very  disagreeable  duty  to  arrest  them  or  impress  or  confiscate 
anything  of  theirs. 

After  East  Tennessee  was  overrun  by  Bumside's  army,  the 
Eightieth  as  before  stated,  guarded  the  mountain  paths 
from  Tennessee.  Quite  a  number  of  our  people  refused  to 
go  in  Hie  army  as  conscripts,  but  went  over  to  Knoxville, 
Burnside  in  meanwhile  telling  them  it  was  his  intention  tO'  go 
up  through  ISTorth  Carolina  and  over  into  Georgia  and  South 

Cherokee  County  was  sorely  infested  with  a  lot  of  "bum- 
mers" from  both  armies  daily  almost,  stealing  horses,  cattle, 
provisions,  clothing,  etc.,  and  so'me  small  negroes.  Colonel 
"Walker  tried  to  suppress  this,  but  was  murdered  early  in 
January,  1864.  Eor  some  time  prior  to  this  Colonel  Walker 
was  kept  constantly  on  the  alert  with  his  men,  on  ]N"antahala, 
Little  Tennessee,  Valley,  Notley  and  Hiwassee  rivers.  Spies, 
scouts,  recruiting  officers,  etc.,  being  always  on  the  move. 

Sergeant  Steve  Porter,  of  Company  F  (Andrews),  can  tell 

126  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

of  many  hair-breadth  escapes  and  blood-curdling  stories  of 
his  cavalry  company  in  East  Tennessee  in  Sevier,  Blount,  Mc- 
Minn  and  Polk  Counties 

Sergeant  A.  Lon.  Welch,  of  Company  A  (Anderson,  S.  C. ) 
can  also  relate  many  thrilling  adventiires  of  those  dark  days. 
Mr.  Welch  is  now  a  prosperous  man  in  his  South  Carolina 

Captain  Cam.  Taylor,  of  Company  I,  is  a  leading  lavs^yer 
among  the  Cherokee  Indians  in  the  West  at  Tah-le-quah  fcap- 
ital  of  the  nation),  where  quite  a  number  of  his  Indian  ijreth- 
ren  followed  him  (he  is  part  Cherokee).  Captain  Sou-ate- 
Owle,  of  Company  A,  now  of  Cherokee,  IST.  C,  and  com- 
mander of  ''Saw-noo-kee"  Camp  l^o.  1268,  is  still  living  at  his 
Swain  County  home  near  Cherokee  P.  0.  He  was  a  brave 
warrior.  He  and  twenty  of  his  command  attended  the  Loiiis- 
ville  reunion  and  attracted  a  good  deal  of  notice.  He  is  a 
Baptist  preacher. 

In  the  midst  of  these  stormy  days  Colonel  Walker  finally 
went  home,  near  Murphy,  sick.  He  was  called  to  the  door 
and  shot  down  like  a  dog.  Following  this  tragedy  there  was 
much  apprehension  among  officers  and  men.  Burnside's 
army  having  all  lower  East  Tennessee  in  its  iron  grasp,  there 
was  little  that  this  regiment,  divided  tip  as  it  was,  could 
do  but  stand  sentinel  and  defend  their  homes  and  the  holmes 
of  their  comrades  of  the  Twenty-ninth,  Thirty-ninth,  Twenty- 
fifth  and  Sixty-ninth  Pegiments,  and  they  did  their  duty  well 
and  faithfully  under  great  danger  and  privation.  The  win- 
ter of  1863-'64  was  unusually  severe,  the  snows  were  deep  and 
numerous,  but  wood  was  plenty. 

Another  great  service  performed  by  these  men  was  the  re- 
capture of  250  Federal  prisoners  who  escaped  from  down 
South  in  squads  of  five  to  fifteen.  This  was  largely  done  by 
the  Cherokee  Indians,  who  were  familiar  with  every  footpath 
in  the  mountains  and  coiild  follow  the  trial  of  a  man  or  party 
when  all  signs  had  failed  to  others. 

Many  Yankee  soldiers,  after  escaping  from  Columbia, 
etc.,  were  picked  up  and  sent  back.  These  Indians  were 
never  cruel  to  prisoners  or  any  one  else,  but  were  faithful 
"sentinels"  on  the  "watch  tower."     One  faithful  fellow  on  an 

Eightieth  Kegiment.  127 

outpost  low  down  on  the  Tennessee  river  towards  Tennessee, 
was  placed  on  guard  and  well  cautioned  and  admonished, 
he  stood  at  his  post  all  night,  or  near  fourteen  hours,  in  one 
of  the  iiercest  and  most  terrific  snow  storms  in  the  history  of 
the  country. 

When  his  absence  was  noted  next  morning  and  relief  guard 
sent  out  he  was  found  bravely  walking  his  post.  The  Indians 
were  splendid  for  such  service,  but  they  could  not  face  can- 
nons—  "big  guns  on  wheels." 

In  the  Fall  of  1864  some  effort  was  made  by  some  Union 
men  to  re-establish  the  old  government  and  reinstate  the  "old 
flag"  in  Cherokee.  The  writer  is  not  in  possession  of  suf- 
ficient facts  bearing  on  the  case  to  give  au  intelligent  state- 
ment of  it.  As  a  further  evidence  of  the  bad  elements,  dan- 
gerous and  perilous  incidents  of  the  times  the  life  of  Major 
Whitaker,  an  old  and  valued  citizen  of  the  county  and  a  fear- 
less officer,  was  frequently  threatened. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  String-field,  of  the  Sixty-ninth,  com- 
manding the  six  companies  west  of  the  Balsam  Mountains, 
often  had  to  travel  from  Asheville  and  Waynesville  tO'  Mur- 
phy entirely  unattended,  fording  and  swimming  the  creeks 
and  rivers,  at  the  imminent  peril  of  his  life.  He  narrowly 
escaped  assassination  several  times.  On  one  occasion,  at  the 
house  of  Mrs.  Walker,  on  Valley  river,  now  Andrews,  a 
would-be  assassin  approached  within  ten  feet  of  him  while  sit- 
ting near  an  open  window,  a  plank  broke,  the  dog  barked,  and 
at  the  alarm  the  window  and  curtain  were  shut  down  and  his 
life  was  saved,  thanks  to  an  overruling  Providence. 

On  10  March,  1865,  General  Martin  reports  the  Sixty- 
ninth  and  Eightieth,  including  their  Indian  companies,  as 
having  1,055  present  for  duty.  lOS  Off.  Rec.  Union  and 
Confed.  Armies,  104-8. 

The  writer  deeply  regrets  that  he  is  unable  tO'  give  the 
names  of  numerous  officers  and  men  who  died  in  battle  in 
Virginia,  Tennessee,  Georgia,  Kentucky  and  ISTorth  Carolina, 
and  of  many  heroic  deeds  of  all  in  lower  East  Tennessee  and 
North  Carolina. 

Major  Whitaker  died  in  December,  1900,  giving  no  de- 
tails.    Lieutenant-Colonel  McKamy,  in  1898.    Captain  iN'eff 

128  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  captured  at  Somerset,  Kj.,  in  1864.  The  fate  or  subse- 
quent career  of  many  others  is  unknown. 

Captain  Ghormley  is  also  living  in  North  G-eorgia.  After 
the  capture  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  McKamy,  Winchester,  Va,, 
19  September,  1864,  Major  Stephen  Whitakeo-,  of  Cherokee 
County,  assumed  command  of  the  r^ment  and  was  ever 
faithful  to  his  trust.  He  was  the  last  field  officer  of  the  "Le- 
gion" to  lay  down  his  arms,  and  in  this  he  had  a  rather  unique 
and  remarkable  experieoice.  When  Lieutenant-Colonel  W. 
W.  Stringfield  was  sent  with  a  flag  of  truce  to  Knoxville  to 
General  Stoneman,  the  notorious  Colonel  Kirk  violated  a 
truce  made  at  Asheville  and  moved  rapidly  west,  to  Franklin, 
Macon  County,  there  he  actually  treated  the  people  kindly 
and  gave  most  of  them  their  horses. 

Major  Whitaker,  hearing  of  the  surrender  of  Lee  and  John- 
ston in  April,  and  of  Colonels  Thomas  and  James  R.  Love  at 
Waynesville  on  9  and  10  May,  went  to  Franklin  and  surren- 
dered himself  and  son  on  the  14th.  His  men — like  those  of 
Colonel  Thomas — were  allowed  to  keep  their  guns,  in  self  de- 
fense. Thus  closed  the  service  of  some  as  good  men  as  ever 
fought  for  the  South.  Much  more  should  be  said  concerning 
numbers  of  officers  and  private  soldiers,  but  the  information 
cannot  be  gotten.  Captain  T.  D.  Johnston,  Quartermaster, 
is  an  invalid  now  living  at  Asheville.  He  has  twice  repre- 
sented us  in  Congress.  P.  C  Gaston,  Adjutant,  lived  and 
died  in  Macon  County — a  highly  respected  citizen.  Dr.  B. 
Mayfield  recently  died  at  Murphy,  N.  C,  a  loved  and  respect- 
ed physician.  Dr.  Walker,  Sergeant-Ma j  or,  is  a  highly  re- 
spected citizen  of  Cherokee  County. 

In  the  preparation  of  this  sketch  I  am  greatly  indebted  to 
Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  W.  Stringfield,  of  the  Sixty-ninth 
North  Carolina,  a  most  gallant  and  efficient  officer  of  our  Le- 
gion, whose  memory  will  always  be  dear  to  them  as  long  as 
a  member  of  the  command  survives. 

R.  A.  Aiken, 
muhphy,  n.  c, 

30  May,  1901. 


(first  eegiment  op  detailed  men.) 

By  the  editor. 

At  this  late  date  it  is  difficult  to  get  data  as  to  this  regi- 
ment. Its  history  is  substantially  that  related  of  the  Eighty- 
second  Regiment. 

In  November,  1864,  the  Confederate  authorities  directed 
that  the  detailed  men  in  this  State  should  be  at  once  organized 
into  regiments  and  battalions.  General  Holmes  reported 
their  number  in  this  State  to  be  3,117. 

On  13  January,  186.5,  he  directs  that  the  First  Regiment 
Detailed  men  under  Colonel  (or  Lieutenant-Colonel)  L.  M. 
McCorkle,  the  Second  under  Colonel  A.  G.  Brenizer,  and 
the  Third  under  Colonel  Bouchell,  should  constitute  a  bri- 
gade under  the  command  of  Colonel  W.  J.  Hoke,  and  they 
were  all  ordered  to  Salisbury.  There  was  also  a  battalion  of 
them  under  Major  Rancher,  which  was  ordered  to  Raleigh. 

On  21  February,  1865,  General  Holmes  telegraphed  Gen- 
eral Bragg  that  he  had  organized  two  regiments  of  detailed 
men  and  could  turn  them  over  to  him.  They  were  probably 
utilized  to  guard  prisoners  and  public  property.  It  can  not 
be  certainly  known — -until  we  can  get  copies  of  the  rolls  from 
Washington — even  who  the  field  officers  were.  It  seems 
pi'obable  that  the  Colonel  was  W.  J.  Hoke,  formerly  Colonel 
of  the  Thirty-eighth  ISTorth  Carolina  and  just  then  command- 
ing at  Charlotte,  and  that  Lock  McCorkle  was  Lieutenant- 

The  artisans  in  the  ISTavy  Department  works  at  Charlotte 
were  in  September,  1864,  organized  into  two  companies  and 
were  doubtless  placed  in  this  regiment. 


(second  ebgiment  of  detailed  men,) 

By  a.  G.  BRENIZER,  Colonel. 

In  the  latter  part  of  1864  the  Confederate  Congress  or- 
dered the  organizing  of  all  detailed  men  into  companies  and 
regiinents,  which  in  North  Carolina  was  done  under  the  su- 
pervision of  Lieutenant-General  T.  H.  Holmes.  These  men 
were  artisans,  mechanics,  laborers,  clerks,  etc.,  employed  in 
the  various  departmennts  of  the  Confederacy,  and  in  the  em- 
ploy of  contractors  with  the  government  to  supply  iron,  coal, 
equipments,  rifles,  saltpetre,  etc.,  etc.,  detailed  from  the  army 
to  perform  these  duties.  Some  of  these  men  were  "light  duty 
men,"  unable  to  do  full  duty  in  the  field,  but  capable  of  en- 
gaging in  some  work  at  home,  to  carry  on  the  war. 

Three  regiments  of  detailed  men  of  ten  companies  each 
and  a  battalion  were  organized  in  this  State.  At  that  time  I 
was  in  command  of  the  arsenal  at  Salisbury,  being  Major  of 
Artillery,  C.  S.  A.,  on  ordnance  duty. 

The  second  regiment  was  organized  by  electing: 

A.  G.  BeenizeEj  Colonel. 

Jaspee  Stowb^  of  Gaston,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

— .  — .  ,  Major. 

— .  — .  MclSTeely,  of  Salisbury,  was  appointed  Adjutant. 

In  this  regiment  were  the  following  companies: 

Company  A^ — Captain,  Philip  S.  Whisnant,  of  Anson; 
First  Lieiitenant,  B.  F.  Glenn ;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  M.  W. 
Flow,  S.  C.  Hunter. 

CoMPATsrr  B — Captain,  W.  P.  BrO'Wn,  of  Mecklenburg; 
First  Lieutenant,  James  Earnhardt ;  Second  Lieutenants,  A. 
McCoy  and  J.  E.  Caldwell. 

Company  C — Captain,  W.  H.  Houston,  of  Union. 

Company  D — Captain,  William  Paisley;  First  Lieuten- 
ant, J.  R.  Fisher ;  Second  Lieutenant,  B.  R.  Mayer. 

132  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Company  E — Captain,  P.  H.  Montague,  of  Rowan.  There 
were  five  other  companies  whose  captains  I  do  not  recall, 
to-wit:  one  from  Gaston,  one  from  Stanly,  one  from  David" 
son,  one  from  Cabarrus  and  one  from  Randolph. 

The  only  field  service  rendered  by  this  regiment  was  when 
Sherman  was  making  his  famous  (or  infamous)  march 
through  South  Carolina  and  threatening  Western  JSTorth 
Carolina.  It  was  expected  that  his  route  would  be  through 
Charlotte  and  Salisbury. 

These  three  regiments  of  detailed  men  were  ordered  out  and 
encamped  at  Salisbury  where  we  did  picket  duty  until  Sher- 
man turned  to  the  right,  towards  Fayetteville,  and  all  dan' 
ger  of  invasion  towards  Charlotte  was  over.  We  were  then 
ordered  home. 

When  Stoneman  came  on  his  raid  in  April,  1865,  and  took 
possession  of  Salisbury,  destroying  all  government  buildings, 
and  railroad  property  and  all  government  stores  that  had  Hot 
been  removed,  his  appearance  was  so  sudden  that  there  was 
no  time  to  get  these  regiments  together.  One  company,  that 
from  Rowan,  commanded  by  Captain  P.  H.  Montague, 
was  at  Salisbury'-,  the  men  being  engaged  all  night  long  in 
loading  ordnance  stores  on  the  train  under  orders  front  the 
general  in  command.  At  daybreak  Stoneman  attacked  the 
town,  which  was  easily  captured,  there  being  only  a  few  con- 
valescents and  a  battery  of  artillery,  which  was  passing 
through,  and  the  above  company  of  my  regiment. 

At  the  last  moment  an  order  came  for  that  company  to  re- 
port at  headquarters  and  they  were  sent  out  of  town  to  join 
the  small  force  which  stood  before  Stoneman,  endeavoring 
to  cheek  his  advance.  They  reached  there  just  in  time  to 
be  surrendered  and  were  carried  to  Camp  Chase,  Ohio,  where 
they  remained  about  three  months  after  the  close  of  the  war. 

A.  G.  BEE^riziiE, 

Chaklottb,  N.  C, 

36  April,  1901. 


(third  rbgimbnt  of  detailed  men.) 

By  the  editor. 

This  regiment  was  commaiided  by  Colonel  Bouchell  and 
was  in  the  brigade  composed  of  the  three  regiments  of  de- 
tailed men  which  by  order  of  Lieutenant-General  T.  H. 
Holmes  12  January,  1863,  were  brigaded  and  placed  under 
command  of  Colonel  W.  J.  Hoke. 

We  have  no  information  as  to  its  services  nor  as  to  its  of- 
ficers. The  muster  rolls  of  these  three  regiments  are  doubt- 
less among  those  captured  at  Charlotte,  to  which  point  they 
were  removed  after  the  fall  of  Richmond,  and  which  are  now 
in  the  Record  and  Pension  Bureau  at  Washington.  Some 
day.  Congress  will  doubtless  order  all  these  rolls  printed. 
But  until  that  is  done  the  names  of  the  ofl&cers  and  men  of 
this  regiment  will  be  lost  save  the  name  of  its  Colonel,  which 
alone  has  been  preserved. 

Supplemental  Histories. 


By  GEORGE  H.  MILLS,  Fihst  Lieutenant,  Company  G. 

The  Sixteenth  Eegimeojt  of  'North  Carolina  Troops  (Sixth 
Vohmteers)  was  composed  originally  of  twelve  companies, 
as  follows : 

Company  A — Jackson — Captain,  A.  W.   Coleman. 
CoMPA^^Y  B — ifadison.' — Captain,  John  Peake. 
Company  C — J^ftyice^/— Captain,  J.  S.  McElroy. 
Company  D — Rutherford — Captain,  H.  D.  Lee. 
Company  E — Burhe — Captain,  E.  J.  Kirksey. 
Company  F — Buncomhe — Captain,  P.  H.  Thrash. 
Company  G — Rutherford — Captain,  C.  T.  N.  Davis. 
Company  H — Macon — Captain,  Thomas  M.   Angel. 
Company  I — Henderson — Captain,  Wm.  M.  Shipp. 
CoMX'ANY  K — Polk — Captain,  J.  C.  Camp. 
Company  L — Haywood- — Captain,  K.  G.  A.  Love. 
Company  M — Gaston — ^Captain,  B.  F.  Briggs. 

Tn  April,  ]862,  Company  JST,  Captain  J.  W.  Kilpatrick, 
from  Rutherford,  was  added,  making  thirteen  companies,  but 
after  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  it  was  transferred  and  be- 
came Company  I,  Fifty-sixth  North  Carolina.  After  Sharps- 
bvirg  Company  A  was  transferred  to  the  Thirty-ninth,  and 
Company  L  to  the  Sixty-ninth  North  Carolina,  both  these 
last  in  the  Army  of  the  West. 

The  regiment  was  organized  at  Raleigh  on  16  June,  1861, 
electing — 

Stephen  D.  Lue,  of  Buncombe,  Colonel. 

CAPTAIN  R.  G.  A.  TjOve,  of  Haywood,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Captain  B.  F.  Beiggs^  'of  Gaston,  Major. 

WooDBUiiY  WiTEELEK,  Adjutant. 

Note. — A  sketch  of  this  Regiment  will  be  found  in  Vol.  1  of  this 
work,  pp.  751-773.  The  writer  of  this  very  interesting  additional  sketch 
died  10  January,  1901.     He  was  a  gallant  soldier. — Ed. 

138  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Coi.uMBiTs  Mills,  of  Polk,  Surgeon. 

W.  D.  Whitted,  of  Henderson,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

D.  F.  Stjmmey,  of  Buncombe,  A.  Q.  M. 

J.  M.  IsKAEL,  of  Buncombe,  A.  C.  S. 

The  regiment  remained  in  Raleigh  under  command  of 
Major  Henry  K.  Burgwyn,  commandant  of  the  camp,  until 
Colonel  Lee  and  staff  arrived  about  1  July.  On  3  July  the 
first  six  companies  under  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Love  left  for  Richmond,  foUo-vved  the  next  day  by  Colonel 
Lee,  with  the  balance  of  the  command,  arriving  about  mid- 
night in  Petersburg,  where  we  spent  a  most  uncomfortable 
night  sleeping  on  the  bare  brick  floors  of  the  market  house. 
At  daylight  we  were  aroused,  crossed  the  Appomattox  and 
had  breakfast,  then  taking  the  train  for  Richmond,  arriving 
about  12  M.  Sunday,  5  July,  joining  the  regiment  in  the  old 
fair  grounds. 

Remaining  two  days  in  Richmond,  we  were  ordered  to 
Staunton,  Va.,  and  taking  the  Virginia  Central,  we  passed 
Gordonville,  Charlottesville,  and  crossed  the  mountains  to 
Waynesboro,  where  the  citizens  turned  out  en  masse  and  gave 
us  a  most  royal  feast.  And  it  will  never  be  forgotten — the 
first  rebel  yell  ever  given  by  the  Sixteenth.  When  we  came 
suddenly  in  full  view  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  the  counterpart 
of  the  homes  of  twelve  hundred  patriotic  men  who  had  scarce 
ever  been  out  of  sight  of  the  mountains,  there  rose  an  im- 
promptu shout  and  yell  that  (often  after  repeated  on  bloody 
fields)  seemed  to  rend  the  very  heavens. 

Reaching  Staunton  at  a  late  hour,  we  spent  the  night  in 
the  depot  yard,  and  next  morning  moved  into  very  pleasant 
quarters  in  the  valley  near  the  headwaters  of  the  Shenandoah, 
\'S'here  we  remained  two  days.  Teams  M'ere  purchased — one 
for  each  company  and  more  for  the  regiment  besides,  making 
about  thirty  teams,  the  largest  and  finest  horses  we  had  ever 
seen,  and  wagons  sufficient  to  transport  baggage  and  supplies 
for  an  army,  all  of  which  we  then  had  in  abundance. 


We  were  ordered  to  the  relief  of  General  Garnett,  at  Cheat 
Movintain.     Marching  out  from  Staunton  on  the  Parkersburg 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  139 

pike,  with  brass  band  in  front,  the  streets  lined  with  citizens, 
eoidiers,  and  ladies,  and  our  colors  gaily  floating  in  the  breeze, 
we  began  to  think  we  were  soldiers.  We  made  ten  miles, 
camping  at  Buft'alo  Gap,  and  that  night  Colonel  Lee  received 
orders  to  take  500  men  with  arms  and  ammunition  and  witb- 
oxit  baggage,  and  make  a  forced  march  to  reach  General  Gar- 
nett,  but  in  the  morning,  for  some  reason,  be  decided  to  take 
the  whole  regiment  and  push  on  witbout  delay.  So  at  din- 
ner we  passed  the  place  where  we  expected  to  camp  that  night, 
eleven  miles,  where  we  found  the  citizens  had  turned  out  with 
wagoii  loads  of  provisions,  ofE  which  we  made  a  hearty  dinner, 
then  promptly  falling  into  ranks  we  marched  ten  miles  farther 
toward  tbe  top  of  the  moitntain,  making  twenty-one  miles  in 
the  day.  The  men  were  all  pretty  much  worn  out  with  the 
bard  march,  and  as  soon  as  supper  was  over,  dropped  into 
their  blankets,  hoping  to  have  a  good  night's  sleep  and  rest. 
The  Adjutant  came  to  the  Orderly  of  Company  G  and  told 
him  if  anything  should  happen  during  the  night  tO'  form  tbe 
company  as  quickly  as  possible  and  march  down  to  the  road, 
which  gave  tlie  men  quite  a  scare,  feeling  like  they  were  get- 
ting on  dangerous  ground,  as  we  bad  already  met  several 
wounded  men  and  wagons  with  dead  officers,  but  as  no  car- 
tridges bad  been  issued,  the  men,  of  course,  could  not  see  tbe 
point,  and  nothing  occurring  during  the  night  except  that 
Captain  Davis  alarmed  the  camp  with  an  attack  of  night 
mare.  Early  in  the  morning  we  were  on  tbe  march  crossing 
the  moimtain  and  Calf  Pasture  river.  Reaching  McDowell 
we  met  Governor  Jjctcber  with  a  big  demijohn  of  buttermilk 
in  his  buggy.  He  told  Colonel  Lee  that  General  Garnett  had 
been  killed  and  his  command  routed  was  falling  back,  advis- 
ing Colonel  Lee  to  push  forward  to  Monterey  and  there  to 
stop  all  troops  and  got  things  into  better  shape.  We  reached 
Monterey,  a  small  village  in  a  narrow  valley  between  two 
mountains,  and  went  int-o  camp,  and  soon  the  stragglers  came 
flocking  in,  in  squads  from  one  to  twenty,  the  most  forlorn 
looking  set  of  men  ever  seen,  ragged,  barefoot  and  hungry, 
having  lost  everything.  Our  men  having  an  extra  supply 
of  clothing,  divided  with  them  and  made  them  as  comforta- 
ble as  possible. 

140  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

We  remained  at  Monterey  for  ten  days,  and  a  few  days 
after  we  reached  there  we  were  aroused  in  the  night  by  the 
long  roll  being  sounded,  and  Colonel  Lee  tearing  through 
camp  yelling  at  the  top  of  his  voice,  "Rouse  up,  men,  fall  in, 
the  enemy  is  upon  you !"  Everything  was  in  confusion  for 
a  time,  but  order  soon  prevailed,  the  men  were  up,  dressed 
with  all  their  accoutrements  on,  the  companies  formed  and 
marched  to  the  parade  ground.  After  waiting  and  listening 
for  the  enemy  a  short  time,  it  being  very  dark  so  we  could 
see  nothing,  we  heard  Colonel  Lee's  voice  in  front:  "Well, 
men,  I  am  glad  to  say  if  there  is  no  other  enemy  present, 
we  have  at  least  conquered  one  enemy — that  is  the  enemy 
sleep,"  and  complimenting  us  for  promptness,  he  said  it  was 
just  five  minutes  from  the  time  the  alarm  was  sounded  till 
the  regiment  was  formed.  "Captains,  have  your  rolls  called 
and  report  all  men  not  in  line." 

You  can  imagine  what  a  relief  it  was  when  we  found  it 
was  a  false  alarm,  and  we  then  understood  what  was  meant 
at  the  camp  on  the  mountain  when  the  Orderly  was  told  to 
form  company  and  march  down  to  the  road.  You  can  guess 
that  we  would  have  made  a  poor  fight,  as  the  men  did  not  have 
a  round  of  ammunition  in  their  boxes.  All  that  was  left  of 
Gamett's  men  had  been  gathered  in,  and  re-shod  and  clothed 
as  well  as  could  be  done,  General  H.  E.  Jackson,  of  Georgia, 
taking  command. 

After  ten  days'  stay  at  Monterey,  the  Sixteenth  Regiment 
was  ordered  forw^ard,  taking  a  westerly  direction,  and  after 
three  days'  march  arrived  at  Huntersville,  Pocahontas  Coun- 
ty. One  of  our  camps  will  long  be  remembered  by  our  survi- 
vors as  one  of  the  most  eligible  camping  places  they  had  ever 
mot.  A  sugar  maple  orchard  on  a  clear  stream  of  cold  water, 
whose  banks  were  fringed  with  spear  mint,  induced  our  com- 
pany commander  to  suggest  that  here  was  the  water,  here  is 
the  mint;  if  anyone  can  furnish  the  sugar  ("here  it  is"  said 
the  writer)  and  some  one  the  spirits,  we'll  have  the  best  mint 
ji^lep  you  ever  tasted.  At  this  juncture  our  best  forager,  W. 
T.  Wilkins,  made  his  appearance,  and  had  secured  the  brandy, 
and  then  and  there,  in  the  fence  comer  by  the  stream,  and  out 
of  sight  of  our  strict  disciplinarian.  Colonel  I^ee,  there  was  a 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  141 

jolly  time  over  the  jolly,  jolly  grog  such  as  makes  the  mouth 
of  an  old  soldier  water  to  think  of. 

Leaving  Iluntersville  next  day,  we  crossed  Greenbrier  river 
on  a  fine  bridge,  camping  three  miles  beyond  at  Edray,  where 
we  spent  ten  days  picketing  ten  miles  distant  in  the  direction 
of  Cheat  Moimtain,  at  Clover  Lick.  The  first  detachment 
going  without  rations,  the  Lieutenant  in  command  sent  to  the 
proprietor,  Mr.  Warrick,  who  was  then  looking  after  his 
stock,  to  know  if  he  could  get  supplies  of  food  for  the  com- 
mand. He  replied  that  he  did  not  stay  there  himself,  only 
had  an  old  man  there  to  look  after  and  take  care  of  the  stock, 
but  if  the  men  could  milk,  .there  were  fifty  cows  in  the 
meadow,  600  sheep  in  the  pasture,  and  we  could  supply  our- 
selves with  niilk  and  lamb,  while  the  old  man  furnished  us  a 
quantity  of  buckwheat  flour,  from  all  which  we  had  a  most 
royal  feast,  sweetened  with  maple  sugar  which  we  found  in 

While  camped  at  Edray  we  were  aroused  by  a  terrible 
commotion;  the  sentinels  on  post  commenced  hollowing  and 
kept  it  up  all  night — that  Generals  Beauregard  and  John- 
ston had  fought  the  Yankees  at  Manassas — killing  20,000 
and  capturing  twice  as  many  more.  Washington  Avould  be 
taken  in  another  day  and  the  war  would  end !  Alas,  how 
badly  were  we  mistaken. 

Remaining  at  Edray  ten  days,  we  broke  camp  on  30  July, 
going  west,  crossed  a  high  mountain,  marched  till  dark  and 
camped  in  a  cow  pasture,  and  early  next  day  reached  Big 
Spring  and  went  into  camp.  Thinking  to  spend  some  time, 
wagons  were  unloaded,  tents  pitched,  and  everything  made 
ready  for  camp,  but  alas  for  the  hope  of  rest  for  a  soldier. 
At  3  p.  m.,  a  courier  dashed  into  camp  with  the  report  iliai 
Captain  Camp,  Company  K  (who  had  been  sent  to  establish 
a  post  on  Valley  Mountain),  was  then  fighting  a  large  body 
of  Yankees,  and  needed  reinforcements  at  once.  We  Avere 
ordered  to  fall  in,  leaving  our  baggage  train,  and  push  for- 
ward to  his  relief.  We  marched  forward  over  the  fine  moun- 
tain tiirnpike,  reached  the  top  of  tlie  mountain  at  dark, 
found  Captain  Camp,  but  no  fight  and  no  Yankees,  and  per- 
haps none  in  twenty  miles. 

142  North  Carolina  Troop's,  1861-'65. 

We  bivouacked  without  baggage,  tents  or  rations,  which 
did  not  arrive  until  10  a.  m.  next  day.  This  was  our  first 
exporience  (often  later  repeated)  in  camping  without  sup- 

On  the  arrival  of  our  wagon  train  the  boys  were  soon  busy, 
cooking  and  putting  up  shelter,  the  mountain  side  soon  being 
covered  with  our  white  tents,  making  a  most  picturesque 
scene,  where  before  was  a  wilderness  of  lofty  sugar  maple  and 
h'nn,  with  undergrowth  as  high  as  your  head,  rhododendron 
and  May  apple,  blackberries  in  abundance,  then  perfectly 
green.  (1  August).  We  found  snow  birds  building  nests, 
hatching  and  rearing  their  young — something  we  had  never 
before  seen.  At  Valley  Mountain  we  were  joined  by  two 
Tennessee  Brigades,  Generals  Anderson  and  Donaldson  and 
two  Virginia  Regiments.  The  Fourteenth  Georgia  and  our 
regiment  were  brigaded  with  the  last  under  Colonel  William 
Gilham,  of  Virginia.  A  squadron  of  cavalry,  under  com- 
mand of  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  and  two  batteries  of  artillery  were 
added  to  the  force,  and  an  Irish  battalion  under  Colonel 
Muniford,  from  Lynchburg.  There  was  also  a  company  of 
Baltimoreans,  tinder  command  of  Captain  Clate  Clark,  and 
General  William  Loring  coming  up  took  immediate  com- 
mand of  the  force.  General  Eobert  E.  Lee  also  came,  he 
being  in  command  of  that  department. 


Very  soon  after  reaching  Valley  Mountain,  it  commenced 
raining,  and  it  being  a  rich  loam  and  limestone  soil,  the  roads 
became  almost  impassable,  the  whole  earth  seemed  full  of 
water  with  springs  bubbling  up  in  our  tents.  The  measles 
broke  out  in  camp,  and  transportation  being  short,  the  moun- 
tain was  converted  into  a  sick  camp.  Typhoid  fever  made 
its  appearance,  and  one  morning  there  was  more  than  500 
sick  reported  in  the  regiment.  The  men  began  to  die,  and 
soon  Valley  Mountain  had  a  large  graveyard.  Charles  Green, 
Company  G,  was  the  first  man  we  lost,  dying  26  August. 
TT.  C.  Green,  of  same  company,  in  attempting  to  cross  Valley 
river  after  a  rain  when  swollen  into  a  torrent,  was  drowned, 
his  body  being  washed  down  into  the  Yankee  lines  where  it 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  143 

was  found  and  bnried  by  a  citizen  whose  name  was  Ford. 
About  this  time  death  began  to  get  in  his  work,  many  men 
dying  from  the  exposure  and  the  hard  duty  they  were  com- 
pelled to  undergo,  the  rains  continuing  through  August  and 
September,  causing  a  great  deal  of  sickness  and  many  deaths. 
The  bones  of  many  of  the  brare  boys  of  the  Sixteenth  still 
lie  buried  all  along  the  road  from  Valley  Mountain  to  Staun- 

Early  in  September  blackberries  began  to  ripen,  and  the 
men  were  sent  out  on  the  mountain  to  gather  them,  a  most  ac- 
ceptable service,  and  furnishing  a  splendid  diet  which  was  an 
agreeable  change  and  did  us  much  good.  Blackberry  pies 
and  pudding  with  maple  sugar  or  molasses  were  our  favorite 
bill  of  fare,  lasting  until  we  left  the  mountain  1  October. 
Our  camp  was  on  top  of  the  mountain,  the  dividing  line  be- 
tween Pocahontas  and  Randolph,  until  20  September,  when 
General  Lee  ordered  a  forward  movement  down  the  road  to- 
ward the  enemy,  and  our  first  camp  was  made  just  outside 
our  former  picket  lines.  'Next  morning  at  an  early  hour  we 
were  again  on  the  advance,  and  soon  struck  the  Federal  picket, 
and  we  had  our  first  experience  in  fighting. 


We  were  at  it  all  day,  and  only  made  five  miles  march, 
passing  the  grave  of  our  comrade,  Henry  Green,  who  was 
drowned  a  month  before.  Just  after  halting.  Companies  E 
and  G  were  ordered  on  picket  in  the  mountains.  Misunder- 
standing the  orders,  Captain  Kirksey,  who  was  leading,  was 
marching  us  directly  into  the  lines  of  the  enemy,  when  we  met 
Colonel  Gilham,  who  told  him  there  m\ist  be  a  mistake,  and 
ordered  him  to  stop  where  we  were,  as  we  were  nearly  on  the 
pickets  of  the  enemy.  Galloping  to  headquarters,  Colonel 
Gilham  soon  sent  a  courier  ordering  our  return,  another  de- 
tachment was  sent  in  our  stead,  and  much  relieved  we  re- 
turned to  camp.  On  our  way  out  in  passing  the  sharpshoot- 
ers of  the  Irish  battalion,  we  saw  the  first  dead  Federal  sol- 
dier. He  had  given  his  life  in  the  performance  of  his  duty, 
and  perhaps  was  then  and  there  forgotten  forever. 

We  hoped  to  have  a  good  night's  rest,  but  the  most  fearful 

144  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'6n. 

rain  storm  we  had  ever  witnessed  came  on  us,  drenching  us 
tO'  the  skin,  and  being  near  the  river  our  camp  was  submerged ; 
we  either  had  to  stand  up  or  lie  down  in  the  water.  At  day- 
light the  rain  ceased,  and  soon  the  sun  came  oiit  and  warmed 
us  up,  but  we  were  a  most  forlorn-looking  set,  everything 
being  completely  soaked.  Making  our  breakfast  from  boiled 
beef  and  soaked  bad  bread,  we  were  again  ordered  to  advance. 
Driving  in  the  Federal  pickets,  whom  we  found  every  few 
hundred  yards,  our  progress  was  slow,  and  it  was  late  in  the 
afternoon  before,  we  came  in  sight  of  the  enemy,  in  a  strong 
position,  at  the  lower  end  of  a  wide  valley  between  two  high 
mountains,  strongly  fortified  with  heavy  batteries  of  artillery, 
infantry,  etc. 

The  23d  September,  1861,  was  made  memorable  by  an  oc- 
currence that  cast  a  gloom  over  the  whole  command  and  sad- 
dened the  Southern  heart  all  through  the  Confederacy.  Col- 
onel John  A.  Washington,  the  last  owner  of  Mt.  Vernon,  act- 
ing as  Aid  to  General  K.  E.  Lee,  while  on  a  reconnoissance  on 
a  mountain  road  with  Major  W.  H.  F.  Lee  (later  Major-Gen- 
eral)  was  killed  by  a  shot  from  the  enemy's  picket.  Major 
Lee,  whose  horse  was  killed,  making  his  escape  by  mounting 
Colonel  Washington's  horse. 

Up  to  this  time,  we  had  been  pushing  our  way  down  the 
:']ver  through  a  narrow  gorge  between  the  mountains,  but  on 
the  afternoon  of  the  third  day  the  scene  opened  out  intO'  a 
wide  valley,  at  the  lower  end  of  Avhich  we  could  see  the  en- 
emy's works,  a  strong  position  admirably  selected,  and  tlior- 
oughly  manned  with  artillery  and  infantry,  the  pickets  well 
out  across  the  valley  from  hill  to  hill.  The  river  running 
down  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  on  the  north  side  of  the  val- 
ley, changed  its  course  about  the  middle  and  cutting  directly 
across  to  the  south  side,  divided  the  valley  into  two  farms. 
Just  where  the  river  crossed  were  posted  a  lot  of  sharpshoot- 
ers, with  long  range  rifles,  who'  were  making  it  lively  for  Gen- 
erals Lee,  Loring  and  others  at  a  house  where  they  had  estab- 
lished headquarters.  The  Sixteenth  always  being  in  front, 
Company  G  was  ordered  to  go  down  and  drive  them  away. 
A  Major  was  put  in  command  of  the  expedition,  who  marched 
us  acro.^s  a  field  of  high  grass,  until  we  reached  the  river  at 

Sixteenth  Regimpjnt.  145 

the  foot  of  the  mountain,  then  down  under  cover  of  the  moun- 
tain as  far  as  we  could  go  without  being  discovered  by  the 
Federals.  We  then  climbed  a  steep  mountain,  pulling  up  by 
tlie  bushes  until  we  reached  the  top,  where  we  could  see  all 
the  way  down  the  river  to  the  breastworks  covered  with  bat- 
teries of  artillery  and  bristling  with  muskets.  We  were  or- 
dered to  lie  down  and  keep  perfectly  quiet,  the  sharpshooters 
being  just  below  us  and  in  easy  gunshot  of  us.  Some  of  the 
men  became  impatient,  threatening  to'  shoot.  The  Major 
arose  saying  he  would  kill  the  man  that  made  any  noise.  We 
lay  there  for  half  an  hour,  watching  tiem  shoot  at  our  officers. 
All  at  once  they  started  back  to  their  works,  some  of  them 
stopping  to  knock  apples  from  an  apple  tree.  Then  our  gal- 
lant commandei"  raised  up  with  a  long  drawn  sigh,  said: 
"Well,  boys,  if  we  must,  we  must,  so  come  on,"  and  like  the 
King  of  France,  we  marched  down  the  hill  again.  On  get- 
ting to  the  foot  and  coming  up  out  of  a  deep  ravine,  we  found 
oui-selves  directly  in  front  and  in  full  view  of  the  whole  force 
ready  to  fire.  The  Major,  taking  in  the  situation  at  once 
promptly  jumped  down  a  bank  about  ten  feet  into  the  river, 
and  ordered  everybody  to  do  the  same,  which  order  we  all 
promptly  obeyed.  Retiring  then  in  good  order,  we  kept  our- 
selves well  under  the  bank  of  the  river  for  about  a  hundred 
yards,  coming  out  on  a  sand  bank,  protected  by  a  high  fence. 
The  Major  ordered  us  to  stop  where  we  were,  and  he  would 
go  \ip  and  make  report  of  onr  success  and  for  further  orders, 
taking  one  man  with  him.  When  about  the  middle  of  the 
grass  field,  a  gun  was  fired  from  one  of  the  batteries,  the  shot 
passing  high  over  our  heads.  The  Major  and  his  bodyguard 
fell  flat  in  the  grass,  saying  he  knew  they  were  firing  at  him, 
as  with  their  glasses  they  knew  that  he  was  a  field  officer  by 
his  sword  and  other  decorations.  He  soon  proceeded  to  head- 
quarters, made  his  report,  and  asked  to  be  relieved  as  he  was 
very  sick.  Orders  were  sent  to  us  to  remain  at  our  post,  and 
to  send  a  strong  picket  to  the  ford  and  hold  it  imtil  morning. 
The  night  was  quietly  passed  with  nothing  to  do  except  re- 
lieving tlie  pickets  every  two  hours — we  were  all  wet  to  the 
waist,  having  but  one  blanket  to  the  man,  the  night  being 
very  cold,  the  men  suffered  considerably. 

146  North  Carolina  Troops,   ]861-'65. 

The  sun  rose  beautifully  next  morning,  but  was  late  in 
reaching  us  down  under  the  shadow  of  the  mountain.  We 
were  lying  on  a  sand  bank  enjoying  a  sun  bath,  drying  our 
blankets  and  clothing,  when  a  volley  of  musketry  was  heard 
at  the  ford.  Our  picket  had  discovered  a  squad  of  about 
twenty  Federals  coming  up  under  cover  of  the  woods  on  the 
bank  of  the  river  and  fired  on  them,  they  returning  the  fire, 
and  at  once  withdrew.  Two  of  our  men,  John  Dowdle  and 
John  Y.  Logan  were  wounded.  We  were  then  moved  back, 
taking  position  behind  a  large  raft  of  logs,  and  later  across  the 
river  on  the  side  of  the  mountain,  another  Major  being  put 
in  command  and  a  surgeon  sent  to  stay  with  us.  About  noon 
we  saw  two  men  riding  down  the  road  toward  the  enemy's 
lines  with  a  white  flag.  They  passed  out  of  sight  but  re- 
turned shortly,  the  flag  stopping  opposite  us  while  the  other 
man  galloped  to  headquarters,  and  soon  returned  with  an 
ambulance,  and  all  then  crossed  the  river  going  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  Federals.  In  less  than  an  hour  they  returned, 
driving  very  slowly,  a.nd  we  afterwards  learned  that  they  had 
the  body  of  Colonel  Washington,  who  was  killed  the  day  be- 
fore. His  watch,  money,  and  all  his  papers  were  returned 
with  his  body. 

We  remained  in  our  position  for  two  days  and  nights,  and 
on  the  morning  of  the  third  day,  at  4  a.  m..  Captain  Champ 
Davis  came  down  to  the  writer  and  told  him  he  must  get  the 
pickets  uj-)  as  soon  as  possible.  It  was  very  dark  and  cloudy, 
the  sound  of  the  water  running  over  the  rocks  the  only  thing 
to  guide  us.  The  first  post  was  found  and  notified,  but  the 
second  was.  by  some  means  passed  imnoticed,  soon  finding 
myself  at  the  third,  which  I  knew  was  the  last.  Knowing  the 
danger  in  coining  back  with  a  party  in  tlie  dark,  the  men  were 
instructed  to  wait  for  a  signal  and  then  to  come  up.  Ad- 
vancing very  slowly  and  calling  the  name  of  one  of  the  men 
in  a  low  voice,  I  soon  came  to  the  post,  but  it  was  all  I  coiild 
do  to  keep  them  from  killing  me^ — they  were  so  badly  fright- 
ened. We  soon  got  all  right  and  reached  headquarters,  where 
we  found  the  regiment  awaiting  us. 

Daylight  having  appeared,  Colonel  Lee  came  to  the  front 
and  read  a  general  order  from  General  Lee,  that  on  account 

yiXTEENTH  Regiment.  147 

of  his  i>lans  miscarrying  he  had  determined  not  tO'  make  any 
further  demonstration  on  that  line,  but  tliat  we  were  to  march' 
back  to  Valley  Mountain  for  the  present.  We  marched  back 
about  one  mile,  halting  in  a  field  where  we  waited  until  near 
dark  for  some  troops  to  pass  from  another  road,  then  marched 
several  miles  to  the  camp,  where  we  had  stopped  the  first 
night  coming  down.  There  we  rested  until  morning,  and 
then  marched  tx>  Valley  Mountain,  where  we  remained  a 
few  days.  Almost  half  our  men  were  sick  at  this  time  from 
fever  and  measles,  and  all  the  teams  that  could  be  used  for 
that  purpose  were  put  tO'  work  hauling  off  sick  men  to  the 
camp  established  at  Edray  on  the  south  side  of  Middle  Moun- 
tain, and  they  were  from  there  transferred  to  Warm  Springs, 
Hot  Springs,  and  other  pointai  in  the  direction  of  Staunton 
and  Richmond  as  fast  as  transportation  could  be  procured. 
This  was,  on  account  of  the  rain  and  bad  roads,  slow  and 
hurtful  to  the  sick,  several  dying  on  the  way.  Remaining 
on  Valley  Mountain  a  few  days,  we  moved  camp  to  Big 
Springs,  and  on  the  last  day  of  September  the  writer  gath- 
ered a  bucket  full  of  large,  fine  blackberries  on  the  side  of 
the  mountain. 

On  1  October  we  had  one  of  the  heaviest  rain  storms  I 
ever  saw  fall — a  fire  could  not  be  made  during  the  whole  day 
and  nearly  all  our  tents  were  blown  down.  The  dry  ford  of 
Elk,  perfectly  dry  when  we  passed  up  on  1  August,  was  now 
H  raging  torrent,  sweeping  down  trees  and  everything  else  it 
came  in  contact  with.  During  the  day  we  were  called  out 
and  stood  in  the  rain  for  an  hour,  the  report  being  circulated 
that  the  Federals  were  following  us  and  were  then  on  Valley 
Mountain.  We  were  dismissed,  but  ordered  tO'  hold  ourselves 
in  readiness  to  move  at  a  moment's  notice. 

Just  before  night  a  wagon  was  driven  up,  having  orders  to 
carry  off  the  sick  men  of  Compajay  G.  Eleven  very  sick  men 
with  typhoid  fever,  the  vsrriter  ordered  to  accompany  them, 
were  put  in  the  wagon  and  started  with  two  other  wagons, 
and  soon  we  reached  the  crossing  of  this  dry  run  of  Elk,  the 
road  being  the  bed  of  the  stream.  There  was  an  old  man 
who  lived  on  both  sides  of  the  run,  his  house  on  one,  his 
kitchen  on  the  other  side,  and  he  was  caught  on  the  kitchen 

148  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

side  and  could  not  get  to  his  house.  When  we  arrived  he 
asked  what  we  were  going  to  do.  We  told  him  our  orders 
were  not  to  stop  until  we  crossed  Elk  Mountain.  He  begged 
us  "for  God-s  sake  not  to  attempt  to  cross,  as  the  last  team 
that  had  attempted  to  cross,  with  all  the  men,  had  been 
drowned."  As  it  was  very  dark  and  raining  hard,  we  camped 
for  the  night.  Before  morning  the  rain  ceased,  and  the  sun 
rose  bright  and  clear.  Hooking  up  our  teams  were  soon  on 
the  road.  Getting  into  the  ford,  the  front  mules  became 
frightened  and  turned  for  the  bank.  The  driver  got  them 
stopped  and  called  to  the  writer,  who  was  hanging  on  to  the 
feed  box,  for  help.  T  had  to  give  up  my  hold  on  the  box  and 
wade  round  holding  to  the  saddle  mule  until  I  could  get  to 
the  lead,  and  jumping  on  to  his  back  I  took  the  bridle  of  the 
off  one  and  finally  got  them  straightened.  Looking  across  I 
found  the  ford  filled  with  logs.  I  turned  them  down  the 
stream  and  got  out  fifty  yards  below  on  a  lo'W  bank,  the  mules 
sometimes  on  the  big  rocks,  at  others  swimming.  Of  course, 
the  water  filled  the  wagon  and  the  sick  men  were  thoroughly 
soaked.  We  pushed  on,  and  soon  came  to  a  wagon  turned 
over  in  the  water,  and  the  mules  drowning.  A  little  lower 
down  -^ve  found  Captain  Kirksey,  of  the  Burke  Tigers,  on  a 
big  rock  in  the  middle  of  the  stream,  the  men  with  him  having 
all  got  out  safe. 

Crossing  Elk  river  five  or  six  times,  oft^n  having  to  swim 
it,  just  before  night  we  came  to  a  large  farm  with  lots  of  hay 
stacks  near  the  road,  and  here  I  determined  to  camp.  We 
made  a  shelter  of  rails,  covering  it  with  hay,  making  good 
beds  on  the  groimd,  collected  wood  for  fires  and  made  the  men 
as  comfortable  as  possible.  Having  had  no  rations  for  two 
days  and  nothing  to  cook,  we  went  to  bed  hungry  but  warm 
and  comfortable.  Early  next  morning  we  were  on  the  road 
Avith  other  wagons  that  had  arrived  during  the  night.  Cross- 
ing Elk  Mountain  we  reached  Edray  aboiit  nooai,  where  the 
sick  were  turned  over  to  the  Surgeons  in  charge  of  the  camp, 
and  after  a  rest  of  one  day  they  were  sent  to  Hot  Springs, 
where  several  of  them  died  and  othecrs  came  out  cripples  for 
life.  The  regiment  came  up  in  a  day  or  so.  Having  camped 
a  short  time  on  Elk  Mountain,  we  moved  on  to  Green  Brier 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  149 

bridge,  where  \ve  remained  for  some  time  doing  picket  duty, 
drilling  and  other  like  work. 


Here  General  Lee  divided  his  forces,  taking  part  and  going 
to  the  help  of  Generals  i'loyd  and  Wise  in  the  Kanawha  Val- 
ley, leaving  General  Donaldson,  of  Tennessee,  in  command 
at  Green  Brier.  A  f ter  ten  days  the  force  returned,  and  a  few 
days  later  we  took  up  our  march,  moving  south,  leaving  the 
mountains  covered  with  snow.  Passing  Huntersville,  the 
thii'd  day  we  reached  Warm  Springs,  now  called  Bath  Court 
House.  The  fourth,  we  passed  near  Hot  Springs,  where  a 
great  many  of  our  sick  men  were  in  hospital,  then  by  Bath 
Alum  to  Millboro,  on  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Railroad, 
Dear  Rock  Bridge  Alum  Springs.  We  took  the  train  at  4 
o'clock  a.  m.  for  Staunton,  which  we  were  to  reach  by  9 
o'clock  and  where  we  were  told  we  would  stop  for  some  time, 
80  we  made  no  preparation  for  breakfast,  all  our  rations  being 
packed  up  in  mess  chests  and  loaded  on  the  cars  with  the  bag- 
gage. We  did  not  reach  Staunton  until  5  p.  m.,  and  there 
orders  were  waiting  us  not  to  disembark  but  to  push  on  at  once 
for  Manassas,  as  a  battle  was  expected  at  any  moment. 


We  moved  out,  crossing  the  mountain  after  dark,  passing 
Gordonsville  late  in  the  night  and  Culpepper  at  sunrise,  ar- 
riving at  Manassas  about  5  p.  m.,  hungry  and  tired,  having 
been  two  days  and  nights  on  board  without  food  or  drink. 
We  were  soon  unloaded,  had  fires  lighted,  the  pots  on,  and 
in  short  order  a  two  days'  meal  was  cooked  and  eaten.  We 
remained  at  Manassas  about  two  weeks,  under  command  of 
Colonel  George  B.  Anderson,  of  the  Fourth  North  Carolina, 
and  on  21  November  were  ordered  to  join  Colonel  Wade 
Hampton  at  Bacon  Race  Church,  about  twelve  miles  in  the 
direction  of  the  Potomac,  reaching  there  next  day,  and  a  day 
later  Colonel  Hampton  with  his  brigade,  composed  of  the 
Hampton  Legion,  Fourteenth  and  Nineteenth  Georgia,  and 
Sixteenth  ISTorth  Carolina  and  an  Arkansas  Battalion,  moved 
about  eight  miles  near  the  mouth  of  the  Occoquan,  on  the  Po- 

150  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

tomac,  where  we  were  engaged  in  drilling,  picketing  and 
working  on  breastworks  at  Colchester,  the  point  at  which  Gen- 
eral Washington  crossed  on  his  famous  visit  to  his  mother. 

We  were  frequently  shelled  from  the  gunboats  on  the  river, 
which  we  could  see  plainly  from  the  hill  top. 

The  officers  commanding  the  Legion  were  Colonel  Griffin, 
the  infantry;  Major  M.  C.  Butler,  the  cavalry;  Major 
Stephen  D.  Lee,  the  artillery ;  Colonel  Wade  Hampton,  Com- 
mander-in-Chief;  Nineteenth  Georgia,  Colonel  Boyd;  Four- 
teenth Georgia,  Colonel's  name  forgotten;  Sixteenth  North 
(Carolina,  Colonel  Stephen  Lee. 

wiNTisE  of  1861-2. 

We  remained  here  until  Christmas  day,  and  moved  back 
to  Bacon  Race,  did  picket  duty,  threw  up  entrenchments  and 
fortiii cations  at  Wolf  Bun  Shoals  during  the  winter,  which, 
with  several  deep  snows,  was  a  very  severe  one.  The  river 
was  often  frozen  over,  and  on  one  occasion  when  Company  G 
had  spent  the  night  at  the  ford,  two  of  our  men  crossed  on 
the  ice  to  a  house  beyond,  on  neutral  ground,  bought  apple 
brandy,  sugar  and  eggs,  and  we  had  an  elegant  nogg,  before 
the  relief  company  arrived. 

On  15  Marcli,  1862,  we  broke  camp,  starting  for  the  Rap- 
pahannock, reaching  Falmouth,  a  small  manufacturing  town 
on  the  river  above  Fredericksburg,  on  the  fourth  day.  We 
crossed  the  river  here  and  went  intO'  camp  on  the  heights  above 
the  city,  spending  the  balance  of  the  month  drilling  until  15 
April,  broke  camp  and  again  took  the  line  of  march,  through 
the  city  and  OA^er  the  afterwards  famous  battleground  below, 
and  on  the  third  day  reached  Bowling  Green,  in  Caroline 
County,  the  place  where  John  Wilkes  Booth  was  killed  three 
years  later  and  others  of  his  party  were  captured.  Leaving 
this  place  after  dark,  we  marched  toi  Milford,  a  station  on 
the  Potomac  Railroad,  where  we  embarked  for  Ashland,  ar- 
riving there  about  midnight,  where  we  spent  the  next  day. 


The  day  after,  we  started  for  Yorktown,  which  point  we 
reached  after  a  hard  march  of  five  days,  passing  some  noted 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  151 

places  on  the  way :  Hanover  Court  House,  Old  Church,  Yel- 
low Tavern,  New  Kent  Court  House,  Williamsburg  and  oth- 
ers of  note,  going  into  camp  on  the  Williamsburg  road  just 
above  Torktown.  We  fared  well  here,  having  nothing  else 
to  do,  and  living  on  the  finest  fisih  and  oysters.  On  26  April 
the  companies  of  the  regiment  were  reorganized  by  the  elec- 
tion of  company  officers,  and  on  the  following  day  the  newly- 
elected  company  officers  met  and  elected  Captain  Champ 
Davis,  of  Company  G,  Colonel  of  the  regiment;  Captain  J. 
S.  McElroy,  of  Company  G,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain 
W.  A.  Stowe,  of  Company  M,  Major.  I  had  forgotten  to 
mention  earlier,  that  in  consequence  of  infirmity,  caused  by 
exposure,  old  age,  etc.,  that  on  22  February,  1862,  Colonel 
Stephen  Lee  had  resigned,  leaving  Lieiitenant-Colonel  E,.  G. 
A.  Love  in  command  of  the  regiment. 

On  -i  May  before  daylight,  we  were  again  in  motion  and 
in  line  of  battle,  the  troops  all  leaving  and  everything  on  the 
move.  Yorktown  was  being  evacuated.  All  through  the 
night  trains  of  artillery  had  been  passing.  Colonel  Hampton 
was  to  act  as  rear  guard,  and  after  all  had  passed  we  marched 
out  in  line  of  battle,  taking  the  road  and  holding  the  Feder- 
als back,  skirmishing  with  their  cavalry  until  we  reached 
Williamsburg,  where  we  found  a  large  part  of  Johnston's 
aiTny  entrenched  in  the  forts  and  fortifications  in  front  of 
the  to\\Ti.  Marching  through,  we  went  into  camp  on  the 
hill  above  town,  in  the  same  spot  where  we  had  camped  as  we 
went  down.  Late  in  the  afternoon  we  were  called  out  and 
expected  to  go  back  into  town,  where  heavy  firing  was  heard 
below,  but  after  a  short  time  it  ceased,  and  while  we  were  in 
line  the  Commissai-y  came  round  with  buckets  of  mean  whis- 
key and  tin  cups  and  gave  every  man  a  stiff  drink.  Orders 
were  issued  to  cook  rations  and  be  ready  to  march  at  3  o'clock 
next  morning.  Before  that  time  we  were  up  and  ready  and 
soon  on  the  road.  The  rain  falling  heavy  and  the  mud  deep, 
we  had  a  hard  march,  arriving  at  Barhamsville  late  in  the 
afternoon,  near  West  Point,  wet,  cold,  muddy  and  hungry. 
It  cleared  up  about  sunset,  and  building  big  fires  we  cooked 
supper  and  spent  a  comfortable  night. 

During  the  night  the  wagons  and  artillery  trains  were  pass- 

152  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ing,  and  early  in  the  day  the  troops  from  Williamsburg  were 
to  pass,  after  fighting  pretty  much  all  day.  We  were  put  into 
line  of  battle  that  evening  and  slept  on  our  armsi.  At  night 
the  Federals  had  sent  boats  up  York  river  with  troops  and 
were  landing  them  near  West  Point  and  White  House.  About 
4  p.  m.,  they  advanced,  but  were  handsomely  repulsed  by 
General  Hood's  Texans,  Greneral  Hampton  and  others.  We 
were  in  General  G.  W.  Smith's  Division,  commanded  by 
General  Whiting.  That  night  the  Sixteenth  was  sent  out  on 
the  battlefield  tO'  watch  the  I^'ederals,  and  just  at  12  o'clock 
a  coiirier  came  with  orders  to  return  to  headquarters.  On 
reaching  Barharasville,  everything  was  in  motion,  and  we 
fell  into  line  and  marched  until  sunrise,  when  I  found  myself 
and  a  comrade  standing  by  the  identical  fence  corner  that 
we  had  left  at  12  o'clock. 

Continviing  our  march  Ave  reached  New  Kent  about  10 
o'clcck,  finding  the  main  army  resting  there.  After  resting 
a  short  AA'hile  and  getting  breakfast,  we  were  moved  back  in 
front  of  a  creek,  with  the  Legion  just  in  our  rear,  and  formed 
line  of  battle.  Company  G  being  in  a  garden.  We  soon  found 
the  enemy's  cavalry  were  following  us.  A  battery  of  the 
Legion  artillery  was  placed  in  our  rear  and  opened  on  them, 
when  in  some  confusion  they  retired.  At  dark  we  moved 
forward,  crossing  the  creek  and  went  intoi  camp  on  the  hill  in 
rear  of  it.  ISfext  morning  resumed  our  march,  but  stopped 
within  less  than  two  miles.  There  we  spent  two  days  still 
holding  the  rear  until  dark  of  the  second  day,  when  we  took 
the  line  of  march,  and  in  the  rain  and  storm  passed  White 
House  and  Savage  Station  and  crossed  the  Chickahominy  at 
Bottom's  Bridge  and  stopped  for  the  rest  of  the  night. 


Next  day  Ave  moved  up  near  Richmond,  went  intO'  camp, 
Avhere  we  remained  doing  picket  duty  before  Richmond  until 
29  May.  Then  we  broke  camp  about  dark  and  moved  up  to 
Meadow  Bridge,  where  we  spent  the  next  day  and  night.  On 
the  31st  about  noon,  were  ordered  to  fall  in  and  started  for 
Seven  Pines,  going  part  of  the  way  at  double-quick.  Reach- 
ing the  battlefield  about  5  p.  m.,  we  were  assigned  a  place  on 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  153 

the  left.  Advancing  through  a  swamp  with  all  the  large 
trees  cut  down  and  all  the  obstacles  that  could  possibly  be 
placed  in  our  way,  we  were  greeted  with  a  terrible  hail  of 
shot  and  shell,  mostly  passing  over  our  heads,  but  occasionally 
some  brave  hero  would  fall,  while  the  rest  were  pushing  for- 
ward until  we  came  directly  in  front  of  a  heavy  fortification 
defended  by  infantry  and  artillery,  and  which  it  was  impos- 
sible to  carry  with  our  small  force.  Just  then  some  one  gave 
the  order  to  lie  down,  which  was  promptly  obeyed,  protecting 
ourselves  behind  the  obstructions,  but  that  did  not  prevent  our 
men  from  getting  hit.  We  soon  made  the  discovery  that 
Company  Gr  was  the  only  force  in  sight.  Its  Captain,  L.  P. 
Erwin,  ordered  the  First  Sergeant,  A.  B.  Long,  to  go  to  the 
right  to  see  where  the  right  wing  -was,  but  he  did  not  return, 
and  the  Captain,  ordering  the  company  back  a  short  distance 
under  cover,  called  to  the  writer  to  stay  vsdth  it  and  he  would 
go  and  see.  Lieutenant  Lee  Hemphill  got  up  and  said  he 
would  go  with  him.  Lieutenant  McEntire  had  just  been 
wounded  and  gone  to  the  rear.  After  waiting  some  time  and 
hearing  nothing  from  them,  and  being  under  a  shower  of  bul- 
lets, the  men  being  often  hit,  an  officer  came  riding  down  in 
rear  and  called  out:  -"What  are  you  doing  in  here?  Get 
out !  Get  out !"  ISTot  knowing  anything  better  to  do,  I  ordered 
the  company  up  and  we  moved  back  in  good  order  until  we 
came  to  the  edge  of  the  swamp,  where  we  found  a  regiment  of 
Federals  marching  across  our  front,  firing  at  everything  they 
saw  crossing  the  field.  Stopping  the  company  and  falling 
back  into  cover,  and  satisfied  we  had  not  been  seen,  we  moved 
very  cautiously  to  the  right,  until  we  could  take  advantage  of 
a  piece  of  woods,  and  in  that  way  made  our  escape.  We  could 
see  a  number  of  Confederate  flags  across  a  wheat  field  and 
near  York  River  Railroad.  On  reaching  the  road  we  found 
Colonel  Pender  witli  the  Sixth  North  Carolina,  and  Company 
G  was  attached  to  it  for  a  short  time,  until  the  Sixteenth 
made  its  appearance.  I  then  learned  that  our  Colonel  Davis 
had  been  slain. 

Everybody  knew  Uncle  Jack  Wilkins,  our  company  Com- 
missary, and  that  he  was  a  strict  temperance  man,  but  that 
Sunday  morning  after  the  fight  the  old  man  hobbled  down 

154  JS'oBTi-i  Carolina  Troops,  ISGl-'eS-. 

with  several  canteens  of  "fire  water"  and  gave  each  of  the 
men  a  dram.  He  knew  we  needed  it,  and  the  good  angels 
only  smiled. 

There  was  a  great  deal  of  bluster  and  bragging  among  the 
Tiampton  Legion  men,  and  one  company  proposed  to  go  back 
into  that  f3^vamp  and  demolish  the  Yankee  army,  but  I  noticed 
that  nobody  held  them.  Dark  coming  on  about  this  time,  we 
moved  back  a  short  distance,  cold,  wet  and  hungry,  without 
blankets,  overcoats  or  any  kind  of  covering,  having  left  every- 
thing back  on  tJie  road ;  but  what  was  our  surprise  on  waking 
up  in  tlie  morning  to  find  that  we  were  lying  in  a  few  yards  of 
a  depot  of  supplies  filled  with  overcoats,  blankets,  all  kinds  of 
clothing,  with  barrels  of  crackers,  sugar,  coffee,  meat  of  all 
kinds,  and  army  supplies,  in  addition  to  the  knapsacks, 
blankets,  etc.,  belonging  to  a  Pennsylvania  and  a  New  York 
Hegiment  driven  out  the  day  before,  affording  a  great  treat 
for  our  famished,  worn  out  men.  Unfortunately  for  the 
writer,  just  as  he  was  lying  down  between  two  men  to  keep 
warm,  the  Adjutant  came  and  said  he  wanted  me  to  take 
charge  of  a  party  and  go  back  into  the  swamp.  This  spoiled 
all  my  prospects  for  a  good  night^s  rest.  Going  back  cau- 
tiously, we  established  a  picket  line  as  near  the  entrance  as 
we  thought  prudent.  Everything  passed  off  quietly  during 
the  night,  except  we  could  hear  wounded  men  calling  for  help, 
and  about  daylight  we  had  the  pleasure  of  helping  several  of 
our  friends  to  get  back  into  our  own  line. 

Still  keeping  careful  watch,  about  9  a.  m.,  I  was  notified 
that  the  army  would  retire  in  the  direction  of  Richmond  and 
we  must  hold  the  line  for  three-fourths  of  an  hour,  and  then 
get  out  and  join  the  command  if  we  could.  Remaining  the 
required  length  of  time,  the  men  were  withdrawn  and 
marched  back  to  the  road,  where,  looking  back  across  the 
river,  we  saw  three  balloons  making  observations.  Very  soon 
a  gun  was  fired  and  a  shell  came  whistling  along  near  us. 
Thinking  we  were  being  fired  at  and  in  great  danger,  the  men 
were  ordered  to  leave  the  road  and  march  in  the  woods.  Fol- 
lowing up  the  road  about  two  miles,  we  came  up  with  the 
army  and  were  relieved  from  further  duty  for  the  time,  and 
thus  ended  our  part  in  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines.     We  had 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  155 

lost  our  Colonel  and  many  brave  men,  but  bow  many  killed 
and  wounded,  at  this  late  day,  thirty-seven  years  after,  it  is 
impossible  to  tell. 


Remained  at  this  place  about  ten  days  doing  picket  duty, 
when  under  general  orders  Hampton's  Brigade  was  broken 
up  and  the  troops  sent  to  their  several  State  organizations. 
The  Sixteenth  was  brigaded  with  the  Twenty-second  North 
Carolina;  Thirty-fourth,  Colonel  R.  H.  Riddick;  Thirty- 
eighth,  Colonel  W.  J.  Hoke;  and  the  Thirteenth,  Colonel 
A.  M.  Scales,  and  General  W.  Y).  Pender  as  commander.  The 
Twenty-second  was  reorganized  and  Major  Conner,  of  the 
Legion,  was  appointed  Colonel.  The  brigade  was  attached 
to  General  A.  'P.  Hill's  Light  Division. 

General  J.  £.  Johnston  being  wounded  at  Seven  Pines, 
General  R.  E.  Lee,  our  old  Valley  Mountain  commander,  was 
put  in  command  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

When  General  Pender  took  charge  of  the  brigade,  he  made 
a  requisition  on  the  16th  for  an  officer  to  take  charge  of  the 
Ordnance  Department  of  the  brigade,  and  the  writer  was  de^ 
tached  for  that  purpose,  was  given  a  horse  and  permission  to 
go  into  Richmond  at  will,  a  privilege  which  was  used  to  the 
fullest  extent 

We  remained  in  camp  on  the  Nine  Mile  road,  getting  into 
good  shape,  until  25  June,  when  we  moved  out  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Meadow  Bridge,  reaching  that  point  at  10  o'clock  at 
night.  I  have  always  thought  that  General  Lee  formed  his 
plan  of  campaign  from  General  Johnston's,  which  was  not 
carried  out,  as  circumstances  changed  all  of  the  latter's  oper- 

SEVEN  days'  IfTGHT. 

At  4  p.  m.  on  the  26th  the  Light  Division  was  put  in  mo- 
tion. Pender's  Brigade  was  the  fourth  to  cross  the  Chicka- 
hoininy  at  this  point;  General  Branch,  who  was  ordered  not 
to  cross  until  he  heard  from  General  Jackson,  crossing  above, 
and  Hill  was  ordered  to  move  when  Branch  gave  him  notice 
that  Jackson  was  in  position,  but  not  hearing  from  either  he 
became  impatient  and  ordered  a  forward  movement. 

156  .TSToRTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

General  Pender  says  in  his  official  report:  "After  cross- 
ing I  was  ordered  to  cross  the  fields  direct  for  Mechanicsville. 
Soon  after  leaving  the  Meadow  Bridge  road,  one  or  two  pieces 
of  artillery  opened  upon  us  from  a  road  above  Mechanicsville. 
liere,  owing  to  my  imperfect  knowledge  of  the  roads  and  par- 
tial misleading  of  the  guide,  my  left  regiment  went  too  far  to 
the  left,  and  consequently  did  not  join  the  brigade  until  late 
at  night,  for  while  it  was  coming  up  after  being  sent  for,  it 
was  ordered  by  some  one  to  support  another  brigade,  and  I 
would  here  mention  it  Avas  reported  to  me  as  behaving  well 
under  a  very  murderous  fire  to  which  it  was  soon  exposed, 
losing  about  200  men."  This  "left  regiment"  was  the  Six- 
teenth ISTorth  Carolina  Regiment,  commanded  by  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  J.  S.  M:cElroy. 

The  men  lay  on  their  arms  that  night,  and  were  in  line  and 
ready  for  action'  before  daylight.  During  the  night  I  re- 
ceived an  order  from  General  Pender  to  bring  up  the  ord- 
nance train  at  once.  I  started  immediately,  but  on  reaching 
Mechanicsville,  the  streets  were  so  blocked  with  ambulances, 
wagons,  and  litter-bearers  bringing  off  the  wounded,  that  it 
was  impossible  to  proceed  for  soane  time.  General  Pender 
becoming  impatient,  mounted  his  horse  and  came  to  meet  and 
hurry  up  the  train,  saying  it  was  important  to  have  the  train 
up  before  daylight.  On  seeing  the  condition  of  affairs,  he  or- 
dered me  to  use  all  dispatch,  and  left  a  courier  with  me  direct- 
ing me  where  to  go.  On  reaching  the  designated  point,  I 
left  the  train  and  rode  forward  to  look  up  the  brigade.  Hid- 
ing near  a  tliick  pine  old  field  on  the  right  and  wheat  field  on 
the  left,  I  was  soon  ordered  to  "halt!  advance  and  give  the 
countersigTi,"  but  as  I  could  not  see  the  party  I  was  in  doubt 
to  which  army  he  belonged,  and  after  some  parleying  on  both 
sides,  he  said  he  belonged  io  a  Georgia  regiment.  I  then 
advanced  and  found  a  mere  boy  hid  in  a  thicket  of  plum 
bushes.  On  telling  him  who  I  was  looking  for,  he  said  he 
did  not  know  where  they  were,  but  that  he  was  on  the  outpost 
and  was  expecting  to  be  fired  on  at  every  moment,  but  there 
was  a  regiment  just  below  him,  as  he  had  heard  them  halt  and 
stack  arms  there  during  the  night  and  had  not  moved  since. 

Kiding  through  the  pines  about  fifty  yards,  I  found  Colo- 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  157 

nel  Riddick  with  tihe  Thirty-fourth  Regiment,  the  men  just 
getting  up  and  rolling  up  their  blankets.  I  told  the  Colonel 
to  send  for  ammunition  at  once.  Then  firing  commenced 
just  where  1  had  left,  the  balls  flying  among  the  men  and 
causing  some  confusion,  one  ball  striking  my  horse,  slightly 
wounding  him.  Telling  Colonel  Riddick  where  to  find  the 
ordnance  train,  I  galloped  back  to  find  my  train  in  great  dan- 
ger from  shell  and  shot  flying  over  and  about  it.  I  soon  re- 
ceived orders  from  General  Pender  to  move  behind  the  hill, 
which  was  promptly  obeyed.  In  a  very  short  time  the  flring 
ceased  and  a  forward  movement  was  ordered. 

Taking  the  road  to  Cold  Harbor,  we  came  on  the  ground 
fought  over  the  evening  before,  and  found  it  covered  with 
Confederate  dead.  Crossing  the  creek  on  a  bridge  below  El- 
lyson's  Mills,  we  soon  came  to'  the  works  of  the  enemy  and 
could  see  how  impregnable  they  were,  and  but  for  Jackson's 
coming  in  the  rear,  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  carry 
them.  In  rear  of  the  works  we  found  their  abandoned  camp, 
strewn  with  blankets,  oil  cloths,  knapsacks  and  everything  per- 
taining to  camp  life. 

Reaching  Gaines'  Mill  about  2  o'clock  p.  m.,  we  crossed 
the  creek  on  a  bridge  and  moved  rapidly  to  Cold  Harbor, 
where  we  were  soon  engaged  in  one  of  the  hardest  fights  of  the 
war,  losing  many  men  killed  and  woimded.  General  Hill 
says  in  his  report:  "The  Sixteenth  North  Carolina,  Colonel 
McElroy,  and  Twenty-second,  Colonel  Gray,  at  one  time 
crossed  the  crest  of  the  hill  and  were  in  the  enemy's  camp, 
but  were  driven  back  by  overwhelming  numbers,  holding  our 
position.  The  loss  of  the  regiment  was  very  heavy,  the  fight- 
ing was  kept  up  until  9  o'clock  p.  m.,  and  we  then  lay  down 
to  rest  on  our  arms." 

Saturday  morning  early  tlie  men  were  up,  but  found  the 
enemy  had  crossed  the  river,  leaving  the  dead  and  wounded  to 
be  cared  for  by  the  rebels,  with  an  immense  amount  of  army 
stores  in  our  hands.  We  spent  the  day  in  burying  the  dead 
and  caring  for  the  wounded.  We  had  to-day  our  first  sight 
of  the  celebrated  Stonewall  Jackson,  as  he  and  General  Lee 
met  near  where  we  were  lying  and  had  a  long  conference. 
From  his  appearance  no  one  would  have  suspected  that  he  was 

158  NoETH  Caeomna  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

more  than  a  Corporal  in  a  cavalry  company.  The  writer  had 
a  fine  opportunity  o^f  riding  over  and  viewing  the  battlefield, 
and  it  was  a  sight  not  to  be  desired  a  second  time.  The  field 
where  the  JSTew  York  Zouaves  fought  was  literally  red  with 
them,  and  a  large  majority  of  them  were  shot  through  the 
head ;  himdreds  of  horses  were  lying  around,  some  not  dead, 
some  with  legs  shot  O'ff,  trying  to  get  up,  moaning  and  crying 
like  children  begging  for  help,  or  as  if  begging  some  one  to 
shoot  them  and  end  their  pain. 

Sunday,  the  29th,  we  crossed  the  river  and  followed  the 
enemy  in  the  direction  of  James  river.  On  Monday  there 
was  a  serious  battle  at  Frazier's  Farm,  in  which  the  Sixteenth 
was  engaged  and  lost  many  men  killed  and  wounded.  Cap- 
tain Coleman,  of  Company  A,  was  killed,  a  shot  taking  ofE  his 

Tuesday,  1  July,  the  great  battle  of  Malvern  Hill  was 
fought.  A.  P.  Hill's  Division,  althoiigh  under  fire  all  day, 
did  not  go  into  the  fight,  being  kept  in  reserve. 

The  next  day,  2  July,  finding  the  enemy  had  gone,  we  were 
ordered  to  follow  as  fast  as  possible.  We  found  the  roads, 
fields  and  woods  full  of  all  kinds  of  army  supplies,  wagons, 
ambulances,  pontoon  trains,  and  everything  pertaining  to  a 
well-equipped  army,  showing  that,  the  enemy  had  retreated  in 
great  haste  and  much  confusion.  Following  down  through 
Charles  City  County,  we  foimd  them  camped  and  at  bay  on 
James  river,  near  Harrison's  landing,  under  cover  of  a  large 
fleet  of  all  manner  of  war  vessels,  in  which  position  they  were 
safe  from  the  ragged  rebels  who  had  for  seven  days  driven 
them  from  field  to  field.  After  several  days  we  moved  back, 
at  night,  by  the  river  road  towards  Richmond  and  camped  for 
some  titne  on  the  farm  of  Secretary  of  War  Randolph,  below 


About  20  July,  A.  P.  Hill's  Division  was  ordered  to  join 
General  Jackson  at  Gordonsville,  where  we  remained  until  6 
August,  -^^'hen  we  marched  in  the  direction  of  Orange  Court 
House,  camping  on  the  side  of  a  mountain.  On  the  7th,  we 
marched  only  a  few  miles,  camping  near  a  hig  spring  near  the 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  159 

town.  Next  day,  the  8th,  marched  intO'  town,  lay  around  on 
the  streets  all  day,  cq^ping  at  night  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  be- 
yond town.  TTiere  was  some  fighting  that  daj'  about  the  river 
and  several  prisoners  were  brought  in. 

Early  on  the  9th  we  were  on  the  march  in  the  direction  of 
Culpepper  Court  House.  Owing  to  the  extreme  heat  many 
of  the  mem  gave  out,  some  with  sunstroke.  Late  in  tbe  after- 
noon we  came  in  hearing  of  the  artillery  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
and  crossing  Eapidan  river,  we  were  soon  in  sight  of  the  bair 


Pender's  Brigade  was  put  in  on  the  left  of  the  main  road, 
and  advancing  soon  met  troops  falling  back  in  confusion. 
We  speedily  advanced  and  reaching  a  wood  were  greeted  with 
a  volley  of  musketry.  We  did  not  stop,  but  drove  the  enemy 
across  the  Culpepper  road  and  off  the  field.  We  were  here 
joined  by  Archer's  Brigade,  which  lapped  over  a  part  of  our 
right.  Pegram's  Battery  then  came  into  action,  and  for  half 
an  hour  shelled  the  woods  in  our  front,  and  we  were  then  or- 
dered forward  on  the  Culpepper  road.  Just  after  reaching 
the  woods  some  batteries  in  our  front  commenced  shelling  the 
field,  the  shot  passing  through  the  tops  of  the  trees  over  our 
heads.  As  soon  as  tlie  gTins  ceased  firing,  we  faced  to  tbe 
front,  marching  in  line  through  the  woods  until  we  came  to 
a  high  rail  fence,  where  we  were  halted  and  the  men  ordered 
to  rest  on  their  arms. 

Everytliing  being  quiet  in  our  front,  Major  Cole,  of  the 
Twenty-second ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Miller,  of  the  Thirty- 
fourth,  and  the  writer,  were  ordered  to  make  a  reconnoissance 
through  the  woods  in  front.  Being  informed  that  some  Vir- 
ginians Avere  on  our  right,  we  crossed  the  fence  and  moA^ed 
forward  some  distance,  but  found  no  one  until  we  had  gone 
about  two  hundred  yards,  when  we  discovered  a  lot  of  men 
sitting  under  the  shade  of  some  trees,  and  hailed  them  several 
times  but  could  get  no  answer.  I  then  went  up  to  them  and 
demanded  who  they  Avere,  and  they  said  they  belonged  to  a 
Virginia  regiment  and  were  afraid  we  were  Yankees  and 
would  shoot  them.     The  Colonel  and  Major  then  went  back 

ICO  K'oETH  Cakomna  Troops,  1861-'65. 

to  report,  leaving  me  to  hold  the  fort.  Greneral  Pemder  sent 
me  about  thirty  men,  with  orders  to  f o^rm  a  line  on  the  left  of 
the  Virginians  and  to  stay  there  until  morning.  Everything 
was  qiiiet  during  the  night,  and  about  9  a.  m.  I  was  sent  or- 
ders to  hold  on  about  an  hour  and  then  withdraw  quietly  and 
join  him  at  the  side  of  the  mountain.  About  this  time  we 
got  up  a  lively  skirmish  with  the  enemy's  pickets  in  front,  but 
held  our  ground  until  time  to  leave,  when  we  drew  off  gradu- 
ally, and  after  a  hot  and  hard  march  over  the  battlefield  we 
reached  the  mountain  almost  exhausted  with  heat  and  hunger. 
On  going  out  the  night  before  I  found  a  bag  of  ground  coffee, 
sugar,  cakes  and  other  nice  things  left  by  the  enemy  in  their 
hasty  retreat,  and  sent  it  back  to  be  taken  caxe  of,  and  on 
reaching  headquarters  I  called  for  breakfast,  which  was  soon 
furnished  with  co-ffee,  crackers,  mutton  chops,  Irish  pota- 
toes, etc. 

After  an  hour  or  so  rest,  we  again  marched  back,  on  the 
battlefield  and  manoiuvered  around  on  it  all  day  Sunday. 
General  Pope  says  that  General  Jackson  sent  in  a  flag  of  truce 
asking  for  the  privilege  of  burying  his  dead,  but  as  we  passed 
over  the  field  after  10  o'clock  and  saw  no  dead  or  wounded 
except  Federals,  and  as  we  had  possession  of  the  field  until 
Monday  night,  I  think  this  must  be  one  of  General  Pope's 
many  mistakes.  I  know  that  he  sent  one,  and  General  Ewell 
says  that  while  the  armistice  was  in  existence.  General  Early 
took  a  detachment  from  his  brigade  and  gathered  up  six 
wagon  loads  of  arms.  All  day  Monday  we  manceuvored  on 
the  field  and  offered  him  battle,  but  he  refused  to  accept  the 

On  Monday  night  we  built  up  camp  fires  as  if  we  were 
going  to  spend  the  night,  but  about  midnight  we  fell  into  line 
and  marched  in  the  direction  of  Orange  Court  House,  and 
passing  that  place  next  day  went  into  camp  near  the  Brick 
Church  on  the  railroad,  where  we  remained  imtil  18  Augrist, 
when  we  broke  camp  and  moved  forward  on  the  Manassas 
campaign.  We  stopped  two  days  on  the  Crenshaw  Farm. 
On  the  20th  we  moved  again,  crossing  the  Eapidan  at  Som- 
merville  Ford,  and  passed  Stephensburg,  camping  near  Pran- 
dy  Station. 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  161 

On  the  21st  we  moved  up  the  Rappahannock,  crossing 
Hazel  river  at  a  mill,  and  moved  in  the  direction  of  Warren- 
ton  Springs,  where  we  spent  Sunday  under  a  heavy  shelling, 
having  several  men  wounded.  About  4  p.  m.  Longstreet's 
Corps  relieved  us,  and  we  marched  back  about  one  mile  to 
Jefferson  and  cooked  three  days'  rations,  and  on  Monday 
morning  started  on  our  long  march  tO'  Manassas,  passing 
through  Orleans  and  stopping  that  night  a  short  time  to  rest 
near  Salem.  On  Tuesday  we  passed  through  Thoroughfare 
Gap ;  marching  all  day  and  all  night  we  reached  Bristoe  Sta- 
tion at  sunrise  on  Wednesday  morning,  27th.  Following  the 
railroad,  about  9  a.  m.  we  reached  Manassas,  where  we  found 
a  brigade  of  J^Tew  Jersey  troops  to  oppose  our  progress.  Pen- 
der's Brigade  was  halted  for  a  short  time  behind  a  hill  on 
which  there  were  some  works,  forts  that  the  writer  assisted  in 
building  in  November,  1861.  Captain  Crenshaw  was  or- 
dered to  put  his  guns  there  and  open  on  the  enemy  as  they  ap- 
proached from  the  direction  of  the  bridge  on  Bull  Run,  and 
soon  had  them  in  full  retreat.  We  were  then  ordered  to  ad- 
vance, and  passing  by  a  large  house  that  was  used  as  a  hospi- 
tal, the  writer  was  ordered  to  stop  Company  G  and  talce  charge 
of  the  place,  while  the  brigade  followed  on.  We  found  in  the 
yard  and  around  the  hospital  a  good  many  wounded  and  dead 
Federals  and  a  lot  of  sick  in  the  hospital  in  the  care  of  two 
Philadelphia  surgeons,  and  after  having  the  wounded  brought 
in  and  put  in  charge  of  the  surgeons,  we  had  the  dead  buried. 
Wo  were  very  highly  complimented  and  thanked  by  the  doc- 
tors for  our  care  and  protection  of  their  hospital  and  prop- 


We  found  all  the  depots  and  storehouses  full  of  army  sup- 
plies of  all  kinds ;  quartermaster,  company  and  hospital  stores 
of  every  description  that  could  be  desired,  and  you  may  be  as- 
sured that  we  feasted  that  day  after  starving  for  three.  About 
sunset  the  brigade  returned,  after  having  quite  a  severe  en- 
gagement at  the  bridge  across  Bull  Run.  On  reporting  to 
General  Pendei',  I  was  ordered  to  join  my  regiment,  which  I 
found  near  by,  and  going  to  my  "room"  I  retired  as  I  then 


162  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

thought  for  the  night,  but  alas,  the  soldier  who'  followed 
Stonewall  Jackson  had  no  assurance  when  down,  wlien  he 
would  be  called  up.  About  1  o'clock  a.  m.,  we  were  aroused 
by  a  terrible  explosion,  and  getting  up  we  found  all  the  depots 
and  stores  at  tlie  station  O'n  fire  and  millions  of  property 
being  destroyed.  How  we  poor  rebels  felt  can  better  be  im- 
agined than  described,  to  stand  and  see  hundreds  of  bags  of 
coJfee  with  sugar,  flour,  meat,,  and  all  kinds  of  provisioiis  and 
delicacies  destroyed  with  all  manner  of  stores  that  we  would 
have  liked  to  have,  but  as  there  was  no  way  of  saving  them 
and  no  wagons  to  transport  them,  it  was  necessary  to  burn 
them  to  prevent  them  again  falling  into  the  hands  of  Pope's 
army  that  was  just  behind  us.  It  was  Jackson's  business  to 
cripple  him  until  Lee  could  come  up,  so  they  had  to  be  de- 
stroyed. There  was  50,000  barrels  of  bacon,  1,000  barrels  of 
corned  beef,  50,000  barrels  of  pork,  20,000  barrels  of  flour, 
two  trains  loaded  with  clothing  and  other  stores,  four  sutlers' 
stores,  2,000  new  tents  and  various  other  valuable  equip- 

The  order  then  came  to  fall  in,  and  A.  P.  Hill's  Division 
moved  towards  Centreville,  which  we  reached  about  daylight 
Thiirsday  morning,  28  August,  where  we  got  breakfast  and 
rest  until  about  10  a.  m.,  when  we  took  the  road  for  Man- 
assas, going  by  Sudley's  Pord,  and  as  we  marched  could  see 
thousands  of  Yankees  moving  around  the  station  and  on  the 
road  to  Centreville.  Crossing  the  run  we  saw  a  pile  of  rocks 
with  a  cedar  post  in  the  center,  marking  the  spot  where  Bee 
fell  on  21  July,  1861,  and  where  he  gave  the  old  man  his  im- 
mortal name — "Stonewall"  Jackson. 

Crossing  the  ford  we  stopped  for  a  short  time  near  the  old 
stone  house,  and  the  men  looking  for  water  found  an  old 
well  in  the  yard  without  bucket  or  rope.  They  secured  a 
long  pole,  tied  their  canteens  to  it  and  filled  them,  and  after 
drinking  all  they  wanted  and  filling  for  future  use,  an  old 
man  came  from  the  house,  saying :  "I  don't  think  that  water 
is  very  good — when  the  battle  was  fought  here  last  summer 
some  dead  men  were  thrown  into  it,  and  it  has  not  been 
cleaned  out  since."  You  can  imagine  that  those  canteens 
were  soon  emptied,  and  some  of  the  men  also.     In  a  short 

Sixteenth  Rkgiment.  163 

time  we  -were  marched  into  the  woods,  and  quite  a  lively  ac- 
tion began  between  Ewell's  Division  and  Hooker. 

This  engagement  between  Generals  Ewell  and  Hooker  was 
in  the  direction  of  Grovetown,  and  night  coming  on  put  a 
stop  to  the  firing.  Troops  were  moving  all  night  taking  posi- 
tion for  the  expected  affray  of  the  29th,  which  came  all  too 
soon  for  many  of  our  wornout  men. 


About  10  o'clock  a.  m.,  Hill's  Division  was  moved  into 
town  near  the  old  railroad  which  has  been  so  much  written 
about,  and  soon  we  were  assaulted  by  a  large  force  and  had 
all  we  could  do  to  hold  our  ground.  Pender's  Brigade  was 
in  front,  and  received  the  assaults  of  an  army  corps  for  a 
whole  day,  at  one  time  giving  way  and  falling  back  on  the 
reserve,  but  the  gallant  Pender  soon  rallied  them  and  with  a 
gallant  dash  soon  routed  the  enemy  and  recaptured  the  lost 
ground.  In  this  charge  Company  G,  Sixteenth,  lost  two  men 
killed  with  the  flag  and  many  wounded ;  one  man,  A.  B.  Long, 
was  struck  in  the  left  eye,  the  ball  passing  through  liis  head 
and  coming  out  behind  his  right  ear.  All  thought  he  would 
die,  but  he  is  still  alive  and  is  one  of  the  best  citizens  of  Ruth- 
erford County.  In  all  this  struggle  the  Sixteenth  held  its 
own  until  dark,  when  we  lay  down  on  our  arms,  feeling  that 
the  morrow  would  bring  more  hard  fighting  and  wounds  and 
death  to  many. 

Early  on  Saturday,  the  30th,  the  whole  command  was 
ready  and  under  arms,  but  all  quiet  until  about  4  p.  m.,  when 
we  were  startled  by  the  roar  of  artillery,  and  looking  to  the 
front  we  found  the  whole  Federal  army  rushing  on  us,  and 
we  were  hard  pressed  until  daxk,  sustaining  at  least  six 
charges,  but  we  held  the  line  until  just  before  dark  a  general 
charge  was  ordered  along  the  whole  line,  and  with  one  mad 
rush  the  whole  of  Pope's  grand  army  was  driven  from  the 
field  and  across  Bull  Eun,  and  ends  the  second  battle  of  Man- 

ox  HILL. 

On  Sunday,  31  August,  we  were  again  in  motion,  and  cross- 
ing at  Sudley's  Ford  we  struck  the  little  river  turnpike,  and 

164  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

about  dark  bivouacked  near  Chantilly,  and  continuing  down 
that  road  we  soon  came  in  contact  with  the  rear  guard  of 
Pope's  army,  in  charge  of  General  Phil.  Kearney,  at  Ox 
Hill,  and  engaging  them  at  once  in  a  severe  thunder  storm  we 
soon  put  them  to  flight,  and  in  this  affair  the  brave  Generals 
Phil.  Kearney  and  Stephens  were  killed.  We  also  lost  many 
killed  and  wounded;  the  Thirty-fourth,  of  our  brigade,  lost 
two  gallant  field  officers,  Colonel  R.  H.  Eiddick  and  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Miller. 

Leaving  Ox  HiU  on  the  3d,  we  passed  Leesburg  on  the  4th 
and  camped  near  the  Big  Spring,  and  on  the  morning  of  the 
6th,  General  Pender  sent  for  the  officers  of  the  brigade  to  re- 
port at  his  headquarters.  He  made  them  a  speech,  telling 
them  that  we  were  now  going  to  crO'SS  the  Potomac  and  going 
into  the  enemy's  country,  and  that  they  must  act  as  officers 
and  gentlemen,  keeping  a  firm  hand  on  the  men  of  their  com- 
mands, and  that  he  would  hold  them  responsible  for  their 


About  10  a.  m.,  we  fell  in  and  reached  the  ford  at  2  p.  m., 
and  crossing  we  at  once  started  on  the  way  tO'  Frederick  City ; 
marching  until  midnight,  we  stopped  near  a  corn  field,  where 
we  got  some  green  corn,  roasted  it  and  eat  supper.  We  gath- 
ered a  supply  for  morning.  We  were  soon  on  the  march  and 
reached  Frederick  about  12  m.,  where  we  spent  several  days 
near  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad,  blowing  up  iron  bridges 
and  doing  all  the  damage  we  could  to  public  property.  The 
men  were  not  allowed  to  leave  the  camps  tO'  enter  the  city  or 
to  forage  on  the  country.  The  writer  remembers  sending  up 
a  pass  for  a  man  to  go  out  tO'  get  some  milk  for  a  sick  man, 
and  it  was  returned :  "Let  the  sick  man  eat  a  little  beef." 
Leaving  Frederick  10  September,  we  passed  South  Mountain, 
Boonesboro  and  Middletown,  on  the  third  day  crossing  the 
Potomac  to  Williamsport  and  spending  the  night  near  Fall- 
ing Waters,  next  day  entering  Martinsburg,  driving  General 
White  in  the  direction  of  Harper's  Ferry,  which  place  we 
reached  on  the  13th.  On  leaving  Ox  Hill,  for  some  cause 
unknown  to  the  writer,  General  A.  P.  Hill  was  put  under  ar- 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  165 

rest  by  General  Jackson,  General  Branch  commanding  the 
division.  General  Hill  marched  on  foot  with  the  rear  guard 
all  the  day  through  Maryland,  an  old  white  hat  slouched  down 
over  his  eyes,  his  coat  off  and  wearing  an  old  flannel  shirt, 
looking  as  mad  as  a  bull,  but  just  before  reaching  Harper's 
Ferry  he  was  released,  and  donning  his  coat  and  sword  he 
mounted  his  horse  and  dashed  to  the  front  of  his  troops,  and 
looking  like  a  young  eagle  in  search  of  his  prey,  he  took  com- 
mand of  his  division  to  the  delight  of  all  his  men. 


It  was  late  in  the  day  of  the  14th  when  Jackson  had  his  ar- 
rangements completed  for  the  attack  on  the  enemy.  Hill's 
Division  was  ordered  toi  storm  the  position,  and  moving  for- 
ward with  a  rush,  Pender's  Brigade  in  front,  they  gained  the 
crest  of  the  hill,  the  enemy  retrejating  within  their  works  with 
little  resistance.  During  the  night  the  crest  gained  by  Pender 
was  crowned  with  artillery,  and  all  the  available  points  within 
reach  were  taken  possession  of  by  Colonel  Crutchfield,  Jack- 
eon's  chief  of  artillery. 

At  dawn  on  the  15th,  Jackson  opened  his  artillery  on  Har- 
per's Ferry,  and  after  an  artillery  duel  of  one  hour  the  firing 
ceased  and  Pender,  with  the  Sixteenth  in  advance,  commenced 
to  move  on  the  place,  when  a  white  flag  was  seen  to  flutter 
from  the  Federal  works,  and  Harper's  Ferry  had  fallen.  The 
result  of  this  victory  was  11,000  prisoners,  13,000  stand  of 
small  arms,  73  pieces  of  artillery,  200  wagons,  with  a'large 
amount  of  commissary  and  army  stores  of  every  description. 


A.  P.  Hill's  Division  was  left  to  take  charge  of  the  property 
and  provisions  captured,  and  Jackson  left  at  once  to  join  Lee 
at  Sharpsburg.  Hill  remained  until  all  the  captured  prop- 
erty, etc.,  was  removed  on  the  16th,  and  on  the  morning  of 
the  17th  left  to  join  Jackson  and  Lee,  reaching  Sharpsburg 
at  4  p.  ra.,  and  was  immediately  assigned  a  position  on  the 
right,  just  in  time  to  meet  and  repulse  the  grand  charge  of 
Burnside's  Corps  and  assist  in  driving  them  back  across  An- 
tietam  creek.     In  this  last  assault  the  Sixteenth  and  Pender's 

166  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Brigade  lost  a  large  number  of  mem  killed  and  wounded.  The 
whole  of  the  18th  we  lay  in  front  of  McClellan,  expecting 
every  moment  to  be  attacked,  the  sharpshooters  with  their 
long  range  rifles  making  it  dangerous  for  a  man  to  show  his 
head  from  behind  the  stone  wall  where  we  were  lying.  Well 
does  the  writer  remember  having  been  sent  out  before  daylight 
on  some  slight  duty,  and  on  coming  back  under  cover  of  the 
stone  wall,  I  found  that  Branch's  Brigade  where  I  was  then, 
was  separated  from  Pender's  which  I  wished  tO'  reach,  by  a 
deep  ravine,  and  about  a  dozen  sharpshooters  in  rifle  pits  were 
shooting  at  every  man  who  attempted  to^  cross.  The  officer 
then  in  command  told  me  not  to  attempt  to  cross,  for  I  cer-- 
tainly  would  be  killed,  and  advised  me  to  lie  down  by  him 
and  wait  until  dark.  I  found  him  to  be  Lieutenant- Colonel 
Robert  F.  Hoke,  of  the  Thirty-third,  afterward  Major-Gen- 
eral Hoke,  of  Plymouth  fame.  When  the  time  came  I  crossed 
in  a  huri;js'  and  was  soon  with  my  company,  posted  behind  a 
heavy  rail  fence.  About  10  p.  m.,  a  cavalry  charge  was  made 
upon  us,  I  suppose  to  find  out  whether  -we  had  left,  but  a  well 
directed  flre  soon  sent  them  back  wiser  if  not  better  soldiers. 
Tt  was  a  rainy  day,  and  abotit  12  o'cl(Dck  at  night  orders  came 
down  the  line  for  e\'ery  man  at  a  certain  signal  1o  rise  up  and 
without  a  word  or  noise  march  back  to  the  road  on  top  of 
the  hill,  which  movement  was  executed  perfectly,  and  after 
some  delay  we  moved  toward  the  river  which  we  crossed  about 
8  a.  m.,  and  climbing  the  steep  hill  below  Shepherdstown, 
went  into  camp  in  the  woods  near  by.  The  Federals  followed 
up  with  artillery  and  shelled  the  town  and  woods  for  some 
time  with  little  damage. 


On  the  20th,  McClellan  crossed  a  large  force  over  the  river.- 
A.  P.  Hill  and  Early  were  sent  out  to  drive  them  back,  which 
was  splendidly  done.  We  formed  on  top  of  the  high  bluff, 
and  the  Federals  having  to  charge  up  over  the  steep  bluff  were 
soon  repulsed  and  driven  into  the  river  and  slaughtered  like 
hogs,  the  river  being  blue  with  their  bodies.  After  they  had 
retired,  tlie  artillery  on  the  Sharpsburg  hills  and  the  sharp- 
shooters posted  in  the  canal  commenced  shooting  at  the  boys 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  167 

and  every  man  had  to  take  care  of  himself  until  dark  so  we 
could  leave.  Pender's  Brigade  lost  many  men  in  this  affair. 
We  moved  back  a  mile  or  so  and  camped  for  the  night.  ISText 
morning  we  marched  up  near  Martinsburg  where  we  re- 
mained two-  weeks,  when  we  again  moved  up  to  Bunker  Hill, 
where  we  remained  a  month  or  more  resting  and  getting  ready 
for  the  next  campaign,  and  where  the  boys  had  lots  of  fun 
yelling  at  "Old  Jack"  and  the  rabbits.* 

About  20  October  the  writer  was  sent  to  Winchester  on  sick 
list,  and  after  two  days  was  transfe-rred  to  Staunton  and  then 
to  Richmond,  where  after  a  week  in  the  hospital  T  was  sent 
home,  which  I  reached  just  in  time  to  get  down  with  a  long 
spell  of  typhoid  fever,  not  returning  to  the  regiment  until 
March  following,  and  this  gap  in  our  history  I  filled  in  from 

After  General  Lee's  return  from  the  campaign  in  Mary- 
land, there  was  two  months  comparative  quiet,  the  two  armies 
on  cither  side  of  the  Potomac  watching,  resting  and  reorgan- 
izing after  the  hard  fought  battles  and  arduous  service  each 
had  undergone. 

Around  Martinsburg  and  Winchester  General  Lee's  forces 
remained  quiet,  the  infantry  and  artillery  drilling,  and  the 
cavalry  keeping  watch  on  the  enemy's  movements,  ready  to 
strike  or  receive  a  blow  whenever  opportunity  offered.  The 
Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  received  General  Jackson's  at- 
tention, and  in  one  day  it  was  torn  up,  crossties  burned  and 
rails  destroyed  for  twenty-five  miles,  but  before  we  had  gotr 
ten  entirely  out  of  hearing  distance,  the  Federals  had  rebuilt 
and  equipped  it.  On  this  raid  our  brigade  distinguished 
itself  by  running  down  and  capturing  a  red  fox,  General 
Pender  coming  in  a  close  second  for  the  brush,  the  Sixteenth 
adding  to  its  former  reputation  for  tackling  and  capturing 
every  sort  of  wild  animal  from  a  woodchuck  to  wildcat.  The 
lower  Yalley  was  then  a  most  excellent  foraging  ground,  and 
our  chef  in  his  eleinent  bringing  to  the  larder  chickens,  honey, 

*  "  Old  Jack  "  was  Stonewall's  sobriquet  and  whenever  vociferous  yell- 
ing was  heard  down  the  line,  our  boys  would  say  "That's  old  Jack  or  a 
rabbit." — Ed. 

168  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

butter  and  sometimes  whole  hogs,  sorghum,  and  a  very  palat- 
able extract  of  cane  seed  or  com  juice,  adding  much  to  the 
r^ulation  ration,  Chiefs  of  Divisions  and  Brigades  were 
very  lenient,  allowing  much  latitude  to  the  diversions  and 
amusement  of  the  veterans. 


With  the  advance  of  General  McClellan  on  26  October, 
crossing  the  Potomac  at  Harper's  Ferry  and  moving  east 
of  the  Blue  Ridge  intO'  Virginia,  General  Lee  promptly 
broke  camp  and  moving  in  parallel  lines  confronted  him  at 
every  point.  Jackson  was  left  in  the  Valley  and  our 
forces  moved  toAvard  the  Shenandoah,  camping  near  Berrj'- 
ville,  with  cavalry  picket  in  the  direction  of  Charleston,  Har- 
per's Ferry  and  Snicker's  Gap.  Stuart's  main  body  of  cav- 
alry had  gone  through  Snicker's  and  Ashby's  Gap,  and  as  Mc- 
Clellan moved  south  he  hung  on  his  flanl?,  moving  towards  the 
Rappahannock,  leaving  the  Gaps  open  to  the  Federals.  A 
large  body  made  their  appearance,  drove  in  our  pickets  from 
the  top  of  the  mountain  and  approached  the  river,  where  we 
hurriedly  double-quicked  to  meet  them,  the  Sixteenth  hold- 
ing the  ford.  Two  Federal  regiments  soon  made  their  ap- 
pearance in  the  open  field  beyond  the  river  in  musket  range, 
but  a  few  rounds  of  shell  fro'in  Crenshaw's  Battery  on  the 
hill  behind  us  completely  demoralized  them,  and  they  hur- 
riedly sought  shelter  in  the  woods,  leaving  quite  a  number 
lying  on  the  field.  A  field  officer  raised  a  white  flag,  rode 
directly  down  in  front  and  asked  us  not  to  fire  on  them  while 
they  removed  their  wounded,  and  no  further  demonstration 
was  made. 

The  Sixteenth  Regiment  was  on  an  open  sward  not  more 
than  two  rods  from  the  river  bank,  and  lying  flat  on  the 
gTOund  were  prepared  to  give  the  enemy  a  hot  reception,  but 
did  not  get  a  chance  to  fire  a  gun.  One  casualty  only,  from 
carelessness  or  excitement  on  the  part  of  a  member  of  Com- 
pany G,  which  resulted  in  badly  woimding  a  comrade,  J.  R. 
3^e  Priest,  in  the  knee,  causing  the  loss  by  amputation  of  his 
leg.  The  Federals  retired  across  the  mountain,  followed  by 
our  cavalry,  and  our  troops  retired  to  their  camps.     Bum- 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  169 

side  had  moved  to  Fredericksburg,  finding  General  Lee  on 
the  south  bank  of  the  Rappaliannook,  and  about  the  first  of 
December  General  Jackson  quietly  moved  the  main  part  of 
his  corps  up  the  valley,  crossing  the  Blue  Ridge  at  a  gap  near 
New  Market,  thence  to  Orange  Court  House.  In  crossing 
the  mountain,  from  the  top  could  be  seen  the  long  lines  of  the 
infantry  with  their  bristling  bayonets  gleaming  in  the  sun- 
shine, and  on  the  Alleghany  Mountains  across  the  valley  a 
heavy  storm  of  snow  was  falling.  The  artillery  and  wagon 
trains  could  be  seen  for  miles,  and  from  the  course  of  the 
roads  the  whole  army  seemed  to  be  manoeuvering  as  if  on 
parade.  Reaching  Fredericksburg,  or  Hamilton's  Crossing, 
about  8  December,  we  rested  a  day  or  two,  had  new  clothing 
and  shoes  sent  fro'm  jSTorth  Carolina  issued  to  the  men,  and 
were  then  ready  for  the  fray  we  knew  would  soon  come. 


On  the  12  th  we  were  msirched  by  the  crossing,  and  here 
General  Jackson,  with  that  famous  new  suit,  passed  our  bri- 
gade witliout  recognition,  save  to  a  few  who  knew  him  too  well 
to  be  deceived.  Our  brigade  was  assigned  a  position  adjoin- 
ing General  Longstreet's  Co'rps,  in  the  open  field  opposite  the 
center,  commanded  by  Hooker,  camping  in  the  edge  of  the 
woods.  At  sunset  a  detail  was  ordered  on  the  picket  line, 
relieving  Colonel  McDowell.  It  was  a  bitter  cold  night,  the 
lines  running  across  the  open  field  from  Hazel  Run  on  our 
left  to  Hamilton's  Crossing,  a  bare  open  field  without  rock  or 
brush  save  the  cedars  which  skirted  the  road  leading  into  our 
lines  from  Fredericksburg.  A  pistol  shot  by  a  scared  picket 
caused  a  rally  by  fours  to  the  rear  just  as  we  were  relieving 
the  old  picket.  Waiting  for  a  few  moments  for  the  expected 
advance,  the  line  was  soon  re-established.  In  a  short  time 
Major  Cole,  with  a  detachment,  came  to  the  line  and  passed 
through  to  set  fire  to  some  buildings  which  had  sheltered 
sharpshooters  that  evening,  and  obstructed  the  fire  of  our  ar- 
tillery. This  was  successfully  accomplished  without  acci- 
dent. At  daylight  our  picket  was  relieved  and  went  back  to 
camp  for  breakfast.  As  the  fog  raised  on  Saturday,  13  De- 
cember, the  columns  of  Franklin  and  Hooker  were  seen  ad- 

170  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

vancing  across  the  open  field,  their  sharpshooters  and  skir- 
mishers in  front.  General  Lee  had  just  ridden  along  in  front 
of  our  lines,  and  discovering  a  body  of  horse  coming  from  the 
left  across  Hazel  Run,  waited  until  he  discovered  it  v?as  Gen- 
eral Stuart  and  staff.  General  Jackson  soon  appeared,  and 
after  a  short  consultation  all  went  off  to  the  right.  Soon  we 
were  ordered  into  line  and  sent  to  the  center  of  the  field  about 
two  hundred  yards  in  front  of  the  elongation  of  Longstreet's 
line  on  our  left,  and  a  battery  of  artillery  was  unlimbered  to 
our  right  and  rear,  which  at  once  commenced  firing  and  re- 
ceiving the  fire  of  numerous  batteries  from  both  sides  of  the 
river.  It  was  most  gallantly  served  and  suffered  in  men  and 
horses,  a  caisson  being  blown  up  with  a  terrific  explosion  by 
the  batteries  of  the  enemy,  whose  aim  was  perfect.  The  bat- 
tery also  suffered  from  the  sharpshooters,  and  a  brave  officer 
of  the  battery  rode  down  to  O'ur  regiment  and  asked  Colonel 
McElroy  to  drive  off  the  skirmishers  and  they  would  take 
care  of  the  main  body.  Colonel  McElroy  immediately  or- 
dered Company  G  to  the  front,  which  deployed  as  skirmish- 
ers, but  the  fire  of  the  Federal  sharpshooters  concentrated  on 
us,  and  one-half  otir  men  were  shot  down  without  accomplish- 
ing anything.  Jos.  C.  Mills  and  one  or  two  others  were 
soon  wounded  and  carried  off  the  field,  then  another  company 
A^'fis  sent  and  with  like  result  and  still  another,  when  Colonel 
McElroy,  with  some  very  strong  and  earnest  expressions,  or- 
dered the  regiment  fonvard,  and  with  a  double-qtiick  occu- 
pied the  ground  immediately  on  the  railroad  confronting  at 
least  three  brigades  and  holding  his  ground,  falling  back 
only  a  few  yards  to  a  small  ditch  about  four  feet  in  depth, 
from  which  the  regiment  poured  a  murderous  fire  into  and 
held  in  check  a  vastly  superior  force.  General  Pender  had 
that  morning  expressed  his  full  confidence  in  the  gallantry  oi 
the  Sixteenth  and  said  he  looked  for  a  good  report  from  it  in 
the  battle.  Late  in  the  evening;  he  sent  in  the  Fifty-seventh 
North  Carolina,  Colonel  A.  C.  Godwin,  a  new  regiment,  to 
the  help  of  the  Sixteenth.  This  regiment  charged  across  the 
field  fully  a  mile,  with  the  rebel  yell,  and  on  they  came,  not 
seeming  to  know  that  there  Avas  anybody  but  Yankees  in  their 
fTont.      Thev  discovered  our  men   just  in   time,   and  were 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  171 

directed  to  distribute  their  favors  among  the  blue  coats  just  a 
little  way  ahead.  A  charge  was  made  and  the  Federals 
driven  from  the  field  and  into  the  swamp  on  our  left,  where 
large  numbers  were  captured  and  sent  to  the  rear,  two  men  of 
Company  Gr  capturing  fifty  and  marching  them  off  the  field 
in  one  body.  The  battle  raged  fearfully  on  our  right,  and 
often  the  tide  of  victory  seemed  to  be  with  the  Federals  as 
they  swept  by  our  right  flank  and  appeared  to  be  getting  to 
our  rear,  but  soon  a  rebel  yell  was  heard,  and  as  it  advanced 
swept  back  the  solid  columns  of  the  Federal  lines.  In  this 
battle  our  regiment  lost  many  brave  men,  good  and  true,  and 
quite  a  number  wounded. 

The  complete  repulse  and  disastrous  defeat  of  Bumside 
bad  been  accomplished  on  this  first  day  before  one-half  of  our 
troops  had  the  opportunity  of  trying  their  metal,  and  back  to 
Falmouth  under  cover  of  night  the  enemy  retired.* 

wiisrTTCH  OF  18G2-'63. 

A  short  time  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  Jackson's 
Corps  was  moved  about  twelve  miles  down  the  river  tO'  Camp 
Gregg,  named  in  honor  of  General  Gregg,  who  was  killed  at 
Fredericksburg,  where  the  winter  was  spent  in  picketing  at 
Moss  ISTeck,  on  the  Rappahannock,  about  three  miles  above 
Port  Royal.  There  the  writer  found  them  on  his  return  to 
camp  in  March,  after  five  months'  absence,  and  soon  after 
reaching  camp  was  ordered  to  hold  myself  in  readiness  for 
picket,  but  before  night  the  order  was  countermanded  and 
the  Sixte«'nth  was  ordered  to  go  as  an  escort  to  the  station 
with  the  body  of  Colonel  Gray,  of  the  Twenty-second,  who 
had  died  during  the  day,  and  tO'  go  on  picket  the  day  after. 
In  the  meantime  it  had  become  very  cloudy  and  during  the 
night  commenced  snowing,  and  when  we  left  camp  the  snow 
was  several  inches  deep.  The  river  being  about  two  miles 
from  the  hills  and  all  cleared  lands  between,  we  could  get 
very  little  wood  for  fires,  and  in  consequence  we  had  to  walk 
up  and  down  the  river  all  day  and  night  to  keep  from  freezing. 

*In  his  address  to  the  army  after  this  battle  General  Lee  used  this 
expression,  "Escape  from  utter  destruction  has  now  become  the  boast 
of  those  who  advanced  in  full  confidence  of  victory." — Ed. 

172  NoETH  Caeolii^a  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

We  could  occasionally  see  a  Yankee  cavalryman  across  the 
river  through  the  snow,  and  the  boys  were  continiiously  talk- 
ing to  them  and  joking  with  them.  The  snow  continued  fall- 
ing and  by  the  time  we  were  relieved  next  day  at  10  o'clock 
and  started  back,  we  found  it  nearly  three  feet  deep  and  the 
hardest  walking  I  ever  had.  The  weather  soon  turned  warm 
and  we  had  a  lot  of  fun,  fishing  in  the  Rappahannock  and  a 
mill  pond  at  Moss  Neck  church. 

General  Jackson  had  his  headquarters  near  oiir  camp  in  an 
office  in  the  yard  of  Colonel  Corbin,  on  whose  place  we  were 
camped,  but  as  he  claimed  to  be  one  of  the  F.  F.  Vs.,  and  was 
inclined  to  get  full  sometimes,  and  then  would  try  to  be  very 
loving  with  the  general,  he  soon  moved  out  in  the  direction  of 
Hamilton's  Crossing  and  we  saw  no  more  of  him  for  some 

We  spent  March  and  April  drilling  and  getting  ready  for 
the  summer  campaign,  which  we  expected  would  open  soon, 
as  we  had  heard  "Fighting  Joe"  Hooker  had  been  made  com- 
mander of  the  Federals,  and  of  course  we  expected  some  hard 
work.  About  38  April,  a  detail  of  men  with  two  wagons  was 
sent  from  the  Brigade  to  Port  Eoyal  with  seines  to  catch  shad 
for  the  camp.  The  Sixteenth  was  on  picket  that  night,  and 
of  course  were  anticipating  a  fine  time  eating  fish,  but  like 
many  others  on  many  other  occasions  we  were  again  to  be 
disappointed.  Just  at  daybreak  we  heard  the  pickete  firing 
at  Fredericksburg,  and  Fighting  Joe  had  commenced  his  "On 
to  Richmond"  to  find  a  strong  "Stonewall"  in  his  way.  Very 
soon  a  courier  came  with  orders  to  go  back  to  camp  at  once, 
which  we  did,  finding  all  in  confusion,  wagons  loading  and 
everybody  preparing  for  a  move.  Soon  the  order  came  to 
"fall  in,"  and  just  as  we  were  marching  ant  of  camp  the  two 
wagons  sent  out  retumed  with  two  full  loads  of  shad.  They 
were  thrO'Wn  out  in  the  middle  of  the  street,  and  many  of  the 
boys  as  they  passed  took  one  in  their  hands  with  the  hope  that 
they  might  get  a  chance  to-  cook  them  that  night  for  supper, 
which  I  know  some  did. 


Passing  Fredericksburg  Friday  morning,  1  May,  we  came 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  173 

to  Chancellorsville,  where  we  found  Hooker  already  estab- 
lished and  ready  for  the  fray,  but-poor  fellow,  he  was  doomed 
to  the  same  fate  as  some  of  Jackson's  pets.  A.11  day  we  lay 
in  his  front  with  artillery  and  musketry  firing,  but  with  lit- 
tle effect  on  either  side  that  we  could  see. 

On  Saturday,  2  May,  Jackson's  Corps  was  put  in  motion 
and  marching  a  westerly  course  in  the  direction  of  Spottsylva- 
nia  Court  House  until  we  had  passed  Hooketr^s  right  flank, 
we  then  turned  squarely  to  the  right  and  crossing  the  road 
were  completely  in  Hooker's  rear,  leaving  Lee  in  his  front. 
Just  about  sunset  the  grand  move  was  made  by  Pender  on  the 
right,  near  the  Chancellor  house,  where  we  found  the  Yan- 
kees busily  preparing  supper,  and  being  uninvited  and  un- 
looked  for  guests  we  caused  quite  a  commotion,  but  made  our- 
selves at  home  all  the  same.  There  never  was  such  a  surprise 
party  anywhere.  They  knew  nothing  of  our  presence  until 
we  poured  a  volley  into  them  and  they  broke,  every  man  for 
himself  and  Jackson  for  the  hindmost.  The  boys  were  sorry 
they  could  not  stop  to  take  supper,  at  least  to  take  a  cup  of 
C/Offee,  as  there  were  large  pots  of  the  genuine  on  the  fires, 
quantities  of  bread,  ham  and  all  kinds  of  good  things  to  eat 
and  the  cooks  all  gona  But  the  orders  were  "fo^rward."  It 
was  then  getting  dark,  and  with  the  flash  of  small  arms  in 
every  direction,  the  bursting  of  flying  shells  in  the  air  and  the 
old  Chancellor  house  in  a  blaze,  the  scene  was  grand  and  more 
than  sublime.  In  the  confusion  of  battle  we  could  scarce  tell 
friend  from  foe.  Just  then  a  halt  was  ordered  to  rectify  and 
straighten  out  tibe  lines,  etc.,  and  General  Pender  was  or- 
dered to  send  a  regiment  to  General  Stuart.  Calling  to 
Major  Gordon,  of  the  Thirty-fourth,  he  ordered  him  to  go 
with  General  Stuart,  but  Gordon  began  to  complain  that  his 
men  were  very  tired  and  needed  rest.  Pender  then  said, 
"Well,  sir.  Colonel  McElroy  will  go — his  men  are  tired,  too — ' 
Colonel  McElroy,  take  your  regiment  and  go  with  General 
Stuart"  We  started  at  once  and  followed  Stuart  without 
knowing  where  we  were  going,  but  had  not  gone  far  when  a 
courier  came  up  and  told  General  Stuart  that  General  Jack- 
son had  been  wounded,  and  he  was  wanted  to  take  command. 
He  then  ordered  Colonel  McElroy  to  go  on  to  the  United 

174  NOETH  CAEOLmA  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

States  Ford,  where  ke  would  find  a  regiment  of  cavalry- 
camped,  to  deploy  his  regiment  to  the  left  of  the  road,  and  at 
signal  to  fire  three  rounds  into  them  and  then  get  back  into  the 
road,  and  join  the  brigade  on  the  field,  and  then  left  us  to  ex- 
ecute the  order.  Marching  about  six  miles  we  came  in  sight 
of  their  camp  fires  where  they  were  having  a  busy,  merry 
time,  some  cooking  and  eating,  others  fiddling  and  dancing, 
and  other  lying  round  the  fires  resting,  not  looking  for  or 
thinking  of  danger.  Suddenly  there  was  a  crash  as  the  three 
volleys  were  fired  into  this  careless,  happy-go-lucky  troop  in 
quick  successio'U,  causing  another  most  surprising  surprise 
party,  and  such  a  rush  and  stampede  was  never  witnessed  be- 
fore. Wo  never  knew  what  damage  was  done,  but  the  Fed- 
erals thought  the  whole  Confederate  army  was  upon  them, 
and  yelled  out,  "Shackson's  is  upon  us — Conner  \ind  blitz- 
zen,"  as  each  gathered  himself  together  for  a  fiank  movement 
to  the  rear,  and  the  whole  command  hastily  got  on  the  safe 
side  of  the  river,  leavingcamp  equipage,  rations  and  spoils 
to  a  few  skulkers  (or  broken  down,  mayhap)  who  failed  to 
keep  up  with  the  regiment  on  its  return.  It  was  said  by  one 
of  these  men  that  a  large  force  of  Federals  were  sent  over  the 
river  next  day,  but  we  don't  know  about  that.  In  obedience 
to  orders  the  Sixteenth  immediately  returned  to^  the  battle- 
field, reaching  Chancellorsville  about  sunrise,  and  just  as  the 
line  had  been  fo'rmed  for  the  last  grand  charge  Sunday  morn- 
ing. There  being  no  place  for  us  in  the  line,  the  Sixteenth 
fell  in'  behind  the  Thirty-fourth  and  went  into  the  fight, 
having  marched  and  fought  the  whole  day  before  and  all  night 
again.  It  was  not  long  until  we  were  in  the  thickest  of  the 
fight  again,  and  mth  one  grand  charge  the  enemy  was  routed 
and  fell  back  on  his  last  line.  The  Sixteenth  lost  very  heav- 
ily in  officers  and  men.  Colonel  McElroy  was  wounded  in 
the  mouth  and  disabled,  Colonel  William  Stowe  in  the  head, 
and  Major  Lee  having  been  crippled  for  life  at  Fredericks- 
burg, the  regiment  waS'  without  a  field  officer.  Captain  A.  S. 
Cloud,  Company  E,  assumed  command,  and  after  a  few  days 
we  were  marched  back  and  went  into  camp  near  Camp  Gregg, 
where  we  put  in  the  time  drilling  on  the  beautiful  fields  of 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  175 

the  Rappahannock  and  waiting  for  Halleck'to  put  up  another 
General  for  us  to  whip. 


The  death  of  General  Jackson  caused  several  changes  in  the 
army.  A.  P.  Hill  was  promoted  to  Lieuten ant-General; 
Pender,  Major-General,  and  Colonel  A.  M.  Scales,  of  the 
Thirteenth  Korth  Carolina,  to  be  Brigade  commander. 

Sometime  after  our  return  tO'  Camp  Gregg,  Pender  issued 
a  complimentary  order  to  the  brigade,  in  which  he  said :  "I 
may  be  exacting  and  hard  tO'  please,  but  in  this  instance  I  am 
perfectly  satisfied.  Tou  have  pleased  me  well."  We  re^ 
mained  at  this  camp  until  4  June,  drilling  and  grazing  our 
teams  on  the  fine  clover  fields  of  the  Rappahannock.  As  we 
were  drilling  that  evening,  looking  across  the  river  hills  we 
could  see  large  fields  of  dust  rising  above  the  trees  across  the 
river,  and  we  knew  the  Federal  army  was  a^ain  in  motion. 
We  were  at  once  ordered  back  tO'  camp  and  began  preparation 
to  move,  tents  struck,  baggage  packed  and  loaded  in  the 
wagons  and  everything  got  ready,  and  about  dark  we  bade 
farewell  to^  our  pleasant  camp  never  toi  see  it  again.  About 
dawn  of  day  we  reached  Hamilton's  Crossing  and  found  the 
enemy  in  possession  of  the  Port  Royal  road,  making  a  good 
breastwork.  It  had  been  their  line  of  battle  in  December, 
1862.  Our  sharpshooters  were  ordered  to  drive  them  out, 
our  brigade  succeeding,  but  Lane's  men  on  the  left  failed  to 
move  those  opposite  their  line,  and  we  had  to  build  a  barri- 
cade between  the  two  brigades.  Lane's  men  being  on  the  high 
ground  and  unprotected. 

Remaining  at  this  place  ten  days,  the  writer  had  to  make 
several  trips  from  the  railroad  where  our  line  was,  to  the 
Port  Royal  road  occupied  by  the  sharpshooters,  and  had  to 
pass  over  the  ground  fought  on  in  December.  The  Yankees 
who  had  been  killed  in  that  fight  had  been  laid  up  in  piles  of 
about  a  hundred  and  a  few  shovels  of  dirt  thrown  over  them. 
It  was  the  most  repulsive  sight  I  ever  beheld;  there  were 
heads,  hands  and  feet  sticking  up  through  the  dirt,  and  my- 
riads of  worms  and  insects  of  various  kinds  working  all  over 

176  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

the  piles.     The  stench  was  dreadful,  and  we  had  to  hold  our 
noses  and  run  to  get  away  from  it. 

We  remained  here  until  IG  June,  with  no  demonstration  of 
any  kind  except  artillery  duels  across  tJie  river.  Every  even- 
ing the  bands  on  each  side  would  play  Yankee  Doodle,  Star 
Spangled  Banner,  Dixie,  Bonnie  Blue  Flag,  and  both  would 
wind  up  with  Home,  Sweet  Home,  whereat  there  was  on  both 
sides  a  universal  shout,  reverberating  from  one  to  the  other, 
back  and  forth,  showing  there  was  one  tie  held  in  common  by 
these  two  grand  armies. 


G-eneral  Lee  had  sent  Swell's  Corps  across  the  mountains 
into  the  Valley,  and  word  has  just  reached  us  of  his  capture 
of  Winchester  and  Martinsburg  with  many  prisoners  and  a 
lot  of  propei'ty,  and  of  his  march  across  the  Potomac  into 
Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  On  14  June,  1863,  our  pickets 
in  front  reported  that  the  enemy  had  all  crossed  the  river,  and 
on  examining  the  gj-ound  we  found  a  very  small  force  in  sight 
with  only  a  few  gims  posted  on  the  Stafford  Hills.  They  had 
removed  or  destroyed  the  pontoon  bridges  on  which  they  had 
crossed.  We  were  at  once  moved  back  of  the  hills,  and  or- 
dered to  prepare  three  days'  rations  and  be  ready  to  move 
early  next  morning.  We  spent  the  day  in  cleaning  up  arms, 
filling  up  boxes  and  getting  rid  of  our  surplus  baggage. 

Longstreet's  Corps  came  up  during  the  day  from  the  Black- 
water  and  went  into  camp  just  in  our  rear.  The  order  of 
march  was  the  Sixteenth  North  Carolina  in  front  with  one 
howitzer  from  Pogue's  Battalion,  then  the  remaining  regi- 
ments of  Pender's  old  brigade  under  command  of  Colonel 
W.  J.  Hoke,  of  the  Thirty-eighth,  followed  by  the  Light  Di- 
vision, Major-General  Pender,  and  the  balance  of  A.  P.  Hill's 
Corps,  then  all  the  remainder  of  Lee's  army.  Very  early  on 
the  morning  of  15  June  we  broke  camp  near  Hamilton's 
Crossing,  striking  the  main  road  above  Fredericksburg  and 
on  by  Chancellorsville,  passing  the  old  Chaucellor  hoUse,  and 
on  in  the  direction  of  the  river.  All  along  the  line  we  saw 
Hooker  had  thrown  up  works  and  fortified  on  his  retreat  from 
Chancellorsville.     Late  in  the  afternoon  we  crossed  the  river 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  177 

at  the  same  ford  where  the  boys  had  fired  intO'  the  cavalry 
camp  on  the  night  of  2  May,  and  went  into  camp  on  the  hill 
beyond,  next  night  camped  at  Stevensburg,  then  to  Culpepper 
Court  House,  and  two  more  days  march  brought  us  to  the 
Blue  Ridge,  crossing  at  Chester  Gap,  and  down  into  the  Val- 
ley at  Front  Royal,  where  we  forded  the  two  branches  of  the 
Shenandoah  and  camped  at  Nineveh.  The  next  day  we 
marched  only  about  three  miles,  camping  at  White  Post. 
Passing  tlirough  Oharlestown  where  John  Brown  was  hung, 
the  next  day  we  camped  near  Shepherdstown,  where  General 
Scales  came  up  and  took  command  of  the  brigade,  he  having 
been  wounded  at  Chancellorsville. 

Next  day  we  passed  through  the  town  and  crossed  the  Poto- 
mac below  Boteler's  mills ;  we  are  soon  on  the  familiar  ground 
of  Sharpsbburg  and  in  the  United  States,  24  June,  and 
went  intO'  camp  just  beyond  the  town.  Company  G  was  sent 
on  picket  all  night.  Next  day  passed  through  Hagerstown, 
where  we  saw  a  good  many  Southern  sympathizers,  but  they 
were  afraid  to  make  much  of  a  demonstration,  as  they  were 
closely  watched  by  their  Union  neighbors,  but  we  saw  many 
rebel  flags  displayed  inside  of  the  doors  and  windows  of  many 
of  the  houses.  We  were  advised  not  to  make  any  noise  or 
fuss,  but  to  pass  through  quietly  lest  we  should  get  our  friends 
into  trouble.  That  night  we  camped  near  a  town  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, name  forgotten,  where  a  quantity  of  whiskey  was, is- 
sued— some  of  the  men  got  drunk,  and  some  of  them  were 
severely  punished.  The  writer  got  a  canteen  of  whiskey,  a 
knife,  fork  and  spoon  which  I.  have  yet  (not  the  whiskey). 
Next  night  camped  near  Chambersburg  where  we  spent  two 
days,  and  the  next  night,  30  June,  camped  on  top  of  Cash's 
Mountain,  about  five  miles  from  Gettysburg. 


Next  morning,  1  July,  we  passed  through  Cashtown,  and 
about  2  p.  m.,  came  in  sight  of  Gettysburg  and  were  soon 
moved  to  the  right  in  a  lane  with  a  wheat  field  in  our  front. 
Tearing  down  the  fence,  the  order  came  "forward  march," 
and  the  Sixteenth,  Vith  Pender's  Division,  moved  forward  at 
quickstep  dressing  to  the  left,  and  after  marching  about  a 

178  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

mile  in  line  of  battle  through  the  ripe  wheat,  we  (jame  up  to 
the  artillery  posted  on  a  bluff  and  firing  rapidly.  Passing  in 
front  of  the  guns,  we  lay  down  and  watched  the  fight  going 
on  for  half  an  hour,  Heth's  Division  being  on  the  line  in  our 
front.  While  lying  here  the  guns  in  our  rear  kept  firing 
over  us  and  some  guns  on  the  opposite  side  replying,  several 
of  our  men  were  hit  by  fragments  of  shells.  One  Captain 
was  struck  and  his  head  was  cut  and  scratched  in  several 
places.  He  jumped  up  and  started  to  the  rear  hollowing  at 
every  jump,  "I'm  dead,  I'm  dead."  The  Colonel  of  his  reg- 
iment called  two  stretcher  men  and  told  them  to  "go  and 
take  that  dead  man  off — if  you  can  catch  him." 

While  lying  there  we  saw  two  regiments  fighting  on  a  rail- 
road cut,  and  saw  a  United  States  flag  captured  and  recap- 
tured several  times,  and  just  before  we  moved  forward  I  saw 
a  man  take  the  flag  and  wrap  it  around  the  staff  and  stick  it 
in  a  brush  pile,  and  what  became  of  it  then  I  never  knew, 
for  the  command  "attention"  came  and  every  man  arose  to 
his  feet,  grasped  his  arms  with  a  firm  grip,  and  at  the  order 
"forw-ard,  guide  left,  march,"  we  moved  off  at  a  quick  step 
across  a  meadow  and  soon  began  to  receive  the  attention  of 
the  foe,  many  of  our  men  being  struck  with  minie  balls  and 
shells.  The  men  began  to  fall  around  me  in  ray  own 
company.  Lieutejiant  John  Ford  fell  on  my  right,  John  H. 
Bradley  on  the  left,  just  after  I  had  helped  him  pull  the  ram- 
rod, which  had  got  fastened,  from  his  gun.  ITumbers  of 
others  were  wounded ;  our  surgeon  was  shot  in  the  head,  and 
ought  to  have  been  killed  for  being  there  and  for  not  attend- 
ing to  his  duty.  I  did  all  I  could  to  get  him  to  dismount 
and  attend  to  John  Ford,  for  I  saw  he  would  bleed  to  death 
imless  attention  was  given  him,  but  the  doughty  surgeon 
rode  on,  the  only  mounted  man  I  saw  on  the  line.  Our  line 
continued  to  advance,  and  passing  to  the  right  of  Heth's  men, 
came  on  the  enemy's  line  and  began  to  push  them  back  up 
the  hill,  when  just  as  we  crossed  a  ditch  I  was  struck  on  the 
right  thigh  with  a  piece  of  shell,  knocking  me  down  and  tear- 
ing and  cutting  the  flesh  badly.  After  a  short  time  I  found 
that  I  could  get  up,  and  picking  up  a  good  hickory  stick 
started  to  the  rear  as  best  I  could.     On  my  way  out  I  passed 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  179 

several  sink  holes  among  the  limestone  rocks  which  I  found 
full  of  men,  some  wounded  and  others  hiding.  On  reaching 
the  place  w-here  Ford  and  Bradley  had  fallen  they  were  gone, 
but  going  further  up  the  hill  I  found  Ford  lying  face  down, 
and  raising  him  up  saw  at  once  that  he  was  dying.  I  asked 
him  if  I  could  do  anything  for  him ;  he  could  not  speak,  but 
motioned  with  his  hand  to  be  carried  ofE  the  field,  as  the  minie 
balls  and  shells  were  falling  thick  around  him.  I  called  a 
couple  of  litter  bearers  that  T  saw  in  the  woods  nearby  to 
come  and  take  him  to  a  safer  place,  biit  could  not  prevail  on 
them  to  do  so,  and  the  poor  man  died  where  he  was  in  a  few 
minutes.  Going  on  I  soon  passed  General  Lee's  headquar- 
ters, when  I  saw  Generals  Lee,  A.  P.  Hill,  Longstreet  and  oth- 
ers watching  the  fight  with  their  glasses.  I  soon  reached  the 
ambulance  and  was  carried  to  the  hospital,  a  large  barn  about 
two  miles  in  rear  of  the  line,  where  I  found  many  wounded 
men  of  the  Sixteenth,  about  ten  of  my  own  company,  Bradley 
among  them.  And  this  is  what  I  saw  of  the  battle  of  Gettys- 

Captain  ,T.  Y.  Mclntire,  who  was  in  command  of  the  com- 
pany, tells  me  that  we  drove  the  enemy  back  beyond  Cemetery 
Hill,  where  they  had  a  hospital  filled  with  wounded  and  sur- 
geons. We  were  afterAvards  moved  back  across  a  branch 
where  we  formed  line  and  throwing  out  pickets  in  front  spent 
the  night. 

During  the  next  day,  2  July,  Ave  remained  in  the  same  posi- 
tion nearl^A''  all  day,  moving  a  little  to  the  left,  both  sides  keep- 
ing a  shelling  and  sharpshooter  firing  during  the  day  and 


On  the  morning  of  the  3d  all  were  up  and  ready,  expecting 
every  moment  to  be  into  a  fight,  but  strange  to  say  everything 
was  quiet,  each  side  watching  and  waiting  for  the  other  to 
move.  Our  men  becoming  impatient  would  call  out  and  say, 
"If  we  had  Jackson  we  M'ould  move  and  do  something."  But 
all  at  once,  about  1  p.  m.,  there  was  a  crash  and  one  hundred 
and  fifty  guns  on  our  line  belched  forth  fire  and  were  an- 
swered by  an  equal  number  from  the  enemy,  keeping  it  up  for 

180  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

two  hours,  when  the  firing  ceased  and  soon  the  order  came, 

General  Pender  having  been  wounded  the  day  before, 
Scales'  and  Pettigrew's  Brigades  were  put  under  Major-Gen- 
eral  Trimble  and  sent  in  on  the  left  of  Pickett.  We  were  met 
by  a  storm  of  shot,  shell  and  minie  balls  which  caused  Pick- 
ett's men  to  waver  and  fall  back  in  confusion,  leaving  the  sup- 
porting brigades  to  stand  the  brunt  of  the  fight. 

Finding  that  Pickett  had  been  repulsed,  it  was  deemed  nec- 
essary to  withdraw  if  possible,  and  there  was  a  general  break 
to  the  rear,  under  a  destructive  fire  which  killed  and  wounded 
a  great  many  men.  A  part  of  the  Sixteenth,  under  Captains 
Cloud,  McKinney  and  McEntire,  had  advanced  so  far  that 
they  found  it  impossible  to  withdraw  and  were  forced  to  sur- 
render. They  were  at  once  taken  to  the  rear  in  a  great  hurry, 
where  they  found  everything  in  confusion  and  ready  to  re- 
treat, teams  were  hitched  up  and  turned  to  the  rear  as  if  ready 
to  run,  and  if  Lee  had  made  another  assault  then,  they  would 
have  done  so.  Being  badly  crippled  himself,  and  out  of  am- 
munition, far  away  from  his  base,  with  a  big  river  behind 
him  and  hea'vy  rains  coming  on,  he  found  it  necessary  to  re- 
tire, and  did  so  at  his  own  leisure,  lying  in  their  front  the 
whole  day,  the  4th,  without  being  attacked,  which  shows  how 
much  they  feared  him.  The  Sixteenth  lost  very  heavily  in 
men  and  officers,  there  not  being  an  officer  left  in  the  regiment 
higher  than  Lieutenant,  several  companies  without  a  single 

General  Pender  Avas  wounded  and  died  at  Staunton ;  Gen- 
eral Scales  Avounded,  Colonel  W.  J.  Hoke,  Thirty-eighth, 
wounded,  leaving  the  brigade  in  command  of  Colonel  Low- 
rance,  of  the  Thirty-fourth. 

General  Trimble  said  to  General  A.  P.  Hill  as  he  left  the 
field :  "If  hell  can't  be  taken  by  the  troops  I  had  the  honor 
to  command  to-dny,  it  can't  be  done  at  all."  This  was  the 
remark  of  General  Trimble,  a  Virginian,  to  General  Hill,  a 
Virginian,  about  North  Carolina  troops — Pettigrew's  and 
Scales'  Brigades.  The  Sixteenth  Regiment  was  one  of  them, 
which  fact  ought  to  set  aside  the  oft-told  tale  that  there  was 
no  troops  in  that  assault  but  F.  F.  Vs. 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  181 


About  12  o'clock  on  Sunday,  4  July,  orders  came  to  the 
hospital  for  a  general  move  to  the  rear,  and  the  movement  back 
to  the  Potomac  began.  The  wagons  and  ambulances  were 
loaded  with  all  the  wounded  that  could  be  moved,  but  we  had 
to  leave  many  of  our  poor  fellows  whom  we  never  saw  again. 
The  writer  managed  to  secure  a  seat  on  the  top  of  a  load  of 
hay,  where  he  spent  about  thirty  hours.  When  we  reached 
the  top  of  the  mountain  it  began  to  rain  and  soon  got  very 
dark,  but  there  was  no  halt  made,  a  steady  trot  being  kept  up 
all  night,  and  I  could  never  tell  how  we  got  along  without 
some  accident.  During  the  night  we  passed  Thad  Stephens' 
Iron  Works,  which  Ewell's  troops  had  burned  as  they  passed 
on  some  days  before,  and  they  were  still  smoking.  I  heard 
after  the  war  that  the  old  man  said  that  it  saved  him  from 
bankruptcy,  as  he  got  a  big  price  for  them  from  the  govern- 
ment, enabling  him  to  settle  up  all  his  affairs. 

About  daybreak  Sunday  morning  it  ceased  raining  and 
soon  the  sun  came  out,  and  we  poor  wounded  rebels  who  had 
been  riding  all  night  in  the  cold  began  to  feel  the  influence  of 
his  gentle  rays,  and  though  hungry,  tired  and  sore,  began  to 
crack  jokes  with  the  natives,  they  jeering  and  telling  us  that 
we  would  never  cross  the  Potomac,  that  we  would  soon  be 
gobbled  up.  About  10  o'clock  there  was  a  short  stop  to  feed 
and  rest  the  teams  as  they  were  very  tired.  After  an  hour's 
rest  they  were  hitched  up  again,  and  soon  we  passed  through 
Greencastle,  where  the  Dutch  women  paid  us  their  compli- 
ments by  abuse  and  wishing  us  in  a  warmer  climate  than 
Pennsylvania.  Here  we  saw  the  effect  of  a  raid  that  had 
been  made  on  the  train  ahead  of  us,  several  wagons  cut  down, 
the  teams  and  men  captured  and  gone.  General  Imboden  had 
been  sent  with  us  as  an  escort  to  protect  us,  but  he  was  a  com- 
plete failure  in  that  part.  A  few  hours  after,  just  as  the 
wagon  I  was  on  had  passed  across  the  road  near  Emmetts- 
burg,  one  of  Imboden's  cavalrymen  dashed  by  at  full  speed, 
ran  over  a  man  and  horse  in  front,  but  made  no  stop,  only 
looking  to  his  own  safety.  Hearing  considerable  commotion 
in  the  rear,  I  looked  back  and  saw  that  a  small  squad  of  cav- 
alry had  dashed  into  the  road  just  as  the  last  of  Pender's  train 

182  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

passed,  and  striking  the  front  of  Heth's  train,  had  captured 
several  teams,  wagons  and  ambulances,  the  first  ambulance 
having  Colonel  Leventhorpe,  of  the  Eleventh,  and  I  think  Col- 
onel J.  K.  Connally,  of  the  Fifty-fifth  North  Carolina,  with 
others  that  I  did  not  know.  They  were  at  once  hurried  off 
on  the  cross  road  for  fear  of  recapture.  Major  Scales,  Divis- 
ion Quartermaster,  was  the  only  man  I  saw  that  seemed  to 
have  a  head  on  him,  and  he  stopped  a  few  of  Imboden's  men 
and  gathered  a  few  stragglers  together  and  soon  drove  the 
raiders  off,  but  they  had  done  considerable  damage  in  cutting 
down  wagons  and  running  off  the  teams.  A  member  of  my 
own  company  who  was  riding  with  me,  swore  he  'would  save 
his  own  bacon,  jumped  off,  took  to  the  woods,  and  I  did  not 
see  him  again  until  we  reached  the  Potomac.  We  were  not 
molested  again,  arriving  at  Williamsport,  on  the  bank  of  the 
Potomac,  which  we  found  past  fording,  this  compelling  us  to 
halt.  The  whole  train  was  placed  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  be- 
tween the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  canal  and  the  river,  so  as  to 
be  able  to  cross  as  soon  as  the  river  fell. 

On  Monday  about  4  p.  m.,  we  were  startled  by  a  shot  fired 
from  beyond  the  town,  and  the  ball  dropping  down  among  us 
struck  one  of  our  miiles,  breaking  his  neck,  then  phmging  into 
the  river,  followed  by  several  others,  but  none  doing  any 
other  damage.  There  was  quite  a  comniotion  for  awhile,  but 
some  of  our  oooler  headed  ones,  seeing  the  necessity  of  action, 
soon  had  quite  a  little  company  organized  of  stragglers, 
drivers  and  some  of  the  wounded,  and  marching-  back  into  the 
town  we  gave  them  the  best  fight  we  could  under  the  circum- 
stances, but  I  fear  we  would  all  liave  been  captured  had  not 
General  Pierce  M.  B.  Young,  who  had  been  sent  by  General 
Stuart  after  the  raiders,  come  up  just  in  time,  and  making  a 
charge  drove  them  off,  killing  and  capturing  several  of  them. 
We  had  several  men  killed  and  wounded  in  this  affair;  the 
Sixteenth  had  one  man  (Bowman,  Company  I)  killed.  In 
the  meantime.  General  Lee  had  left  Gettysburg  on  the  night 
of  the  4th,  after  lying  all  day  in  front  of  Meade,  who  did  not, 
for  reasons  best  known  to  himself  and  his  Generals,  feel  in- 
clined to  push  him,  had  marched  at  his  leisure,  and  passing 
Hagerstown  on  Monday,  established  himself  on  a  line  between 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  183 

that  town  and  in  front  of  Williamsport,  where  he  remained 
for  about  ten  days  in  front  of  Meade  offering  him  battle,  but 
he  refused  to  accept.  Quite  an  artillery  duel  was  kept  up 
between  the  two  armies  all  that  time,  but  little  damage  to  our 


On  the  afternoon  of  the  13th  orders  were  received  for  the 
trains  to  cross  at  the  ferry,  and  everything  was  sent  over 
during  the  night,  General  Lee  moving  with  army  after  dark, 
going  down  on  the  north  side  and  throwing  a  pontoon  bridge 
across  at  Falling  Waters,  where  the  river  is  quite  narrow,  the 
banks  being  steep  and  high,  forcing  the  water  into  a  channel 
of  200  feet.  Falling  Waters  is  so  called  from  a  creek  that 
runs  over  a  precipice  about  twenty  feet  high  and  into  the  river 
at  that  place.  The  fall  is  just  above  the  road  and  is  quite  pic- 
turesque, making  a  miniature  IvTiagara. 

It  was  at  this  place  that  a  squadron  of  Federal  cavalry 
made  a  dash  at  Hill's  Corps  as  the  men  were  lying  on  the 
ground  resting  and  waiting  for  the  artillery  to  cross.  In 
this  affray  General  Pettigrew  was  mortally  wounded  and  a 
fcAV  rebels  captured,  among  them  one  member  of  Company  G. 
As  soon  as  our  men  realized  that  an  assault  had  been  made, 
they  sprang  up,  opened  fire  and  soon  drove  them  off,  killing  a 
number  and  among  them  the  man  that  shot  Pettigrew. 

When  all  the  artillery  and  wagons  were  safely  crossed,  the 
men  followed,  and  marching  up  the  turnpike  a  few  miles  en- 
camped for  the  night  near  Martinsburg. 

Passing  through  Martinsburg  the  next  Monday,  15th,  up 
the  valley  to  Bunker  Hill,  where  we  remained  in  quiet  about 
ten  days,  the  men  enjoying  themselves  living  on  dewberries, 
there  being  a  great  abundance  of  them  in  the  clover  fields,  fur- 
nishing good  picking  for  the  whole  army.  Leaving  the  valley 
we  crossed  at  Chester  Gap  and  had  quite  a  brisk  little  skir- 
mish and  artillery  duel  at  Gaines'  Cross  Tloads;  not  much 
damage  done  to  either  side.  Going  on  to  Culpepper  Court 
House  we  camped  there  until  9  August,  when  the  cavalry  got 
up  quite  a  warm  fight  near  Brandy  Station.  We  were  or- 
dered out  and  started  towards  Orange  Ct)urt  House,  which  we 
reached  on  the  10th,  going  into  camp  on  the  farm  of  Colonel 

184  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

Taylor,  near  Barnett's  Ford,  where  we  picketed  and  rested 

until  October,  having  one  or  two  fights  with  cavalry  at  the 

About  11  October  General  Lee  sent  A.  P.  Hill's  Corps 
across  the  river,  passing  Madison  Court  House,  the  second 
day  crossing  Robertson's  Run,  where  our  sharpshooters  had 
a  severe  battle  with  the  Federal  cavalry,  driving  them  off, 
which  developed  our  movement  and  put  the  whole  army  in 
motion.  Ewell  having  been  left  on  the  Rapidan,  at  once 
broke  camp  and  followed  by  Culpepper  Court  House.  Hill 
moving  by  the  left  flank  all  the  time,  crossed  the  Culpepper 
road  by  Amosville  and  Warrenton,  where  we  camped  in  the 
camp  the  Yankees  had  vacated  that  day.  'Next  day  Scales' 
Brigade  -was  stopped  at  a  little  town,  ISTew  Baltimore,  and  or- 
dered to  wait  until  the  army  train  had  passed,  then  to  follow 
and  guard  it  from  raiders.  After  the  wagons  had  all  passed 
we  fell  in  and  followed  until  late  in  the  afternoon.  General 
Scales  ordered  Captain  McLoud  to  stay  with  the  train,  and 
he  with  the  other  regiments  of  the  Brigade  would  go  to  the 
front,  as  we  could  hear  heavy  cannonading  in  front.  We 
marched  by  companies  on  each  side  of  the  road  until  about 
midnight,  when  the  train  stopped  and  we  lay  down  by  the  side 
of  the  wagons  and  slept  until  daylight,  when  we  were  roused 
up  and  soon  joined  the  main  force  at  Bristoe  Station,  where 
we  found  that  Hill's  Corps  had  had  a  severe  and  disastrous 
fight,  being  roughly  handled,  all  through  a  mistake'  of  General 
A.  P.  Hill. 


Arriving  near  Bristoe  on  the  afternoon  of  14  October,  A. 
P.  Hill  found  the  rear  giiard  of  Meade's  army,  imder  General 
Warren,  moving  across  his  line  of  march,  and  immediately 
made  arrangements  to  attack  him  with  Cooke's  and  MacRae's 
Brigades  of  Heth's  Division.  Warren  had  his  corps  posted 
behind  a  railroad  embankment  and  out  of  sight,  but  had  a 
strong  line  of  sharpshooters  posted  about  two  hundred  yards 
behind  his  line  and  in  front  of  a  piece  of  woods,  giving  the 
impression  that  his  line  of  battle  was  in  the  woods.  Hill  or- 
dered Heth  to  advance  his  two  brigades  at  once  and  take  pos- 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  185 

session  of  the  railroad,  but  Heth  not  liking  the  looks  of  things, 
did  not  move  until  Hill  had  sent  him  three  peremptory  orders 
to  do  so.  He  then  ordered  the  two  JSTorth  Carolina  Brigades 
forward,  but  when  they  were  in  a  few  yards  of  the  railroad 
Warren's  whole  corps  rose  and  gave  them  a  volley  that  very 
nearly  cut  to  pieces  the  whole  command,  only  a  few  falling 
back  in  good  order,  many  wounded  and  as  many  dead  lying 
on  the  ground.  Our  artillery  opened  on  them  and  a  heavy 
fire  was  kept  up  during  the  day,  the  enemy  holding  their 
ground  until  dark,  when  they  retired  in  the  direction  of  Man- 

We  remained  on  the  ground  until  about  2  o'clock  p.  m., 
burying  our  dead  and  caring  for  the  wounded,  cooking,  etc., 
when  we  again  moved  back  to  Catlett's  Station,  where  our 
brigade  commenced  tearing  up  the  railroad  and  burning  the 
ties,  working  all  day  in  the  mud,  tired  and  hungry. 

About  dark  Baxter  Long  came  up  and  gave  me  some  crack- 
ers he  had  found  in  an  old  shed  on  the  way,  also  some  pork 
and  beans  left  by  the  Yankees.  Being  very  hungry  I  did 
not  wait  to  get  into  camp,  but  commenced  eating  the  crackers 
at  once,  but  when  I  got  a  fire  so  I  could  see  I  found  my  crack- 
ers filled  with  black,  hairy  worms.  I  had  no  idea  how  many 
I  had  eaten,  but  it  did  not  turn  my  stomach  for  I  was  soon 
able  to  make  a  hearty  meal  after  getting  things  in  shape. 
Next  morning  we  finished  oiir  job  of  tearing  up  the  track  and 
crossed  the  Rappahannock  on  a  pontoon  bridge,  going  into 
camp  near  an  old  brick  house.  The  country  beyond  the  Rap- 
pahannock looked  bare  and  desolate,  nothing  in  sight  but 
chimneys  on  all  sides.  I  do  not  remember  seeing  but  one 
house  standing  on  our  way  from  JSTew  Baltimore  to  Bristoe 
and  back  to  the  Rappahannock,  and  that  was  a  large  house 
with  a  large  placard  on  the  front  gate  marked :  "This  house 
is  protected  by  papers  from  the  British  Consul  at  Washing- 

While  camped  here  the  writer  was  lying  in  his  tent,  cov- 
ered with  all  the  blankets  he  could  get  and  shaking  with  a 
severe  chill.  The  cry  was  raised,  "Fresh  beef,  somebody's 
coming,"  and  we  knew  at  once  that  a  lot  of  fresh  conscripts 
were  coming.     Soon  some  one  was  heard  to  say:     "There's 

186  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

France.  Hello,  France,  come  here,  old  fellow,"  and  the  an- 
swer came  back :  "How  the  devil  can  I  come ;  don't  you  see 
I'm  uuder  guard  ?"  And  I  at  once  recognized  our  old  Valley 
Mountain  comrade,  F.  D.  W.,  who  remained  with  us  lantil 
the  close  of  the  war,  often  enlivening  the  camp  with  his  dry 

The  next  day  we  were  ordered  to  move  back  near  Brandy 
to  put  up  winter  quarters.  On  the  way  I  felt  like  I  would 
have  another  chill,  and  seeing  our  doctor  unpacking  a  box 
near  where  we  stopped,  I  went  to  him  and  told  him  what  was 
the  matter.  He  unstopped  a  jug  and  poured  out  about  a  gill 
of  whiskey,  telling  me  to  drink  it.  I  told  him  it  would  make 
me  drunk.  He  said  "drink  it,"  which  I  did,  and  did  not  have 
any  chill,  but  liad  something  else.  The  men  went  to  work 
cutti];^  logs  and  putting  up  shanties  on  the  land  of  the  old 
Congressman,  John  Minor  Botts,  who  would  not  let  us  have 
any  straw  . 


The  second  day  while  camped  here  we  had  a  grand  cavalry 
review  of  all  the  cavalry  of  the  army  on  the  same  field  where 
Stuart  foiight  the  Federals  the  summer  before.  That  night 
about  10  o'clock,  just  as  I  was  going  to  lie  down,  my  only 
brother,  who  belonged  to  Pogue's  Battalion,  came  up  to  the 
fire  and  wanted  to  know  if  M-e  did  not  have  marching  orders. 
When  informed  that  we  did  not,  he  said  you  will  have  soon  for 
everything  between  this  and  the  river  is  on. the  move.  Just 
then  the  Adjutant  came  along  and  ordered  us  to  pack  up  all 
baggage  and  be  ready  to  move  at  4  o'clock  a.  m.,  and  all  our 
calculations  about  winter  quarters  was  knocked  in  the  head 
for  the  time.  Some  of  the  men  had  completed  nice  cabins 
and  expected  to  move  into  them  the  next  morning,  but  such  is 
war.  We  found  afterward  that  a  force  of  the  enemy  had 
crossed  the  river  at  a  ford  above  us  and  were  making  an  effort 
to  get  in  our  rear.  We  were  on  the  march  before  the  time  or- 
dered, and  soon  found  from  the  whistle  of  shells  passing  over 
that  we  were  followed.  About  daylight  we  halted  on  a  high 
ridge  where  we  spent  the  day  in  line  of  battle.  The  artillery 
and  sharpshooters  kept  up  a  constant  fire  all  day,  a  shell  now 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  187 

and  then  passing  over  our  heads.  About  an  hour  after  dark 
we  moved  back  to  a  road  where  we  waited  some  time  for  some 
others  to  pass  and  then  marched  on  in  the  direction  of  Cul- 
pepper Court  House,  which  place  we  passed  about  12  o'clock. 

Culpepper  was  about  the  darkest  town  that  night  I  ever 
saw.  I  saw  only  one  light  in  the  town  as  we  passed  through. 
Our  artillery  and  wagons  being  in  front  and  the  road  very 
muddy,  we  made  slow  progress,  and  being  an  extremely  cold 
night  I  don't  think  there  was  a  fence  rail  left  between  Cul- 
pepper and  the  Rapidan,  all  being  burned.  We  crossed  at 
Barnett's  Ford  early  in  the  morning  and  went  into  camp  near 
the  one  we  had  left,  feeling  quite  at  home  after  an  absence  of 
more  than  a  month.  We  remained  at  this  camp  until  about 
23  November,  when  Captain  L.  P.  Erwin  came  on  a  visit  to 
us,  and  I  made  a  bet  with  him  of  a  pound  of  candy,  then 
worth  $25,  that  we  would  leave  that  place  before  morning,  and 
sure  enough  at  12  o'clock  we  had  orders  for  marching  at  4 
o'clock,  and  before  the  citizens  of  Orange  had  gotten  their 
eyes  open  we  had  passed  through  the  town  on  our  way  to  the 
Wilderness.  Just  after  that,  the  writer  was  put  in  command 
of  the  provost  guard  of  the  brigade.  Just  before  night  we 
crossed  a  little  stream  called  Mine  Run  and  stopped  for  the 
night.  Next  day  we  moved  back  across  the  Run  and  formed 
line  of  battle  on  a  ridge,  and  soon  found  General  Meade  and 
his  army  in  front  of  us.  The  weather  had  turned  intensely 
cold  and  there  was  great  suffering  among  the  men. 

My  guard  was  posted  in  rear  of  the  line  in  an  open  field 
on  the  high  ground  Avhere  the  wind  from  the  mountain  had 
full  sweep  at  us,  and  the  only  protection  we  could  get  was  to 
put  some  pine  tops  into  a  deep  gully  on  the  icicles,  where  we 
could  lie  on  our  blankets.  There  was  a  continual  artillery 
and  sharpshooter  duel  going  on  all  the  time  but  no  fighting. 
On  the  night  of  1  December,  1863,  Generals  Lee,  Stuart,  A. 
P.  Hill  and  others  rode  up  and  down  in  rear  of  our  lines 
several  times,  and  we  made  up  our  minds  we  would  have 
hot  work  in  the  morning.  When  daylight  came  we  found  the 
Yankees  had  gone  during  the  night.  The  order  came  at  once 
to  follow,  which  we  did,  passing  their  works  soon  after  cross- 
ing the  Run,  where  we  found  the  sides  of  the  road  strewn  with 

188  JSToETH  Oabolota  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

the  plunder  left  by  them  in  their  hurry  to  get  off.  We  fol- 
lowed about  eight  miles  on  the  Wilderness  road,  when  we  met 
Generals  Lee,  Stuart,  and  others.  General  Lee  said :  "Well, 
boys,  you  may  go  back  to  camp." 

We  gave  three  cheers  for  General  Lee,  and  started  home 
again,  reaching  Orange  about  12  M.  the  next  day,  and  went 
into  camp  the  next  day  near  the  old  place.  A  few  days  after 
our  return  Captain  Erwin  was  retired  from  the  service  on  ac- 
count of  wounds  received  at  Fredericksburg,  and  left  for 
home  promising  that  he  would  call  on  my  friend,  Andrew  An- 
tone,  as  he  passed  through  Richmond  and  get  the  pound  of 
candy  I  had  won  from  him  and  give  it  to  two  young  lady 
friends  of  mine,  but  I  find  it  has  not  been  paid  yet,  and  I  still 
demand  the  $25  worth  of  candy. 

In  General  Meade's  examination  before  a  Congressional 
Committee  on  Conduct  of  the  War,  he  was  asked  why  he  did 
not  fight  Lee  at  Mine  Run.  He  replied  that  the  weather  was 
so  cold  that  his  sentinels  froze  to  death  on  post. 

WINTEE  OF  1863-'64. 

We  reached  our  old  camp  near  Orange  about  noon,  3  De- 
cember. The  men  marched  like  cavalry,  all  so  anxious  to  get 
back  to  the  old  grounds.  The  weather  moderated  after  we 
got  back,  and  for  two  weeks  we  had  fine,  pleasant  weather, 
but  just  before  Christmas  it  began  to  snow  and  sleet,  and  we 
then  had  very  cold  weather  for  some  time.  The  day  before 
Christmas  I  had  accepted  an  invitation  to  visit  some  friends 
in  Lane's  Brigade  about  four  miles  up  the  river  near  Liberty 
Mills,  to  take  Christmas  dinner,  they  having  possessed  them- 
selves of  a  fine  gobbler  and  other  Christmas  goods,  but  just 
after  tattoo  the  long  roll  was  sounded  and  orders  were  issued 
to  pack  up  and  be  ready  to  march  at  a  moment's  warning  and 
let  no  one  leave  camp  until  further  orders,  so  all  our  calcula- 
tions for  Christmas  were  spoiled.  We  were  kept  in  suspense 
for  three  days,  and  as  nothing  further  happened,  the  men  be- 
gan to  feel  at  ease.  We  found  out  afterwards  that  the  order 
was  only  intended  to  keep  the  men  in  camp  during  Christ- 
mas, fearing  that  they  woxild  go  off,  get  drunk  and  do  mis- 
chief— but  such  is  war. 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  189 

We  remained  quietly  doing  picket  duty  during  the  next 
month,  having  one  or  two  little  cavalry  dashes,  at  Barnett's 
Ford  until  1  February,  1864,  when  the  enemy  made  a  feint  to 
cross  in  the  afternoon.  Our  brigade  was  marched  down  to 
the  ford  and  kept  the  breastworks  until  after  dark,  when  they 
were  ordered  back  to  camp  and  to  cook  rations  and  be  ready 
to  return  at  4  o'clock.  Promptly  on  time  we  were  again  in 
the  trenches,  and  at  dawn  of  day  the  artillery  on  both  sides 
opened  and  kept  up  a  heavy  fire  for  about  an  hour,  the  in- 
fantry having  a  little  fight  across  the  river  with  their  cav- 
alry— if  they  had  infantry  we  saw  none  of  it.  They  soon  re- 
tired and  we  were  left  alone.  Troops  were  coming  in  all  day 
to  our  relief,  but  as  there  was  no  further  demonstration  on  the 
part  of  the  enemy  all  again  became  quiet,  the  troops  returned 
to  their  camps  and  the  usual  routine  of  duty  was  taken  up. 

Just  at  this  time  the  writer  was  granted  a  thirty  days'  leave 
of  absence,  and  drawing  from  the  Quartermaster  $.500  Con- 
federate money,  T  started  for  Richmond  and  home.  Some 
time  before  I  had  sent  to  R.  M.  Robinson,  of  Charlotte,  three 
and  one-half  yards  of  cloth  furnished  by  North  Carolina  for 
$25.  On  reaching  Charlotte  I  found  the  clothes  ready  and 
paid  Robinson  $150  for  making  and  trimmings,  and  on  my 
return  to  Orange  I  had  $10  left,  which  I  gave  for  a  pound  of 
soda  and  went  to  camp  without  a  cent,  showing  that  it  cost  six 
months'  pay  to  go  home,  pay  for  a  suit  of  clothes  and  one 
pound  of  soda. 

During  March  and  April  we  had  only  one  little  affair  at 
the  Ford  with  cavalry  and  artillery,  our  cavalry  being  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river.  Standing  on  the  hills  on  the  south 
Kide  we  could  see  the  charging  and  counter  charges,  first  one 
on  the  run,  then  the  other.  We  had  a  few  men  wounded  at 
the  river  by  shell.  Quite  an  amusing  incident  occurred  at 
the  Ford  with  some  women  who  were  crossing  on  foot  while 
the  shells  were  falling  and  bursting  in  and  around  the  Ford, 
but  for  fear  of  making  some  one  blush  I  will  not  relate  this 
story.  The  Yankees  were  soon  driven  off  and  all  was  quiet 
again  for  some  time. 

About  25  April  we  had  quite  a  snow  storm,  the  ground 
being  covered  several  inches.     In  a  day  or  so  the  sun  came 

190  NoETH  Caeoijita  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

out  warm,  the  sno^v  melting  off  except  on  the  mountain  sides 
a  few  miles  off  over  the  river.  On  4  May  I  was  on  picket 
with  strict  orders  to  allow  no  one  to  cross  unless  they  had  a 
pass  from  General  Robertson.  There  was  some  cavalry  graz- 
ing their  horses  on  a  clover  field  across  the  river,  and  just 
after  1  had  returned  from  the  lower  part  of  the  line,  I  heard 
their  bugles  blow  "boots  and  saddles,"  and  saw,  the  men  run- 
ning and  bridling  their  horses  in  great  commotion,  and  soon 
after  a  courier  riding  at  full  speed  came  up  the  road  leading 
to  the  Ford  where  T  had  placed  myself  to  meet  him.  Stop- 
ping his  horse  for  a  moment  he  drew  from  his  pocket  a  large 
official  envelope  addressed  "General  E.  E.  Lee,"  saying  he 
had  a  dispatch  for  General  Lee.  My  orders  forbade  my 
allowing  any  one  to  pass  without  General  Robertson's  per- 
mission, but  believing  that  delay  might  be  dangerous,  I  at 
once  determined  to  assume  responsibility  of  disobeying  orders 
and  handing  him  the  dispatch,  told  him  to  go  ahead.  I  im- 
mediately wallced  doAvn  to  the  river  and  notified  my  pickets 
to  be  ready  to  move  as  I  was  sure  we  would  be  sent  for,  and 
soon  a  courier  came  ordering  us  to  camp.  Bidding  farewell 
to  Barnett's  Ford,  where  we  had  spent  near  ten  months  rather 
pleasantly,  we  started  to  camp,  and  on  our  arrival  found  all 
the  troops  gone  and  about  a  hundred  negroes  plundering  and 
searching  for  anything  and  everything  left  by  the  men.  I 
found  orders  for  me  to  follow  by  Orange  Court  House,  which 
we  soon  passed  for  the  last  time,  not  catching  up  with  the 
army  until  late,  when  we  found  them  camped  near  Mine 
Run,  at  the  same  place  we  had  camped  on  otir  return  from 
Mine  rtm  in  the  previous  December. 


Early  on  the  morning  of  5  May,  1864,  we  were  under  arms 
and  again  on  the  march,  passing  Mine  Run  and  about  4  p.  m. 
came  near  the  future  battlefield,  and  leaving  the  plank  road 
we  turned  to  the  left  and  marched  more  than  a  mile,  when  we 
were  halted  in  a  dense  thicket  and  in  the  rear  of  Ewell. 

Lying  there  about  an  hour,  we  heard  the  fight  open  in  the 
direction  of  the  plank  road.  Orders  came  to  fall  in,  and  we 
started  at  a  do\ible-quick,  and  soon  reaching  the  road  where 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  191 

■we  had  left  it  we  found  the  road  filled  with  wagons  and  ambu- 
lances and  the  field  on  the  left  of  the  road  full  of  artillery. 
Going  down  unti.1  we  came  to  the  Brock  road,  which  crosses 
the  i)lank  road  and  leads  to  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  we 
moved  to  the  right  and  formed  line  on  this  road,  our  left  rest- 
ing on  the  plank  road.  We  then  moved  forward,  passing  over 
a  regiment  that  would  not  advance.  The  Colonel  was  cursing 
them  and  told  them  to  lie  down  and  let  somebody  that  would 
go,  go  over  them.  We  soon  struck  some  troops  of  Hancock's 
Corps  and  drove  them  before  us  through  a  swamp,  when  we 
were  stopped  and  moved  back  to  the  Brock  road  on  the  top  of 
the  ridge,  and  it  being  near  dark,  we  put  out  sentinels  in  front 
and  prepared  to  spend  the  night,  barricading  with  all  the  old 
logs  and  rails  that  we  could  find. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  6th,  orders  came  to  send  a  de- 
tail with  all  the  company  canteens  for  water  for  the  men, 
and  just  at  sunrise  a  gun  was  fired  down  the  road  and  the  shot 
came  whistling  up  the  road,  and  following  it  came  Hancock's 
Corps.  This  was  the  only  battle  I  ever  saw  or  heard  of  in 
modern  times  fought  without  artillery,  and  the  one  mentioned 
above  was  the  only  one  I  remember  to  have  heard  that  morn- 
ing, and  there  was  only  one  gun  used  on  the  5th  near  the 
plank  road,  and  that  only  fired  grape  at  very  close  range. 

Thomas'  Georgia  Brigade  was  on  our  left,  and  Hancock's 
line  was  so  arranged  his  forces  struck  it  before  he  reached  our 
front.  Thomas'  men  gave  way  at  once,  almost  without  firing 
a  gun.  Our  left,  the  Thirtj^-eighth,  I  think,  seeing  them- 
selves flanked  began  to  break,  and  soon  a  general  break  all 
along  our  line  occurred.  Colonel  C.  M.  Avery  had  his  regi- 
ment, the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina,  lying  just  in  the  rear 
of  the  Sixteenth,  and  as  we  moved  back  in  good  order,  he  or- 
dered his  men  up  and  said  as  I  passed  him,  "We  will  give 
them  one  volley  before  we  go,"  and  he  gave  the  order  to  fire, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  fire  was  returned,  killing  and  wound- 
ing many  of  his  men.  The  Colonel  himself  was  mortally 
wounded.  Several  of  the  Sixteenth  were  hit,  and  Color- 
bearer  Carpenter  was  killed  and  many  others  wounded.  I 
soon  met  a  staft'  officer  on  horseback,  who  was  making  an  effort 
to  rally  and  stop  the  men,  but  with  little  effect.     He  told 

192  NoETH  Oaeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

them  that  "Longstreet  was  on  the  grouBd  and  would  be  there 
in  less  rhan  five  minutes,  only  hold  your  ground  until  he  gets 
in,"  but  everybody  seemed  to  be  for  himself  .and  the  Yankees 
take  the  hindmost,  which  Avould  soon  have  occurred  to  us  all 
if  just  then  we  had  not  met  (general  Benning,  of  Longstreet's 
Corps,  loading  his  brigade  in.  He  told  his  men  to  open  ranks 
and  let  us  pass.  After  getting  in  rear  of  Longstreet's  we 
got  our  men  quiet  and  into  line,  and  crossing  the  plank  road 
we  forme<l  a  new  line  on  a  kind  of  crescent  in  rear  of  Ewell. 
Just  after  crossing  the  road  I  met  Tom  Hayden  with  a  can- 
teen, and  our  detail  not  having  returned  I  asked  him  for  a 
drink.  Handing  his  canteen  he  said,  "Here  is  some  pond 
water,"  and  without  thought  I  took  a  big  swallow  before  I 
found  it  was  the  meanest  whiskey  I  ever  tasted,  and  of  course 
I  was  worse  off  than  before  I  took  it.  In  a  few  minutes  we 
heard  Longstreet's  men  open  fire  and  in  a  very  short  time  we 
heard  the  old  rebel  yell,  and  we  knew  that  Hood  was  moving 
them ;  then  the  yell  became  general  all  along  the  line,  and  I 
don't  think  I  ever  listened  to  a  sweeter  sound.  It  would 
start  on  the  left  and  like  a  wave  roll  down  the  line  and  back 
again,  and  our  line  took  up  the  refrain,  and  just  like  the  lit- 
tle dog  after  being  whipped  when  a  big  dog  comes  \ip  and 
takes  his  place,  they  began  to  jump  and  yell  and  cut  up 
shines,  as  much  as  to  say,  "Arn't  we  horses." 

Shortly  after  Longstreet  had  routed  and  was  driving  them 
back,  we  were  moved  down  upon  the  line  on  the  left  of  the 
plank  road,  where  some  command  had  erected  the  only  breast- 
work during  the  night,  and  then  you  should  have  seen  what 
a  brave  set  of  fellows  we  were.  Just  then  we  saw  a  little  fel- 
low riding  up  behind  us  on  a  gray  horse,  dressed  in  a  fine  new 
uniform  with  two  stars  on  the  collar  and  a  big  black  feather 
in  his  hat.  We  recognized  little  Captain  Cloud,  who  had 
been  captured  at  Gettysburg,  just  on  his  way  from  Johnson's 
Island.  During  his  captivity  he  had  been  promoted  to  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. We  almost  had  to  detail  a  guard  to  stop  him 
from  charging  over  the  works  and  capturing  Grant  and  the 
whole  Yankee  army.  The  battle  raged  pretty  much  all  day 
in  oiir  front,  and  it  is  claimed  by  some  that  but  for  the 
woimding  of  General  Longstreet  Grant's  army  would  have 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  193 

been  driven  across  the  Rapidan.  I  knoAv  that  by  this  timely 
arrival  he  saved  our  brigade  from  capture.  We  remained  in 
this  position  until  Sunday,  the  7th,  about  4  p.  m.,  when  we 
were  ordered  to  march  by  the  Brock  road  to  Spottsylvania 
Court  House,  which  place  we  reached  at  12  M.  Monday  and 
found  nearly  all  our  artillery  on  the  line  and  pretty  well  for- 


Spottsylvania  is  located  on  a  long  high  ridge,  and  in  May, 
1864,  contained  a  court  house,  jail,  one  brick  church  and  a 
tavern — tliese  are  all  the  buildings  I  remember.  Our  forti- 
fied line  was  near  the  top, of  the  ridge  and  north  and  east  from 
the  court  hoiise,  and  was  about  five  miles  in  length,  extend- 
ing about  four  miles  above  to  the  Tay  river,  and  one  mile  be- 
low the  court  house.  The  ground  in  front  of  the  court  house 
was  sloping  for  about  two  hundred  yards,  and  there  was  met 
by  a  thick  pine  woods,  and  beyond  these  pines  Grant  had  two 
fortified  lines  about  one  hundred  yards  apart. 
,  Arriving  on  the  ground  about  12  o'clock  Monday,  8  May, 
we  were  put  on  the  line  on  the  left  of  the  court  house  near 
the  branch,  with  a  tliick  pine  forest  in  our  front,  but  did  not 
remain  long  in  this  position,  but  were  moved  to  the  right  be- 
yond the  court  house,  and  for  three  days  were  kept  moving 
up  and  down  the  line,  being  in  reserve  all  the  time. 

On  the  niglit  of  the  11th  we  were  marched  about  four  miles 
to  the  left  near  tlie  Tay  river  where  there  was  a  fort,  and  just 
as  I  had  my  little  shelter  tent  put  up  and  ready  to  lie  down, 
orders  came  to  fall  in,  and  Ave  were  soon  on  the  way  to  town  in 
mud  and  rain,  the  night  so  dark  Ave  could  scarcely  see  the  men 
ahead  of  us.  It  stopped  raining  and  cleared  up  before  we 
reached  the  court  house,  and  just  as  day  Avas  breaking  we 
heard  Hancock's  grand  assault  on  our  lines  open  and  were 
soon  made  aware  that  part  of  our  line  had  been  captured — 
Johnson's  Division  of  Eaa'cH's  Corps  being  taken  prisoners. 
This  was  the  place  where  it  Avas  said  General  Lee  wanted  to 
lead  tht!  troops  in  person,  but  the  men  refused  to  go  forward 
until  he  Avent  to  the  rear,  assuring  him  that  they  would  re- 
establish the  lines,  Avhich  they  did  most  gallantly.  When  we 

194    •         North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'6n. 

reached  the  field  we  fovind  ourselves  in  rear  of  Lane's  Bri- 
gade, then  desperately  struggling  to  hold  its  position,  and 
standing  some  time  on  the  high  ground  in  rear  we  were  in  a 
very  uncomfortable  position  for  a  short  while,  but  Lane  find- 
ing that  he  had  support  behind  him,  ordered  a  charge  and 
went  over  the  works — we  at  once  occupied  and  spent  the  day 
in  them,  finding  it  much  safer,  though  we  had  some  men 
wounded  by  shells  and  long  range  rifles. 

After  driving  the  enemy  back  behind  his  works.  Lane  came 
out  and  going  down  the  line  in  front  of  the  court  house  he 
\A'ent  in  agaiu  and  had  quite  a  hard  fight,  capturing  a  large 
number  of  prisoners  and  a  stand  of  colors.  The  next  day  just 
before  dark.  General  Lee  thinking  {hat  Grant  was  moving 
round  his  right,  we  were  sent  inside  the  line  to  find  out  what 
they  Avere  doing.  We  marched  in  by  the  right  flank,  led  by 
Major-General  Wilcox,  and  after  reaching  the  pine  woods,  the 
head  of  the  cohmin,  soon  found  the  Yankee  sharpshooters  in 
strong  force,  several  of  our  men  being  wounded  by  their  first 
fire.  General  Wilcox  soon  came  back,  his  old  white  pony 
pacing  along  like  he  was  going  to  meeting.  The  General 
always  rode  with  a  long  hickory  switch.  As  he  passed  us  he 
told  us  to  face  to  the  right  and  move  just  above  the  path  and 
lay  down.  We  obeyed  the  order.  As  I  lay  down  between  the 
color-bearer  and  another  man  we  soon  found  that  a  Yankee 
sharpshooter  was  using  us  as  a  mark  for  his  rifle,  the  balls 
passing  very  uncomfortably  near  and  over  us,  but  dark  coming 
on,  though  the  firing  still  went  on,  it  was  not  so  close  and 
dangerous.  I  was  very  tired  and  soon  fell  asleep,  but  was 
aroused  by  the  men  moving  off.  Jumping  up  and  taking  my 
place  in  line  I  thought  that  we  were  going  to  make  an  assault, 
but  coming  to  a  low  fence  we  had  crossed  I  knew  we  were 
going  out  and  was  much  relieved.  We  passed  out  through 
the  lines  and  lay  down  to  rest  near  an  ice  house  and  were  not 
farther  disturbed  during  the  night — a  very  unusual  occur- 
rence, as  assaults  had  been  made  on  our  lines  every  night. 

The  next  day  we  were  again  marched  to  the  front  to  retake 
a  part  of  the  line  that  had  been  captured,  and  did  so  in  a  hand- 
some charge,  driving  the  enemy  before  us  and  eliciting  the 
praise  of  General  Early,  who  was  in  command  of  the  corps 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  195 

since  the  Wilderness  fight,  General  A.  P.  Hill  being  sick. 
The  whole  face  of  the  earth  in  and  around  was  covered  with 
dead  Yankees  killed  in  this  affair.  During  the  day  we  saw 
the  Federal  General  Sedgwick  shot  and  killed  by  a  sharp- 
shooter while  he  was  superintending  the  placing  of  a  gun  to 
enfilade  our  lines.  lie  was  more  than  a  half  mile  away.  A 
friend  informs  us  that  a  beautiful  monument  has  been  erected 
on  the  spot. 

We  were  sent  next  day  to  the  right  to  support  General 
Wright,  of  Georgia,  while  he  was  sent  in  to  make  a  reconnois- 
sance,  we  holding  his  lines  while  he  made  his  move  on  Grant's 
works.  Finding  the  enemy's  lines  well  manned  he  soon  re- 
tired, suffering  some  loss,  and  occupied  his  old  ground,  and 
we  were  sent  back  to  the  left  of  the  court  house  where  we 
spent  the  day  under  heavy  shelling,  losing  several  men.  We 
remained  in  all  about  ten  days  at  Spottsylvania,  on  the  go  all 
the  time.  We  coiild  not  lie  down  with  any  assurance  that 
we  would  be  undisturbed  for  five  minutes.  The  last  day  we 
were  there,  after  being  under  fire  of  the  sharpshooters  and 
artillery  all  day,  we  were  moved  from  the  left  of  the  court 
house  down  to  the  right  and  sent  into  the  Yankee  lines  to  see 
what  they  were  doing.  The  line  was  formed  just  inside  of 
our  lines,  and  we  moved  forward  over  the  open  ground,  then 
through  a  piece  of  woods,  and  crossing  over  a  high  rail  fence 
we  found  ourselves  in  front  of  their  works  and  were  at  once 
fired  on  by  sharpshooters  and  their  artillery  from  outside 
works,  about  one  hundred  yards  in  rear.  Without  stopping 
to  return  the  fire,  we  made  a  rush  for  the  works  and  drove 
them  back  into  the  second  line.  After  holding  this  line  for 
an  hour  under  a  very  heavy  fire  of  solid  shot,  we  were  or- 
dered to  march  out  by  the  flank,  and  going  back  to  the  road 
at  the  court  house  we  found  the  army  in  motion  and  at 
once  took  up  the  line  of  march  toward  the  ISTorth  Anna 
river.  After  marching,  several  hours  we  halted  to  rest  in 
a  piece  of  woods,  and  there  for  the  first  time  in  more  than 
two  weeks  we  had  a  few  hours  of  uninterrupted  rest  and 
sleep.  JSText  morning  we  were  up  early  and  on  the  march, 
and  soon  after  crossing  North  Anna  river  we  struck  the 
Fredericksburg  railroad,  and  following  it  down  to  Ander- 

196  North  CAROLmA  Troops,  1861-'65. 

son  Station  we  spent  near  two  days  in  manoeiivering  between 
that  and  the  rirer. 


On  the  afternoon  of  the  second  day  we  were  ordered  back 
to  the  station,  and  following  the  railroad  back  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  river  about  a  mile  we  came  to  a  water  tank,  where 
we  found  the  Light  Division  in  line  of  battle.  The  order  to 
move  forward  soon  came,  and  the  Division  moved  off  through 
an  open  woods  in  excellent  order  and  fine  style,  General 
Thonjas'  Georgia  Brigade  on  the  left  and  resting  on  the  river. 
The]-e  being  no  place  for  Scales'  Brigade,  we  marched  in  rear 
of  Thomas,  the  Sixteenth  leading.  General  Thomas  mounted 
his  horse  and  rode  in  rear  of  his  troops,  hollowing  as  if  he  was 
in  a  fox  chase ;  soon  reaching  a  fence  in  the  edge  of  the  woods, 
with  a  clover  field  in  front,  the  fence  was  thrown  down  and 
the  field  entered,  when  his  line  was  fired  on  from  the  cedar 
hedge  just  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  by  a  line  of  sharpshooters. 
The  whole  of  Georgia  broke  loose  and  ran  for  dear  life.  The 
Sixteenth  standing  end  foremost  at  the  head  of  the  brigade, 
Colonel  W.  A.  Stowe  ordered  them  into  line,  and  we  moved 
to  the  front,  the  Yankees  running  down,  the  hill  as  fast  as 
their  legs  could  carry  them.  We  followed  up  to  the  cedars, 
and  by  the  time  we  reached  the  hedge  they  had  got  down  the 
hill  and  across  a  branch,  and  going  up  a  hill  in  front  of  iis 
our  men  had  a  fair  chance  to  pick  them  off.  One  poor  fellow 
was  lame  and  got  behind,  but  he  did  some  of  the  hardest  rtin- 
ning  I  ever  saw.  I  don't  think  he  was  hit,  though  I  saw  a 
good  many  balls  strike  near  him. 

As  soon  as  the  pickets  got  otit  of  danger,  the  gims  on  the 
high  ground  beyond  began  to  pay  their,  respects  to  us,  giving 
us  a  fiTsillade  of  grape  and  canister.  The  Sixteenth  was 
standing  there  aloue,  unsupported,  no  other  being  in  sight. 
The  writer,  who  was  standing  about  twenty  feet  in  front, 
called  to  the  Colonel  that  it  would  not  do  to  stand  there,  we 
must  move  forward,  and  he  gave  the  order  to  do  so  at  once. 
We  moved  down  the  hill,  crossing  the  branch  and  then  up  to 
near  the  brow  of  the  hill  and  lay  down,  the  shot  passing  over 
lis,  a  few  of  our  men  being  hit.     We  soon  discovered  that  a 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  197 

movement  was  starting  in  our  front  to  cut  us  off  and  capture 
us,  and  reporting  the  fact  to  the  Colonel  he  ordered  us  to  fall 
back  to  the  branch  in  line ;  he  then  led  us  down  the  branch  by 
the  left  flank  until  we  reached  the  river,  then  keeping  well 
under  the  bank  of  the  river  we  kept  up  the  river  until  we  came 
to  the  railroad,  and  following  that  we  soon  found  the  other 
regiments  of  our  brigade.  1  never  could  tell  how  it  was  that 
we  were  allowed  to  go  into  s\ich  a  place  alone  or  how  the  others 
got  away.  I  was  informed  by  a  man  at  Division  Headquar- 
ters that  General  Wilcox  cursed  out  Thomas  and  the  others 
who  failed  to  come  up.  This  place  was  called  Jericho  Ford. 
We  spent  the  night  on  the  railroad  near  the  water  tank  where 
we  went  in  and  next  morning  moved  down  to  the  station. 

When  we  got  back  to  the  station  we  found  that  General 
Smith,  chief  engineer  of  the  Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia,  had 
already  located  a  line  and  done  a  lot  of  work.  The  line  ran 
through  a  beautiful  garden,  which  was  soon  torn  up  with 
trenches  and  embankments  for  artillery — everything  in  the 
way  of  vegetables,  pot  plants  and  herbs  destroj^ed  and  the  gar- 
den ruined.  The  Yankees  soon  found  us  out  and  followed 
np.  The  second  day  we  found  them  established  in  our  front 
with  artillery  and  small  arms.  During  a  rain  storm  I  had 
crawled  under  a  high  piazza  for  protection,  but  had  hardly 
gotten  in  a  comfortable  position  when  the  first  shot  fired  came 
crashing  through  the  house  above  me,  and  I  soon  walked  out 
into  the  rain  but  did  not  find  much  comfort  then,  for  a  gun 
fired  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  enfilading  our  line, 
killed  two  men  in  the  company  on  the  left  of  Company  G  and 
all  was  confusion  for  a  short  time.  The  rain  soon  stopped, 
'  and  dark  coming  on  the  men  were  put  to  work  by  the  en- 
gineer in  charge  of  the  line  so  as  not  to  be  enfiladed.  We  re- 
mained at  this  place  about  a  week;  had  no  general  engage- 
ment, but  kept  up  a  sharp  picket  fight  very  near  all  the  time 
we  remained. 

General  Lee  finding  that  General  Grant  was  again  on  the 
move  to  flank  him,  we  again  started  to  head  him  off,  and  cross- 
ing the  South  Anna  river  and  passing  between  Hanover  Junc- 
tion and  Ashland,  we  stopped  for  the  night  in  the  swamp  near 
the  latter  place.     Early  next  morning  we  were  again  on  the 

198  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

march,  and  about  12  M.  halted  near  Green  Pole  church, 
throwing  up  strong  works  and  remaining  three  days  with 
heavy  picket  and  artillery  firing  all'  the  time.  I  think  the 
Sixteenth  had  but  one  man  killed.  Sergeant  Westall,  a  gallant 
young  fellow  of  Company  H,  Macon  County,  killed  on  the 
picket  line.  We  left  this  place  early  next  morning  and  passed 
down  by  Beaver  Dam  Station  to  Atlee's  Station  and  spent  two 
days  as  reserve  corps.  Just  four  weeks  from  the  time  we  left 
Orange,  we  were  told  that  the  officers'  baggage  wagon  was 
just  in  rear  near  the  branch  and  we  could  go  back  for  a  short 
time  and  clean  up,  which  we  gladly  accepted.  I  had  changed 
my  clothes  on  the  morning  we  had  gone  on  picket  at  Orange, 
but  don't  think  T  had  had  my  shoes  off  since.  We  had  just 
gotten  through  our  toilets  when  the  long  roll  was  beat  and 
"fall  in,  men,"  was  the  order,  and  off  we  go  through  heat  and 
dust  for  Cold  Harbor.  Passing  down  in  rear  of  Mechanics- 
ville,  we  met  Breckinridge's  and  Hoke's  Divisions  on  their 
way  to  join  Lee,  then  on,  crossing  the  bridge  at  Gaines'  Mill, 
which  had  been  burned  since  we  were  there  in  June,  1862,  we 
were- soon  in  front  of  part  of  Grant's  army  drawn  up  in  line 
on  the  same  field  where  we  had  killed  so  many  Zouaves  27 
June,  1862. 


There  are  three  ridges  which  all  come  together,  the  Yan- 
kees having  possession  of  the  last  or  outside  one,  and  extend- 
ing their  lines  up  to  the  junction,  then  on  the  left  for  several 
miles.  They  also  had  a  line  of  dismounted  cavalry  on  the 
middle  ridge.  We  turned  to  the  right  going  down  the  third 
or  inside  ridge,  and  formed  in  rear  of  Breckinridge's  artil- 
lery; Lane  on  our  left  joining  Hoke  and  Breckinridge,  Mc- 
Gowan  on  our  right  and  resting  on  the  Chickahominy.  In 
passing  down  to  the  right  I  walked  over  the  place  where  I  saw 
a  number  of  Rutherford  boys  buried  in  1862 — Sloan,  Staf- 
ford, Correll  and  others  of  Company  G;  Moore  of  Company 
D,  and  George  Foster  of  Polk. 

Soon  after  our  line  was  formed  General  Breckinridge  gal- 
loped down  our  front  and  ordered  his  artillery  to  open  fire  on 
the  middle  ridge,  which  was  soon  cleared  and  our  whole  line 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  199 

moved  forward.  On  reaching  the  top  of  the  ridge  we  saw 
the  cavalry  dashing  out  across  the  bottom  in  front  and  into 
the  swamp  beyond.  Lane  had  quite  a  fight  on  his  left,  also 
Hoke  and  Breckinridge,  bnt  all  succeeded  in  clearing  the 
ridge.  General  Lane  was  severely  wounded  and  some  of  his 
men  killed.  About  dark  it  began  to  rain  very  hard.  The 
writer  was  ordered  to  go  to  the  front  and  relieve  the  Captain 
of  the  sharpshooters,  as  he  had  been  on  continuous  duty  for 
three  days  and  nights.  I  was  directed  to  go  to  a  light  that 
could  be  seen  in  front  as  the  place  to  find  the  Captain,  and 
feeling  my  way  down  the  hill  into  the  bottom,  soon  found  my- 
self in  a  ditch ;  badly  scratched  by  the  briars  on  the  banks,  I 
scrambled  out  and  started  ahead,  finding  another,  then  a  third 
ditch,  but  finally  reached  the  place  and  relieved  the  Captain 
and  took  command  of  the  line,  extinguishing  the  light  which 
had  been  made  for  my  guidance.  The  next  morning,  3  June, 
it  had  cleared  off,  and  just  as  day  began  to  appear  in  the  east 
the  enemy  made  a  general  assault  on  our  left.  A  part  of 
Lane's  Brigade  and  all  of  Scales',  with  McGowan's  on  our 
right,  being  covered  by  a  dense  swamp,  were  not  disturbed  and 
had  nothing  to  do  but  listen  and  look  on  for  more  than  two 
hours,  the  battle  raging  Avith  great  fury,  the  enemy  making 
about  thirteen  assaults  with  a  loss  of  over  8,000  men  killed 
(5,000  by  their  own  coimt).  Our  loss  was  very  slight,  being- 
well  protected  by  works  put  up  during  the  night.  I  had  my 
position  on  the  road  where  it  entered  the  swamp  and  expected 
to  be  attacked  at  any  moment,  biit  was  undisturbed  by  any 
force.  One  Federal  Captain  came  out  who  said  he  had  de- 
serted, and  one  or  two  wounded  men  who  had  missed  their 
Avay.  They  were  disarmed  and  sent  to  the  rear.  While 
standing  there  I  heard  a  gim  fire  in  the  SAvamp  on  the  right, 
and  pretty  soon  a  man  came  up  to  me  shot  through  the  arm, 
and  said  a  Yankee  sharpshooter  had  shot  him.  Taking  two 
men  I  went  down  to  the  place  where  he  had  been  and  cau- 
tioned them  to  watch  close  and  keep  themselves  well  covered 
or  they  would  get  shot  if  there  was  any  one  there,  and  went 
back  to  my  post  at  the  road.  Some  time  afterward  one  of  the 
men  came  up,  bringing  a  blanket  full  of  holes  which  he  said 
he  found  behind  a  log,  showing  that  the  man  had  shot  him- 

200  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

self.  He  lost  his  arm  by  amputation.  About  12  o'clock  I 
was  relieved,  the  fight  having  ceased  except  the  firing  of  artil- 
lery, and  I  went  back  to  the  line.  I  found  the  meadow  cov- 
ered with  fine  strawberries,  and  I  stopped  and  enjoyed  a  fine 
feast  with  the  shells  flying  over  my  head.  On  getting  up  to 
the  lines  and  going  up  a  little  way  to  the  left  I  could  see  the 
ground  in  front  of  the  works  covered  with  dead  Yankees.* 
Xext  day  they  sent  a  flag  of  truce  asking  leave  to  remove  their 
dead  and  wounded,  and  for  more  than  two  hours  they  were 
busy  with  litters  and  ambulances  getting  them  off. 

After  the  repulse  of  Grant's  troops  on  the  3d,  we  remained 
in  our  position  undisturbed  except  by  shells  and  solid  shot 
from  beyond  the  swamp.  The  men  would  lie  down  on  the 
bank  to  sleep,  but  regularly  at  12  o'clock  a  big  gun  would  be 
fired  and  the  shot  would  come  tearing  over  us,  some  times 
striking  the  bank  and  going  through  the  house  just  in  our 
rear.  It  was  not  necessary  to  give  orders  to  fall  in,  for  the 
boys  had  already  rolled  in  and  there  they  lay  for  two  hours 
while  the  firing  continried. 


On  the  morning  of  13  June,  just  eleven  days  after  coming 
to  Cold  Harbor,  orders  were  received  to  be  ready  to  march  at 
once,  and  we  were  soon  on  the  way  crossing  the  Chickahominy 
and  passing  Seven  Pines,  we  crossed  the  Nine  Mile  road  and 
took  the  road  to  White  Oak  Swamp  and  Frazier's  farm. 
About  1  p.  m.,  we  found  the  cavalry  stopped  by  the  roadside 
in  an  old  field,  and  we  knew  that  we  were  close  to  the  enemy. 
Passing  the  cavalry  a  short  distance  we  turned  to  the  left  of 
the  road  through  the  pines  and  were  halted  and  faced  to  the 
front,  and  soon  General  Wilcox's  voice  was  heard  ringing  out, 
"Forward  march,  guide  right,"  and  off  we  moved  in  line  of 
battle.  Soon  the  Federal  sharpshooters  began  to  fire  at  us 
through  the  pines,  the  balls  whistling  by  and  now  and  then 
striking  down  a  brave  rebel.  We  drove  them  through  the 
woods  and  into  an  old  field,  and  were  making  a  dash  to  cap- 
ture a  rifle  gun  which  had  been  shelling  us,  when  General 

*It  was  here  that  when  Grant  ordered  a  second  advance  not  a  man  in 
his  whole  army  moved. — Ed. 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  201 

Wilcox  galloped  up  and  ordered  us  to  fall  back  into  the  pines 
about  one  hundred  yards,  where  we  formed  line.  The  gun 
mentioned  we  would  have  captured  in  another  moment  for 
the  men  had  left  it,  ojaened  on  us  again  and  got  our  range  so 
accurately  that  the  shells  struck  our  lines  at  every  fire.  Our 
men  lay  flat  on  the  ground  but  this  did  not  save  them,  for 
they  were  being  killed  and  wounded  by  the  dozen,  Company 
G  losing  six  in  less  than  that  many  minutes.  I  was  stand- 
ing with  a  groiip  of  officers  watching  the  movement  of  the  en- 
emy, when  I  was  struck  by  a  piece  of  shell,  making  a  slight 
wound  on  my  right  hand,  cutting  the  guard  of  my  sword  in 
two  and  striking  me  in  the  stomach,  of  coiirse  knocking  me 
speechless.  I  remember  Colonel  Stowe  taking  me  by  the  col- 
lar and  pulling  me  back  against  a  big  tree ;  the  Adjutant  got 
a  canteen  of  water  and  he  and  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  worked 
with  and  rubbed  me  until  I  could  speak,  and  a  man  from 
my  own  company  ran  out,  picked  rae  up  and  started  to  carry 
•me  off  when  General  Scales,  who  was  lying  behind  a  tree  fifty 
yards  in  the  rear,  called  to  Stowe  and  inquired  who  was 
wounded,  telling  him  to  send  the  man  back  to  his  place ;  that 
he  had  a  man  with  him  who  would  attend  to  me.  I  was  then 
taken  up  and  carried  about  a  mile  up  the  road,  where  we 
found  a  doctor  and  the  ambulances,  and  getting  into  one  I 
was  taken  back  to  the  field  hospital  and  the  next  day  sent  to 
Richmond,  where  I  spent  the  most  miserable  six  weeks  of  ray 
life  at  Winder  Hospital,  leaving  there  on  Sunday  morning, 
31  July,  the  day  after  the  great  mine  at  Petersburg  was  blown 
up,  and  if  they  had  succeeded  in  cutting  the  southern  road  as 
they  expected,  I  would  now  be  resting  in  Hollywood  Ceme- 
tery, for  I  know  I  coTild  not  have  lasted  many  more  days  at 
Winder  Hospital. 

I  wish  here  to  ]iay  tribute  to  the  memory  of  a  brave  man, 
the  man  who  picked  me  up  at  Riddle's  Shop  and  who  I  never 
saw  again.  Before  going  into  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness 
there  were  twelve  men  detailed  to  act  as  color  guard,  with 
strict  orders  not  to  leave  the  flag  for  a  moment.  My  position 
as  commander  of  the  sixth  company  in  line  would  naturally 
be  next  to  the  colors.  After  the  opening  of  the  fight  at  the 
Wilderness  I  never  saw  but  one  of  their  men,  and  that  was 

202  ISToETH  Caeoijna  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

Adolphus  B.  Carson,  of  Company  G,  of  Rutherford  County. 
I  could  lay  my  hand  on  him- at  any  hour,  day  or  night,  during 
the  six  weeks.  The  poor  fellow  died  soon  after  at  Peters- 
burg. He  joined  Company  G  in  March,  1862,  at  Fredericks- 
burg, and  was  never  absent  from  the  regiment  for  one  hour  ex- 
cept from  sickness,  and  had  never  asked  for  a  pass  to  go'  out- 
side. In  February,  1864, 1  had  the  privilege  of  giving  a  fur- 
lough of  eighteen  days,  and  I  gave  it  to  him. 

On  Sunday  morning,  31  July,  I  left  Richmond  for  home, 
reaching  there  late  on  Monday,  where  I  remained  until  Tues- 
day afternoon.  Just  after  being  put  out  of  the  hack  from 
Cherryville  and  while  lying  on  the  hotel  porch.  Dr.  Miller 
passed,  and  seeing  me  stopped  and  invited  me  home  with  him, 
but  not  feeling  able  to  walk  I  had  to  decline  his  kind  invita- 
tion. He  then  said  after  feeling  my  hands:  "You  need  a 
stimulant;  you  must  have  some  brandy,"  whereupon  a  now 
very  prominent  man  of  Shelby  stepped  up  and  said :  "I  will 
bring  him  some."  He  soon  returned  with  a  bottle  and  small 
glass,  and  poured  about  two  spoonfuls  into  the  glass  and  I 
drank  it.  He  then  informed  me  that  T  owed  him  a  dollar, 
which  I  paid  him,  and  have  taken  particular  pains  never  to 
speak  to  him  again. 

Leaving  Shelby  about  2  p.  m.  Tuesday,  we  reached  Webb's 
Ford  about  dark  to  find  the  bridge  undergoing  repairs;  the 
floor  being  off,  the  driver  set  me  afoot  and  went  home.  Rev. 
G.  M.  Webb  very  kindly  gave  me  a  glass  of  buttermilk  and 
loaned  me  a  horse  to  ride  home  on,  which  W.  L.  Davis  prom- 
ised to  take  care  of  and  return  next  day.  On  reaching  the 
bridge  we  found  that  it  coxild  not  be  crossed  by  horses,  but 
Davis  hired  a  man  to  ford  the  river  with  them  and  we  crossed 
on  the  sleepers.  We  reached  home  about  1  p.  m.,  to  find  the 
town  full  of  people  waiting  to  hear  the  news  from  friends  in 
the  army. 

I  remained  at  home  until  3  J^ovember,  1864,  reporting 
once  at  Columbia,  S.  C,  and  once  at  Asheville.  I  would 
here  crave  the  pardon  of  the  reader  for  giving  so  much  of  my 
own  experience,  but  will  say  as  one  of  old  said  of  Solomon, 
"The  half  has  not  been  told." 

On  1  November,  1864,  I  found  the  Sixteenth  at  Battery 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  203 

45,  on  the  Boydton  Plank  road  near  Petersburg.  The  regi- 
ment was  moved  next  day  nearer  the  city,  just  where  the  Wel- 
don  Railroad  crossed  our  lines,  and  at  once  went  to  work  erect- 
ing cabins  for  winter  quarters. 


The  day  after  I  left  the  Sixteenth  at  Riddle's  Shop,  the 
regiment  was  marched  to  Richmond,  embarked  on  the  cars 
and  rushed  to  Petersburg,  where  it  arrived  just  in  time  to 
meet  the  advance  of  Grrant's  army  in  their  attempt  to  capture 
the  place.  The  Sixteenth  was  in  a  number  of  engagements 
during  the  summer,  including  the  repulse  at  the  celebrated 
mine  sprung  by  Burnside  30  July,  and  in  which  he  admits 
that  his  loss  in  killed  was  over  6,500.  The  Sixteenth  was  en- 
gaged in  all  the  movements  of  the  army  round  Petersburg 
during  the  summer  on  both  sides  of  the  Appomattox,  but  as  T 
was  absent  I  am  not  prepared  at  this  late  day  to  give  the  de- 

WIKTEE   OF   1864-'65. 

Very  early  in  November  we  commenced  building  winter 
quarters,  going  in  between  the  lines  and  cutting  the  pine  poles 
which  grew  plentifully  in  our  front.  General  Lee  issued  a 
general  order  that  no  timber  should  be  cut  in  rear  of  the  line, 
so  all  our  firewood  and  cabin  material  had  to  be  carried  across 
a  field  near  a  half  mile;  the  distance  between  the  opposing 
lines  at  this  point  was  more  than  a  mile.  An  amusing  inci- 
dent, showing  General  Lee's  attention  to  small  things,  oc- 
curred here  in  which  a  member  of  Company  G  figured  as  a 
party  of  the  second  part.  The-  medical  department  of  our 
brigade  was  located  a  half  mile  in  rear  of  our  line.  John 
Steadman,  of  Company  G,  M^as  detailed  as  ambulance  driver, 
being  disabled  by  wounds  in  knee  from  marching.  General 
Lee  was  riding  along  in  the  rear  one  day  and  found  Steadman 
cutting  a  pine  tree  and  asked :  "What  are  you  cutting  that 
tree  for?"  Steadman  answered:  "To  burn,  of  course." 
"Don't  you  know,"  said  the  General,  "that  it  is  against  or- 
ders ?  What  is  your  name  and  command  ?"  ordering  him  to 
report  to  his  command  under  arrest.  Steadman  grinned  and 
thought  "that's  all  right,  I'll  never  hear  of  it  again,"  but  to 

204  JSToRTH  Oakolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

his  utter  surprise  the  next  day  an  order  came  from  headquar- 
ters to  put  John  Steadman  under  arrest  for  cutting  trees  in 
rear  of  the  line. 

We  got  our  cabins  fixed  up  pretty  soon,  and  then  regular 
details  were  made  each  day  for  work  and  picket.  No  camp 
guard  was  kept  up.  General  Lee  had  an  immense  dam  con- 
structed across  a  creek  that  run  between  Battery  45  and  Fort 
Gregg  on  the  opposite  hill,  there  being  nothing  between  the 
two  forts.  Our  men  were  called  on  to  work  on  the  dam  and 
in  a  mine  near  our  camp.  About  Christmas  this  dam  was 
completed  and  the  waters  stopped,  but  the  dam  did  not  fill  for 
two  weeks,  but  when  it  did  fill  it  was  the  largest  body  of  fresh 
water  I  ever  saw  and  completely  filled  up  the  line  between 
the  two  forts.  Then  came  a  long  and  hard  rain  during  the 
latter  part  of  the  winter  which  broke  the  dam  and  tore  up 
everything  below,  smashed  the  railroad  bridge  and  the  stone 
viaducts  of  the  canal  and  almost  stopped  the  Appomattox  so 
that  all  our  hard  work  went  for  nothing. 


Aboiit  1  December  the  Yankee  papers  gave  an  account  of  a 
Christmas  dinner  that  the  people  of  the  United  States  were 
going  to  furnish  their  soldiers.  Our  papers  also  had  a  great 
deal  to  say.  about  it,  and  it  was  soon  suggested  that  our  army 
have  a  Christmas  dinner,  and  the  people  of  the  Soiith  were  re- 
quested to  furnish  it.  A  paper  was  sent  to  the  company  of- 
ficers asking  their  opinions  on  the  matter.  I  signed  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  dinner,  as  T  had  spent  the  summer  in  ISTorth  and 
South  Carolina  and  thought  I  understood  the  condition  of 
things  there,  and  the  other  States  were  even  in  a  worse  condi- 
tion. We  were  losing  territory  every  day  and  communication 
from  the  South  was  being  constantly  cut  off,  and  I  coiild  not 
see  how  anything  could  be  accomplished  to  the  satisfaction  of 
the  army.  I  suggested  that  if  the  jDeople  had  anything  to 
spare  that  they  send  it  to  their  immediate  friends  and  let  them 
enjoy  it.  I  was  otit-voted  and  the  dinner  was  ordered  to  be 
sent.  About  two  weeks  after  Christmas  we  had  orders  to  send 
to  the  commissary  for  our  Christmas  dinner,  and  when  it  came 
we  got  for  Company  G  one  drumstick  of  a  turkey,  one  rib  of 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  205 

mutton,  one  slice  of  roast  beef,  two  biscuits,  and  a  slice  of 

So  our  Christmas  dinner  was  a  failure,  as  I  feared  it 
would  be. 

Early  in  December,  1864,  General  Grant  made  a  move  to 
the  left,  known  by  the  men  as  the  "Belfield  Eaid."  The  Six- 
teenth was  ordered  out  and  marched  just  before  dark,  going 
down  the  Weldon  Eailroad  and  as  far  as  Belfield,  in  rain, 
sleet  and  snow,  but  before  we  got  there  the  Yankees  under 
Sheridan  had  been  defeated  and  driven  off,  and  after  an  ab- 
sence of  five  days,  hard  marching  but  no  fighting,  the  Six- 
teenth was  again  back  at  Petersburg  in  their  old  quarters, 
where  we  spent  the  remainder  of  the  winter. 

The  first  thing  that  greeted  our  sight  each  morning  when 
we  opened  our  dxjors  and  looked  to  the  front  was  the  Federal 
flag  floating  high  above  the  timber  in  our  front,  and  an  obser- 
vatory with  a  lookout  on  the  top  overlooking  our  lines  and 
Petersburg.  During  the  winter  there  were  several  beautiful 
displays  of  fireworks  on  the  lines  below  us,  which  we  enjoyed 
very  much,  being  at  a  safe  distance.  We  would  stand  some- 
times half  the  night  watching  the  mortar  shell*  flying  through 
the  air,  sometimes  bursting  in  their  passage  and  often  appear- 
ing to  meet  each  other  in  the  air. 

FOET  STEDMAlSTj  25  MAECHj  lS65. 

On  the  night  of  24  March,  General  Lee  massed  a  num- 
ber of  troops  on  the  left  of  him  and  in  front -of  Fort  Stedman 
for  the  purpose  of  capturing  the  fort.  The  lines  at  this  point 
were  about  150  yards  apart,  the  picket  lines  within  fifty  yards 
of  each  other.  The  pickets  were  generally  captured  before 
they  suspected  anything  was  wrong,  and  then  a  grand  dash 
was  made  at  the  fort  and  works  around,  which  were  soon  cap- 
tured. By  this  time  the  Federals  were  waked  up  all  along 
the  line  and  were  moving  to  recapture  the  lost  ground.  There 
was  a  great  stir  and  commotion  among  them  in  our  front,  and 
we  expected  them  to  make  a  dash  at  us,  but  we  were  not  dis- 
turbed— only  badly  scared.  Very  soon  it  was  found  that 
such  a  strong  force  was  brought  against  the  place,  and  that 
all  the  works  captured  could  be  enfiladed  from  other  batteries. 

206  NoHTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

so  the  position  could  not  be  held,  and  orders  were  given  to  fall 
back,  and  we  lost  more  men  in  falling  back  than  in  making 
the  assault.  A  great  many  lay  down  and  were  captured — 
and  a  great  many  were  killed — and  not  many  got  back  safely 
into  our  lines. 

On  the  26th  Grant  made  a  reconnoissance  in  our  front  with 
a  strong  force,  by  making  an  attempt  to  cross  over  the  ground 
that  had  been  covered  by  the  big  dam  that  had  been  w^ashed 
away  a  few  weeks  before.  I  suppose  they  were  satisfied,  as 
they  withdrew  their  troops  after  a  sharp  skirmish  with  Scales' 
Brigade  and  other  troops  on  the  ground.  The  next  day  he 
commenced  moving  troops  to  his  left,  and  we  were  ordered  to 
march  in  the  same  direction.  Just  as  I  was  packing  my  traps 
for  the  move,  I  was  notified  that  I  was  to  be  left  with  a  small 
party  from  the  brigade  to  keep  up  a  show  of  fight  and  take 
care  of  the  property  of  the  brigade.  My  orders  were  to  keep 
these  men  in  the  works  all  through  the  day  and  make  as  big 
a  show  and  as  much  noise  as  we  could  with  the  small  force 
(about  forty)  left  with  me,  and  not  to  leave  until  the  Yankees 
were  on  the  works ;  but  I  knew  that  if  we  stayed  there  that 
long  we  would  fee  like  the  Irishman  at  Bull  Run.  When 
teased  for  running  at  that  fight  he  replied:  "Faith,  and 
thim  that  didn't  run  is  there  yet."  The  brigade  marched 
out  after  dark,  and  I  was  left  alone  with  20,000  Yankees  in 
front  with  nothing  to  do  but  walk  over  and  take  us  home  with 
them,  but  they  didn't  come.  The  pickets  who  had  been  put 
on  duty  that  morning  were  left  and  were  not  relieved  for 
three  days.  The  Sixteenth  was  engaged  in  all  the  fights  and 
skirmishes  from  Petersburg  to  Five  Forks  on  the  31st,  where 
more  than  half  the  regiment  was  cut  off  and  captured,  the  re- 
maining portion  making  their  way  with  the  brigade  toward 
Burkeville.  On  Friday  night  as  I  was  lying  in  my  cabin 
asleep  some  one  came  and  knocked,  and  on  my  enquiring 
what  was  wanted  answered  that  they  wanted  quarters  for 
General  Cox  and  his  brigade ;  that  he  had  been  sent  there  to 
reinforce  me.  Of  course  I  was  glad  help  was  at  hand  and 
that  the  responsibility  was  to  be  removed  from  my  shoulders 
to  that  of  higher  authority.  The  next  morning  I  found  Gen- 
eral W.  E.  Cox,  of  ISTorth  Carolina,  and  his  brigade  on  the 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  207 

ground.  On  reporting  to  him  and  looking  over  the  ground 
with  him,  and  having  our  pickets  relieved,  he  insisted  that  I 
should  take  my  men  out  of  the  works  in  front  of  our  camp 
and  take  them  down  on  the  left  of  the  Weldon  Railroad.  To 
this  mo^^e  I  objected,  as  I  was  acting  under  orders  from  Gen- 
eral Wilcox  and  did  not  think  I  had  any  right  to  leave.  I 
told  him  that  of  course  I  would  yield  to  him  and  would  put 
my  men  in  the  works  between  his,  as  his  were  posted  at  least 
twenty  feet  apart,  but  he  thought  that  would  cause  some  con- 
fusion with  his  men.  I  told  him  then  that  I  had  a  special 
duty  to  perform  and  that  I  v/ould  take  my  own  men  out  of 
the  works  and  retire  to  the  cabins,  which  I  did.  I  have  met 
the  General  several  time  since,  and  he  always  jokes  me  about 
not  wanting  to  yield  the  command  to  him.  Everything  re- 
mained quiet  in  our  front  during  the  day,  but  there  was  fight- 
ing going  on  all  day  on  our  left  about  Fort  Stedman  with  ar- 
tillery. About  12  o'clock  that  night,  1  April,  reading  the 
Lamp  Lighter,  I  heard  a  gun  fired  in  front  and  a  shot  came 
screaming  over  our  works,  and  from  that  time  on  iintil  day- 
light it  was  kept  up  making  it  very  uncomfortable  for  us,  but 
doing  no  damage. 


At  daylight  Sunday,  2  April,  a  general  advance  was  made 
all  along  the  line.  The  ground  in  front  of  us  was  open  for 
more  than  a  mile,  and  we  could  see  thousands  of  troops  march- 
ing across  our  front  in  the  same  direction  taken  by  them  in 
their  sortie  a  few  days  before,  showing  that  they  had  mapped 
out  their  course  on  the  former  occasion.  There  was  nothing 
to  stop  them  after  driving  in  our  pickets,  and  crossing  the 
creek  that  had  been  dammed  they  struck  Lane's  Brigade, 
breaking  their  line  and  passing  on  to  attack  Fort  Gregg  in 
rear  of  his  line  and  on  the  hill  opposite  Battery  45.  I  stood 
on  45  all  day  long  and  watched  the  operations.  A  part  of 
Lane's  brigade  had  fallen  back  into  it,  with  some  Mississippi 
troops  and  probably  some  others.  I  do  not  know  who  was  in 
command  of  the  party,  but  I  do  know  that  they  made  the  most 
gallant  fight  that  I  ever  looked  at.  Five  times  I  saw  the  as- 
saulting column  form  on  the  hill  and  charge,  and  four  times 

208  AToBTii  Cakolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

they  were  repulsed,  but  the  fifth  and  last  time  they  got  the 
fort,  but  nothing  else  as  the  artillery  had  been  withdrawn, 
and  the  fort  had  been  gallantly  defended  by  less  than  one 
hundred  infantry.  I  could  not  help  thinking  how  foolish 
they  were  to  sacrifice  so  many  men  as  I  saw  fall  for  the  cap- 
ture of  a  fort  that  was  already  cut  off,  surrounded  and  would 
have  been  soon  abandoned.  I  have  always  thought  that  the 
reason  they  did  not  attack  us  was  on  account  of  a  mine  that 
had  been  run  from  the  works  of  our  brigade  some  two  hundred 
yards  to  the  front  near  a  large  house.  I  was  sure  that  they 
had  got  the  location  of  it  from  deserters  from  our  lines,  and 
I  want  to  say  that  the  only  man  of  the  original  Company  G- 
who  ever  deserted,  had  worked  all  the  winter  in  this  mine. 
The  fighting  and  skirmishing  was  kept  up  all  day,  the  shells 
fiying  around  and  over  us,  but  doing  no  harm  that  I  saw. 
Our  sharpshooters  were  being  driven  in,  and  before  dark  they 
had  reached  the  house  in  front  near  the  mine.  All  the  after- 
noon Colonel  Lane,  who  was  in  command  of  the  artillery  that 
was  posted  on  our  line,  had  been  withdrawing  his  artillery 
and  everything  looked  like  a  break  up. 

The  last  time  I  remember  seeing  Colonel  Lane  he  was  gal- 
loping up  Halifax  street  on  a  little  poor  sorrel  colt  with  a 
rope  bridle,  and  using  a  shingle  for  a  whip.  In  the  mean- 
time Longstreet  had  crossed  over  the  James  and  had  thrown 
his  forces  between  Petersburg  and  the  Appomattox,  and  was 
holding  the  only  bridge  open  to  us. 

As  I  stood  on  'No.  45  pretty  much  all  day  Sunday,  2  April, 
and  saw  tlie  Yankees  march  across  our  front,  crossing  over 
the  creek  where  the  big  dam  had  been,  and  sweep  Lane's 
Brigade  out  of  their  way  and  then  assault  and  capture  Fort 
Gregg — I  felt  that  everything  was  lost,  on  that  line  at  least. 

Everything  was  in  confusion  on  our  lines  all  day,  and  we 
expected  nothing  but  that  we  would  be  assaulted  every 
moment,  but  were  not  disturbed  except  by  their  artillery 
which  kept  \\p  a  fire  all  day  on  our  lines,  I  think  for  the  pur- 
pose of  seeing  if  our  forces  had  not  been  moved  OTit.  Late 
in  the  afternoon  a  wagoner  drove  up  to  camp  and  called  to 
me  that  he  had  been  sent  to  take  the  baggage  of  the  officers 
of  the  Sixteenth.     I  had  just  before  gone  over  my  kit  and 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  209 

made  a  small  bundle  of  my  papers  and  a  few  things  that  I 
wanted  to  save  and  thought  I  would  carry  with  me,  but  to 
relieve  myself  of  a  burden  I  j)ut  it  all  back  and  loaded  every- 
thing in  the  wagon,  which  drove  off  across  the  railroad,  and 
I  heard  nothing  more  of  it  until  I  reached  Farmville.  There 
on  reaching  the  Quartermaster's  camp  on  the  opposite  side  o£ 
the  river,  he  found  Colonel  Ashford,  of  the  Thirty-eighth, 
who  had  been  wounded  in  the  arm,  and  who  made  the  driver 
throw  out  our  baggage  and  put  in  his.  I  was  very  much 
disappointed  and  worried,  as  I  had  lost  all  my  private  and 
public  papers  and  some  very  valuable  articles,  inchiding 
all  my  clothing  except  what  I  had  on. 

Colonel  Lane,  who  was  in  command  of  the  artillery,  was  a 
son  of  General  Joe  Lane,  of  Oregon,  who  was  a  candidate  for 
Vice-President  on  the  Breckinridge  ticket  in  1860.  He  was 
a  good,  kind-hearted  man.  There  were  some  little  boys  who 
came  every  day  to  our  camp  to  beg  for  something  to  eat,  and 
though  rations  were  scarce,  we  sometimes  had  a  little  we  could 
give  them.  On  one  occasion  a  little  fellow  about  four  years 
old  came  along  with  a  sack,  and  when  asked  what  he  had  it 
for,  said:  "I'm  going  to  General  Lane's  tent;  he  gives  me 
a  pint  of  meal  every  day.  I  didn't  go  yesterday,  and  he'll 
give  me  a  quart  to-day." 


About  10  o'clock  that  night,  or  Monday  morning,  we  had 
orders  to  evacuate  the  place,  which  was  quietly  done.  On 
reaching  the  city  we  found  everything  in  confusion,  hundreds 
of  negroes  surrounded  the  commissary  department,  some  roll- 
ing off  barrels  of  flotir,  others  carrying  off  hams  and  every- 
thing they  could  lay  their  hands  on  and  get  away  with.  A 
barrel  of  whiskey  had  been  emptied  into  the  gutter,  and  as 
we  passed  we  saw  an  old  negro  man  dipping  it  up  with  a  tin 
cup  and  drinking  it,  jumping  up  cracking  his  feet  together  as 
happy  as  a  lord.  We  soon  left  the  city  and  crossed  the  river 
on  the  pontoon  bridge,  and  marched  on  the  main  road  through 
Chesterfield  County,  between  the  James  and  Appomattox. 
After  daylight  I  found  that  I  had  lost  one  of  my  men,  James 
Hoyle,  of  Company  G,  and  have  never  heard  of  him  since. 

210  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

He  was  wounded  in  the  knee  and  I  suppose  must  have  given 
■out  in  the  night  and  was  probably  picked  up  next  day  by  the 
■cavalry,  and  quite  likely  died  in  prison.  After  some  time  I 
saw  an  old  man  marching  ahead  of  me  with  a  shawl  on  his 
shoulder,  and  soon  recognized  old  Dr.  Armstrong,  who  had 
spent  the  fall  and  winter  in  and  around  our  camp,  and  preach- 
ed to  us  often.  He  was  an  old  Presbyterian  D.  D.,  and  had 
been  imprisoned  by  General  Butler  when  in  command  of  Nor- 
folk, and  had  been  made  to  sweep  the  streets  with  a  ball  and 
chain  on  his  leg  and  under  a  negro  guard.  When  I  caught 
up  with  him  and  asked  him  why  he  was  leaving  he  replied; 
"I  never  expect  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  General  Butler  again 
if  I  can  help  it."  He  kept  up  with  us  till  we  reached  Appo- 
miattox,  and  I  heard  some  time  ago  that  he  was  still  alive  at 
his  home  in  Norfolk.  We  marched  all  day  Monday  and 
Monday  night,  and  Tuesday  morning,  4  April,  just  at  day- 
light recrossed  the  Appomattox,  having  to  wade  some  distance 
before  reaching  the  bridge,  and  there  we  found  the  remnant 
of  the  Sixteenth  under  Colonel  Stowe.  After  resting  an 
hour  we  again  took  the  road  and  reached  Amelia  Court  House, 
where  we  spent  the  night,  getting  a  very  small  quantity  of  ra- 
tions, the  first  since  leaving  Petersburg.  Just  as  we  were 
ready  to  march  the  next  morning,  Wednesday,  a  courier 
dashed  up  with  the  news  that  the  Yankee  cavalry  was  raiding 
our  wagon  train  on  another  road,  and  the  Sixteenth  was 
started  at  once  to  drive  them  away.  We  found  several  wagons 
with  their  wheels  cut  down  and  others  on  fire,  the  teams  all 
gone,  the  ground  strewn  wdth  officers'  trunks  all  broken  open 
and  rifled  of  their  contents.  While  there  a  gentleman  came 
Tip  with  a  small  piece  of  silverware  that  he  had  found.  He 
said  they  had  robbed  his  hoiise  of  everything  they  could  carry 
off,  but  had  dropped  that  one  piece  on  the  road.  We  followed 
for  some  distance,  but  the  only  Yankee  we  saw  was  a  cavalry- 
man who  was  so  drunk  that  he  didn't  know  anything.  Some 
one  had  taken  all  his  outer  clothing  off,  and  we  left  him  lying 
in  the  road  as  we  found  him.  We  found  the  brigade  resting 
about  11  o'clock  that  night,  and  early  next  morning  were 
again  on  the  march  in  the  direction  of  Farmville,  which  we 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  211 

reached  on  the  morning  of  the  7th,  where  we  found  our  wagon 
train  and  I  learned  of  my  loss. 


On  7  May,  at  FarmviJle,  we  were  attacked  by  a  whole  corps 
of  infantry  and  one  division  of  cavalry,  and  after  a  sharp 
fight  the  enemy  was  repulsed  with  heavy  loss,  including  one 
General.  Here,  so  far  as  I  Imow,  the  last  Federal  soldier  was 
shot  by  the  Sixteenth.  Israel  Higgins,  of  Company  G,  being 
on  the  skirmish  line,  shot  an  officer  off  his  horse  and  then 
crawled  out  to  him  and  got  the  horse  and  brought  it  in,  but  in 
doing  so  he  was  seriously  wounded  and  had  to  be  left  in  the 
hospital  there.  After  the  surrender  at  Appomattox  ]'  was 
sent  to  from  division  headquarters  for  his  name  which  I  gave. 
Before  the  enemy  could  bring  up  their  reinforcements  we 
were  again  met  on  the  march  in  the  direction  of  Appomattox 
Court  House,  bu_t  in  the  afternoon  we  made  a  stand,  formed 
line  of  battle  and  got  ready  to  give  the  enemy  a  warm  wel- 
come. They  came  in  sight,  formed  line  and  we  expected 
every  moment  that  they  would  advance  on  us,  but  with  the 
exception  of  shelling  us  a  little  they  did  not  trouble  us. 
After  dark  Ave  again  moved  off  and  marched  all  night  and 
day  of  the  Sth,  with  a  short  stop  or  so  for  rest,  and  went  into 
camp  about  two  miles  from  the  court  house.  The  last  time  I 
left  home  a  little  niece  of  mine  put  half  a  dozen  ears  of  pop- 
corn in  my  haversack;  .1  still  had  one  left,  and  that  was  my 
only  supper.  We  each  got  a  pint  of  meal  that  night,  but  too 
late  to  be  baked,  so  carried  it  over. 

Early  on  Sunday  morning,  9  April,  we  were  aroused  and 
soon  on  the  way,  but  for  some  reason  unknown  to  us,  our  pro- 
gress was  very  slow.  We  would  march  a  little  way,  then  stop 
and  stand  for  some  time,  then  move  on  to  be  halted  again, 
and  it  being  still  dark  we  could  not  see  what  was  going  on 
ahead.  We  had  about  1,500  prisoners,  including  one  General 
of  cavalry,  and  we  thought  may  be  they  were  delaying  the 
march.  Just  as  daylight  began  to  appear  we  heard  picket 
firing  in  front,  and  as  we  came  nearer  the  firing  became  more 
rapid  until  aboiit  sunrise  it  sounded  very  much  like  a  general 
engagement.     About  this  time  we  came  in  sight  of  Appomat- 

212  North  Cakolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

tox  Court  House  and  could  see  troops  engaged  on  the  high 
grounds  beyond.  Appomattox  is  just  such  a  town  as  Euther- 
fordton,  the  main  street  running  east  and  west  instead  of 
north  and  south,  with  a  large  branch  at  the  foot  of  the  hill, 
with  the  much  talked  of  apple  tree  in  the  bottom  to  the  right 
of  the  road.  There  is  no  branch  on  the  south  side,  but  the 
ground  rises  gradually  into  a  long,  high  ridge,  resembling  the 
ridge  from  Captain  Bell's  school  building  to  New  Hope 
Church  and  on  to  the  right. 


General  Lee  had  divided  his  army  into  two  wings  after  the 
death  of  A.  P.  Hill,  who  was  killed  on  2  April,  near  Fort 
Gregg,  the  Third  Corps  (Hill's)  being  attached  to  Long- 
street's  and  the  Second  was  under  General  Ewell;  but  he, 
with  a  number  of  other  officers,  had  been  captured  the  day  be- 
fore. That  wing  of  the  army  was  under  command  of  General 
Gordon,  who  Avas  then  doing  the  fighting  on  the  heights  south 
of  the  town.  As  wo  marched  down  the  hill  toward  the  town 
we  met  two  Confederate  and  one  Federal  officer  coming  in  a 
gallop,  the  Federal  carrying  a  white  flag,  and  from  his  dress 
and  long  yellow  ringlets,  I  recognized  him  as  General  Custer. 
They  were  tlien  on  their  way  to  General  Longstreet  to  have 
him  stop  the  march.  A  very  short  time  after  they  passed  and 
just  as  the  Sixteenth  had  reached  the  branch  and  near  the  old 
apple  tree,  an  order  came  to  right  about  march.  We  imme- 
diately turned  and.  marched  by  the  left  flank  a  short  distance 
and  then  left  the  road,  going  up  on  just  such  a  place  as  where 
T.  B.  Justice's  residence  stands,  were  halted  and  ordered  to 
stack  arms  and  rest.  A  few  minutes  after  we  had  stopped,  as 
I  was  lying  down  by  a  tree  in  rear  of  the  line,  a  Confederate 
officer  rode  down  from  the  woods  behind  us,  and  approaching 
me  asked  why  the  firing  had  ceased  in  front.  I  told  him  I 
did  not  know,  but  there  was  a  rumor  and  a  suspicion  that  the 
army  was  going  to  stirrender.  He  asked:  "What  makes 
you  think  so  ?"  I  told  him  what  I  had  seen,  and  pointing  to 
the  hill  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  directed  his  attention 
to  the  artillery  coming  off  the  field.  He  then  asked  where 
the  Colonel  of  the  regiment  was,  and  on  Colonel  Stowe  being 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  213 

pointed  out  he  rode  down  to  where  he  was,  and  leaning  down 
said  something  to  him  that  I  could  not  hear,  but  I  heard  the 
Colonel  say :  "No !  ISTo !"  He  then  put  spurs  to  his  horse 
and  dashed  back  through  the  woods  and  was  soon  out  of  sight. 
We  soon  heard  a  number  of  carbines  crack  and  followed  by 
the  last  rebel  yell  I  ever  heard — then  all  was  quiet.  I  learned 
afterwards  that  it  was  General  Rosser  of  the  cavalry,  and  he 
with  G-eneral  Mart  Gary,  of  South  Carolina,  with  a  number  of 
others,  cut  their  way  out  and  did  not  surrender.  A  brother 
of  the  writer,  who  was  on  the  hill  with  the  artillery,  said  he 
never  saw  a  more  gallant  charge  during  the  war.  After  get- 
ting through  they  struck  Sheridan's  wagon  train  and  burnt 
about  five  miles  of  it,  and  that  was  stated  as  one  reason  why 
they  did  not  give  us  any  rations  but  kept  us  there  four  days 
without  a  mouthful  to  eat  and  sent  us  away  without  anything. 
A  few  hours  after  we  had  gone  back  to  the  hill  General 
Lee  rode  back  from  the  front,  and  as  he  passed  the  men  all 
ran  down  to  the  road  and  surrounded  him,  everyone  trying 
to  shake  hands  with  him,  many  of  them  in  tears.  He  took  off 
his  hat  and  made  a  little  speech  in  which  he  said :  "Boys,  I 
have  done  the  best  I  could  for  you.  Go  home  now  and  if 
you  make  as  good  citizens  as  joxi  have  soldiers,  you  will  do 
well,  and  I  shall  always  be  proud  of  you.  Goodbye,  and  God 
bless  you  all."  He  seemed  so  full  that  he  could  say  no  more, 
but  with  tears  in  his  eyes  he  gave  Traveler  the  rein  and  rode 
off  in  the  direction  of  his  headquarters,  and  that  was  the  last 
we  ever  saw  of  him. 


The  same  day  the  officers  of  the  different  commands  were 
ordered  to  sign  the  following  parole,  viz. : 

"We,  the  undersigned  prisoners  of  war,  belonging  to  the 
Army  of  JSTorthern  Virginia,  having  this  day  been  surren- 
dered by  General  E.  E.  Lee,  commanding  said  army,  to  Lieu- 
tenant-General  Grant,  commanding  the  Armies  of  the  United 
States,  do  hereby  give  our  solemn  parole  of  honor  that  we 
will  not  hereafter  serve  in  the  armies  of  the  Confederate 
States,  or  in  any  military  capacity  whatever  against  the 
United  States  of  America,  or  render  aid  to  the  enemies  of 

214  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  latter  until  properly  exchanged  in  such  manner  as  shall  be 
mutually  approved  by  the  respective  authorities. 

"Done  at  Appomattox  Court  House,  Va.,  this  the  9th  day 
of  April,  1865." 

The  above  ofScers  will  not  be  disturbed  by  the  United 
States  authorities  as  long  as  they  observe  their  parole  and 
the  laws  in  force  where  they  may  reside. 

Geo.  H.  ShabpEj 
General  Assistant  Provost  Marshal. 

Regimental  and  company  officers  were  ordered  to  sign  the 
following  obligation  for  the  men : 

"1,  the  undersigned  commanding  officer  of ,  do,  for 

the  within  named  prisoners  of  war  belonging  to  the  Army  of 
jSTorthern  Virginia,  who  have  been  this  day  surrendered  by 
General  Kobert  E.  Lee,  Confederate  Army,  comimanding  said 
army,  to  Lieutenant-General  Grant,  commanding  Armies  of 
the  United  States,  hereby  give  my  solemn  parole  of  honor, 
that  the  within  named  shall  not  serve  in  the  Armies  of  the 
Confederate  States,  or  in  military  or  other  capacity  whatever, 
against  the  United  States  of  America,  or  render  aid  to  the  en- 
emies of  the  latter  until  properly  exchanged  in  such  manner 
as  shall  be  mutually  approved  by  the  respective  authorities. 

"Done  at  Appomattox  Court  House,  this  9th  day  of  April, 

On  the  next  day,  the  10th,  the  following  farewell  address 
was  issued  to  the  army  by  General  Lee : 

General  Order  No.  9.  Headquarters  Army  Northern  Vir- 
ginia, 10  April,  1865. — After  four  years  of  arduous  service, 
marked  by  unsurpassed  courage  and  fortitude,  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia  has  been  compelled  to  yield  to  overwhelm- 
ing numbers  and  resources.  I  need  not  tell  the  survivors  of 
so  many  hard  fought  battles,  who  have  remained  steadfast  to 
the  last,  that  I  have  consented  to  this  result  from  no  distrust 
of  them,  but  knowing  that  valor  and  devotion  could  accom- 
plish nothing  that  would  compensate  for  the  loss  that  would 
attend  a  contin\iation  of  the  contest,  I  have  determined  to 
avoid  the  useless  sacrifice  of  those  whose  past  valor  has  en- 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  215 

deared  them  to  their  countrymen.  By  the  terms  of  the  agree- 
ment officers  and  men  can  return  to  their  homes  and  remain 
there  until  exchanged.  You  will  take  with  you  the  satisfac- 
tion that  proceeds  from  the  consciousness  of  duty  faithfully 
performed,  and  I  earnestly  pray  that  a  merciful  God  will  ex- 
tend you  his  blessing  and  protection.  With  an  increasing 
admiration  of  your  constancy  and  devotion  to  your  country, 
and  a  grateful  remembrance  of  your  kind  devotion  and  gen- 
erous consideration  of  myself,  I  bid  you  an  affectionate  fare- 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

It  was  arranged  that  each  regimental  or  battalion  com- 
mander should  sign  paroles  for  the  officers  and  men  under 
them,  and  accordingly,  after  waiting  four  days,  on  Wednes- 
day, the  12th,  Wilcox's  Light  Division  was  reached  and  the 
company  commanders  were  furnished  a  parole  for  each  man 
surrendered  like  the  following: 

Appomattox  0.  H.,  Virginia,  April  10,  1865. — (Paroled 
Prisoner's  Pass.)— The  bearer,  Private  F.  D.  Wood,  of  Com- 
pany G,  Sixteenth  North  Carolina  Troops,  a  paroled  prisoner 
of  the  Army  of  IsTorthern  Virginia,  has  permission  to  go  to  his 
home  and  there  remain  undisturbed. 

W.  A.  Stowe, 
Colonel  Commanding  Regiment. 


About  3  o'clock  on  Wednesday  afternoon,  the  12th,  we 
marched  into  the  main  street  of  the  town  and  marched  in  be- 
tween two  lines  of  Yankees  faced  inward,  who  at  order  of 
their  commander  presented  arms,  which  was  followed  by  our 
men.  The  men  then  stacked  arms  and  were  marched  back  to 
the  place  where  we  came  from,  and  gathering  up  what  few  be- 
longings we  had  left  the  Light  Division  formed  line  for  the 
last  time  and  marched  out,  passing  again  over  the  ground 
where  we  had  lately  surrendered  and  out  of  the  town  on  the 
road  to  Campbell  Court  House.  There  was  no  demonstration 
of  joy  or  rejoicing  when  we  surrendered  or  marched  through 
the  Federal  lines,  but  everything  passed  off  quietly.     We  saw 

216  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

very  few  of  their  officers  or  men  wMle  we  were  there.  Major- 
General  Gibbon  came  to  onr  camp  to  see  his  brother,  Dr.  Gib- 
bon, one  of  our  surgeons.  He  enquired  what  troops  it  was  de- 
fended Fort  Gregg  on  Sunday  before,  and  said  he  had  never 
set-n  such  a  gallant  defence  by  so  small  a  party. 

General  Sheridan  also  rode  through  our  camp,  but  did  not 
speak  to  any  one  so  far  as  I  heard.  While  we  were  stacking 
our  arms  in  the  street  I  saw  a  young  lady  standing  on  a  ve- 
randa in  front  of  us  crying.  I  wanted  to  go  to  her,  take  her 
in  my  arms  and  kiss  her,  but  could  not  break  ranks  just  then 
— too  many  Yankees  between  us. 


Gathering  up  the  company  we  marched  about  five  miles 
that  evening  and  then  stopped  in  a  piece  of  woods  for  the 
night,  without  anything  to  eat  or  any  prospect  for  break- 
fast. It  rained  hard  during*  the  night  and  we  had  to  take 
it,  there  being  no  chance  for  shelter.  Next  morning  was 
fair  and  bright  when  we  got  up.  I  called  up  all  the  mem- 
bers of  Company  G  and  gave  each  one  his  parole,  telling  them 
I  thought  they  had  better  get  away  from  that  crowd  as  soon 
as  possible,  as  I  had  fears  that  they  would  suffer  for  food  if 
they  kept  with  it,  that  I  expected  to  take  the  first  road  I  saw 
leading  to  the  right.  There  were  paroled  with  me  F.  D. 
Wood,  E.  S.  Callahan,  C.  C.  Hawkins,  Joseph  Jay  and  John 
P.  Eaves,  of  the  original  company;  Jo  and  Josh  Steadman, 
J.  A.  Justice  and  W.  H.  Jay,  recruits  from  Rutherford 
County;  J.  C.  Camp,  of  Polk,  and  Isham  S.  Upchurch, 
Joseph  and  Elisha  Cole  of  Chatham,  and  Daniel  Boon  Dallas 
of  Robeson  County.  We  soon  came  to  a  road  that  seemed 
to  lead  into  a  mountain  on  the  right.  I  told  the  men  that  I 
was  going  to  take  that  road,  they  could  go  with  me  or  on  the 
main  road  as  they  chose.  Bidding  the  Chatham  men  goodbye 
I  turned  to  the  right  and  found  that  all  the  Rutherford  men 
followed  me  but  three.  We  soon  began  to  pass  farm  houses 
and  made  application  for  something  to  eat,  but  received  the 
same  answer  from  all :  "Nothing  for  ourselves ;  both  armies 
have  been  in  the  country  for  a  week  and  have  taken  every- 
thing we  had."     Finally  about  12  o'clock,  when  I  was  almost 

Sixteenth  Regiment.  217 

ready  to  give  up,  we  came  to  a  large  house,  and  on  entering 
the  yard  we  found  no  white  person  at  home  except  a  young 
lady,  and  on  making  our  wants  known  we  received  the  same 
answer.  I  then  asked  her  if  she  would  allow  us  to  rest  a 
short  while  on  the  grass  near  a  beautiful  spring  in  the  yard. 
Looking  through  the  hall  I  saw  a  large  map  hanging  on  the 
wall  and  asked  permission  to  look  at  it  a  moment,  and  while 
examining  it  she  stood  near  while  I  pointed  out  the  route  we 
wanted  to  travel.  She  then  said  she  had  some  cow  peas  that 
she  would  give  us  if  we  could  use  them,  and  I  told  her  any- 
thing that  would  sustain  life  and  give  us  strength  to  travel 
until  we  could  reach  a  part  of  the  country  that  had  not  been 
overrun  by  soldiers,  would  be  thankfully  received:  She  then 
went  up  stairs  and  brought  down  a  half  gallon,  which  I  gave 
to  one  of  the  men  to  cook.  One  of  the  party  had  a  little  salt, 
the  only  seasoning  we  had,  and  I  don't  think  I  ever  enjoyed  a 
dish  of  peas  more  in  my  life,  and  again  thanking  the  young 
lady  for  her  kindness,  we  started  on  the  tramp  feeling  much 

After  leaving  the  kind  young  lady  who  gave  us  the  peas, 
we  passed  a  number  of  fine  merchant  mills  on  the  way,  but 
could  get  nothing  from  any  of  them,  all  claiming  that  their 
grain  and  flour  had  been  pressed  for  the  army.  Every  one 
we  approached  said  "if  you  go  to  Henry  Alexander's  you  can 
get  something."  Finding  that  he  lived  on  the  road  we  were 
traveling,  we  made  for  his  house,  and  as  we  walked  up  into 
the  yard  an  old  gentleman  came  out  and  said:  "Well, 
how  many  of  you  is  there  along,"  and  being  told  there  was 
fourteen  in  all,  he  gave  us  a  shoulder  of  meat  and  near  a  half 
bushel  of  meal,  and  one  of  his  daughters  went  in  and  came 
back  with  a  lap  full  of  eggs,  another  with  some  Irish  potatoes 
and  other  eatables,  all  most  acceptable  to  a  lot  of  hungry  men. 
It  being  still  sometime  until  night,  we  took  the  good  things 
given  us  with  many  thanks  and  moved  on  several  miles,  stop- 
ping at  a  house  jiist  before  night  and  getting  our  provisions 
cooked  we  ate  a  hearty  supper  and  then  went  to  a  school  house, 
built  a  fire  and  went  to  bed  on  the  floor.  The  next  morn- 
ing after  travelling  a  few  miles  we  stopped  on  the  road  and 
ate  the  remains  of  Alexander's  rations,  and  then  agreed  to 

218  North  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'"65. 

travel  in  smaller  parties,  as  we  found  it  hard. to  get  food  for 
such  a  large  crowd.  Captain  Joe  Mills  of  Brindletown,  Dr. 
R.  E.  Murphy  and  John  Corn  of  Polk,  with  Bill  Carson,  a 
servant  of  Joe  Mills,  took  the  first  left  hand  road  we  came  to, 
the  others  keeping  the  right.  After  that  we  had  no  trouble  in 
getting  places  to  stay  and  food  to  eat.  On  Monday,  the  17th, 
Tom  McEntire  and  W.  T.  Wilkins  caught  up  with  -us  at  G. 
W.  Napiers,  the  old  tobacco  trader,  who  used  to  travel 
through  this  country  before  the  war.  After  Tom  came  with 
his  fiddle  we  had  a  fine  time,  but  I  don't  suppose  the  readers 
will  be  interested  in  our  trip.  We  passed  through  Camp- 
bell, Bedford,  Henry  and  Patrick  Counties,  Virginia,  and 
Stokes,  Surry,  Yadkin,  Wilkes,  Caldwell,  Burke  and  McDow- 
ell, then  home,  where  we  arrived  on  27  April. 

Just  at  the  mile  post  on  the  Asheville  road  I  met  Colonel 
Wash  Hardy  driving  an  ambulance,  with  Mrs.  General  Polk 
and  daughters,  on  their  way  to  Asheville.  Telling  them 
that  I  had  heard  at  Morgan  ton  that  the  Yankees  had  left 
Asheville  and  gone  down  into  Tennessee,  they  drove  on  and 
in  a  few  miles  met  the  Federal  General  Palmer  and  1,500  of 
his  bimimers.  Learning  who  the  ladies  were,  they  allowed 
Colonel  Hardy  to  go  on  with  them,  but  made  him  promise  to 
turn  over  the  team  and  ambulance  to  a  Quartermaster  they 
had  left  at  Asheville. 


A  few  hours  after  reaching  home,  while  sitting  on  the 
street  talking  to  some  friends,  a  party  of  about  a  dozen  Yanks 
rode  down  the  street  carrying  a  white  flag.  Some  of  the  boys 
who  had  not  had  enough  of  war  stopped  them  and  talked 
about  capturing  the  party.  The  Lieutenant  in  command 
said  they  were  going  to  carry  a  message  to  some  troops  below 
to  stop  taking  property,  as  the  war  was  over,  and  on  the 
strength  of  that  they  were  allowed  to  go.  The  officer  in 
charge  smiled  very  blandly  as  they  rode  ofl^.  They  then  pro- 
ceeded to  cross  the  branch  on  the  Shelby  road,  and  true  to 
habit  established  themselves  as  a  picket  post  and  caught  every 
one  who  attempted  to  leave  town  by  that  road.  One  man 
from  the  coimtry  who  had  come  in  horseback,  saw  them  pass, 

Sixteenth  Kegiment.  219 

ran  and  jumped  on  his  horse  without  waiting  to  put  on  the 
saddle,  and  went  out  of  town  at  full  speed,  calling  to  some 
one  as  he  passed  to  get  his  saddle.  Every  one  laughed  at  him 
for  being  scared,  but  he  was  the  only  one  who  saved  his  horse. 
In  a  very  few  minutes  after  this  there  was  at  least  fifteen 
hundred  Yankees  in  town.  A  number  of  citizens  who  had 
hid  out  their  horses  and  other  valuables,  thinking  the  coast 
was  clear  had  brought  them  in,  only  to  have  everything  that 
a  Yankee  could  steal  taken  from  them.  While  standing  on 
the  street  looking  on,  a  party  of  officers  rode  up  to  the  front 
gate  of  one  of  our  citizens,  dismounted  and  entered  the  house, 
the  family  coming  down  to  the  gate.  I  thought  I  would  walk 
up  and  speak  to  them.  One  who,  four  years  later,  became 
very  near  and  dear  to  me,  came  running  down  the  walk  wring- 
ing her  hands  and  crying,  and  without  any  welcome  to  me, 
said:  "Do  go  and  tell  Settle,  Hawes  and  the  others  to  get 
away  with  their  horses — please  go."  Not  knowing  who  they 
were,  I  asked  who  and  where  they  were.  "Oh,  McCormack's 
men — Wheeler's  Cavalry,"  was  the  answer.  I  afterward 
learned  they  were  a  lot  of  Kentucky  cavalry  who  had  strag- 
gled off  from  the  army,  and  thinking  they  had  found  a  safe 
place  had  stopped  here  and  were  feeding  their  horses  on  the 
public  corn  and  were  being  feasted  and  feted  by  the  citizens, 
and  soon  as  the  Yankees  came  took  refuge  in  Mrs.  McDowell's 
attic  and  there  remained  until  General  Palmer  left  next 
day,  taking  the  Blue  Grass  horses  with  them  but  leaving  the 
men  as  not  being  of  any  value. 

I  have  tried  in  this  long  and  rambling  story  to  do  nothing 
but  justice  to  all,  and  to  tell  nothing  but  the  truth,  though 
I  am  fully  conscious  that  I  have  not  told  the  half,  so  I  think 
I  had  better  close  without  any  apology  to  anyone;  the  only 
thing  I  am  sorrv  for  is  that  it  has  not  been  better  told. 

G.  H.  Mills. 

Rtjtheefoedton,  N.  C, 
9  April,  1901. 

TENTH  (1  Art.)  REGIMENT. 

1.  W.  R.  Capehait,  Surgeon,  C.  S.  A.  1 

2.  Robert  H.  Brooks,  Sergt.,  Co    A,    Manly's 

Battery,  10th  Regt.   (1  Art.) 

John    Springs    Davidson,    Private,     Co.^  C, 

Brcm's  Battery,   10th  Regt.    (1  Art.) 
Robt.  E.  Gibson,  Private,  Co.  D.,  Ramsay's 
Battery,  10th  Regt.    (1  Art.) 
5.  Jas.  N.  Thompson,  Private,  Co.  A,  Manly's  Battery,  10th  Regt.      (1  Art.) 



By  T.  0.  MOORE,  First  Lieutenant  Company  I. 

I  desire  to  add  the  following  to  the  brief  sketch  of  Com- 
pany I,  Fourth  North  Carolina,  which  is  to  be  found  in 
Vol.  1  of  this  work,  at  page  582.  I  have  lost  my  notebook 
of  the  movements  of  the  battery  and  must  write  mostly  from 

Company  I,  Tenth  llegiment  State  Troops,  Light  Artil- 
lery, was  organized  in  May,  3  861,  at  Wilmington,  with  Sam- 
uel R.  Bunting  as  Captain;  L.  II.  Bowden,  First  Lieutenant; 
D.  E.  Bunting,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  James  F.  Post,  Jun- 
ior Second  Lieutenant,  and  myself  as  First  Sergeant.  We 
were  ordered  into  camp  at  the  Marine  Hospital  for  field 
drill;  then  to  the  old  Oostin  House.  From  there  we  were 
ordered  to  Wrightsville  and  Masonboro  Sound  as  coast  guard. 
We  remained  there  until  ordered  to  ISTew  Bern  13  March, 

1862,  to  take  part  in  the  fight  there.  Arrived  at  Kinston 
and  met  the  troops  falling  back  from  New  Bern.  After  that, 
were  put  on  detached  service  between  Kinston  and  New  Bern, 
Washington,  Greenville  and  Trenton.  We  were  engaged  in 
the  fight  at  Hobb's  Mill.  Also  in  the  fight  at  Gum  Swamp, 
near  Kinston,  imder  General  Robert  Ransom.  Then  in  the 
fight  at  Deep  Gully  under  General  D.  H.  Hill;  then  at  the 
siege  and  retaking  of  Washington,  N.  C.     On  13  December, 

1863,  our  battery  was  engaged  in  the  fight  at  Kinston.  It 
lasted  to  19th  at  Goldsboro  bridge.  26  Off.  Bee.  Union  and 
Confed.  Armies,  113,  807.  We  had  one  man  killed  and  four 
wounded,  and  lost  two  of  our  guns  in  these  series  of  fights. 

We  were  then  ordered  to  Fort  Fisher,  where  we  remained 
(or  at  Masonboro  Sound)  till  the  capture  of  Fisher  15  Jan- 

222  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

nary,  1865.  Captain  Southerland  was  wounded  at  Sugar 
Loaf.  Our  battery's  conduct  in  the  assaults  on  Fort  Fisher 
is  mentioned  in  87  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies, 
1021,  102Jt  and  88  ditto  1226.  After  the  fall  of  Fisher  and 
evacuation  of  Wilmington  we  retreated  to  Northeast  river. 
On  the  morning  of  23  February,  1865,  we  had  two  hours 
fight  at  jSTortheast  railroad  bridge.  We  then  made  forced 
marches  thence  to  Kinston.  After  arriving  at  Kinston,  under 
command  of  General  Hoke,  we  were  engaged  in  his  move- 
ment 8  March,  1865,  when  he  got  in  the  rear  of  General 
Schofield,  aboiit  10  or  11  o'clock  at  night,  routing  that  part 
of  his  army  and  capturing  about  sixteen  hundred  prison- 
ers. We  fell  back  to  Kinston  10  March.  From  Kinston 
we  joined  General  Joseph  E.  .Tohnston  and  were  in  the 
three  days'  battle  at  Bentonville  19-21  March.  After  that 
fight  our  battery  was  in  the  historic  retreat  to  Greensboro. 
There  the  battery  was  surrendered  with  the  army.  It  was 
commanded  at  that  time  by  Captain  T.  J.  Southerland;  T. 
C.  Moore,  First  Lieutenant;  T.  J.  Ivey,  Junior  First  Lieu- 
tenant; W.  W.  Freeman,  Second  Lieutenant;  C.  0.  Redd, 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant;  Stephen  A.  Currie,  First  Ser- 
geant, and  reported  70  present  for  duty. 

T.    C.   MOOEE. 
Ham,  N.  C, 

36  April,  1901. 

Battalio/n  Histories. 


By  the  editor. 

The  following  Battalions,  twenty-five  in  number,  continued 
in  existence  till  the  close  of  the  war,  except  the  Fourth,  Fifth, 
Seventh,  Eighth,  Eleventh,  Twelfth,  Fottrteenth,  Sixteenth 
and  Eighteenth,  which  were  merged  into  regiments,  after 
somewhat  lengthy  existence  as  battalions. 

The  Sixth,  Ninth,  Eleventh,  Seventeenth,  Eighteenth, 
Nineteenth,  Twentieth,  Twenty-first,  Twenty-second,  Twenty- 
third,  Twenty-fourth  and  Twenty-fifth  were  not  officially  so 
styled  and  are  herein  thus  numbered  only  for  convenience,  the 
official  designation  being  given  in  each  case  in  the  sub-head. 

There  were  also  several  other  battalions  not  hereinafter 
given  whose  existence  was  soon  merged  into  regiments  as  Sin- 
gletary's  Battalion,  which  became  the  Twenty-seventh  Kegi- 
ment ;  Wm.  T.  Williams'  Battalion,  which  was  raised  into  the 
Thirty-second  Kegiment;  Rogers'  Battalion,  later  Forty-sev- 
enth Regiment;  Evans'  Battalion,  later  Sixty-third  Regi- 
ment; Sixth  Battalion,  which  was  enlarged  and  made  the 
Sixtieth  Regiment.  Then  there  were  the  eight  Reserve  Bat- 
talions which  were  merged  into  the  Seventieth,  Seventy-first, 
Seventy-second  and  Seventy-eighth  Regiments,  as  is  related 
in  the  history  of  the  organization  of  the  reserves  and  several 
battalions  of  Senior  Reserves  were  merged  into  the  Seventy- 
third,  Seventy-fourth,  Seventy-sixth  and  Seventy-seventh 

There  may  have  been  other  battalions  still  which  soon  lost 
their  separate  existence  in  regimental  organization. 

Including  the  "Bethel"  Regiment  and  excluding  those  nine 
of  following  battalions  which,  as  stated  above,  were  merged 
into  regiments,  this  State  furnished  84  regiments,  16  battal- 
ions and  13  unattached  companies,  besides  the  companies  and 
individuals  from  this  State  serving  in  commands  from  other 
States,  and  nine  regiments  of  Home  Guards  and  the  militia 
rendering  short  tours  of  duty. 


R  W.  Wharton,  Major. 

R.  E.  WiJson,  Captaiu,  Co.  A. 

3.  James  A.  Blum,  Sergeant,  Co.  A. 

4.  George  E.  Nisseu,  Sergeant,  Co.  B. 



By  R.   W.   WHARTON,  Ma.iok. 

This  battalion  was  organized  in  April,  1862,  and  was  com- 
posed of  two  companies  from  the  Twenty-first  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment. 

That  regiment  originally  had  twelve  companies.  At  its 
reorganization  in  April,  1862,  the  two  commanded,  origi- 
nally, by  Captains  John  K.  Connally  and  R.  W.  Wharton, 
were  organized  into  a  battalion,  E.  W.  Wharton  with  the 
rank  of  Major  commanding.  Captain  Connally  having  pre- 
viously resigned,  Company  A,  of  the  battalion,  was  com- 
manded by  Captain  E.  E.  Wilson,  and  Company  B  by  Cap- 
tain P.  T).  Headley.  Both  companies  were  organized  in  May, 
1861,  Company  A,  in  Yadkin  county,  and  Company  B,  in 
Forsyth.  Most  of  the  members  of  the  two  companies  were 
from  those  two  counties,  though  there  were  some  from  the  ad- 
joining counties. 

The  history  of  the  Twenty-first  Regiment,  originally  the 
Eleventh  Volunteers,  is  the  history  of  the  two  companies 
composing  the  battalion  during  the  first  year  of  the  war. 
The  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Eegiment,  though  com- 
posed entirely  of  North  Carolina  troops,  was  organized  at 
Danville,  Va.,  in  June,  1861,  where  it  remained  about  three 
weeks,  engaged  in  company  and  battalion  drill.  It  went 
thence  to  Eichmond,  Va.,  and  stopping  there  four  or  five 
days,  proceeded  by  railroad,  towards  Winchester,  Va.,  to  join 

Note. — There  was  also  a  First  Battalion  of  Junior  Reserves  which  was 
later  merged  into  the  Seventieth  Regiment  whereupon  the  Ninth  (Mil- 
lard's) Battalion  was  designated  the  First  Battalion  and  as  such  attached 
to  the  Junior  Reserves  Brigade.  Its  story  is  herein  told  under  the  head- 
ing "Twentieth  Battalion."  There  was  also  a  First  Battalion  of  Senior 
Reserves  whose  career  is  told  later  on  as  the  "Twenty  first  Battalion." 
Moore's  Roster  gives  also  the  "i^irsi  Battalion  Heavy  Artillery"  whose 
career  is  narrated  further  on  under  the  heading  "Ninth  Battalion"  and 
the  First  Battalion  of  Thomas  Legions  later  Eightieth  North  Carolina. 


226  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

General  Joseph  E.  Johnston.  When  the  regiment  arrived 
at  Manassas  Junction,  about  sundown,  16  July,  it  was  or- 
dered to  remain  on  board  the  cars  and  wait  further  orders. 


At  daybreak  next  morning  it  was  ordered  to  leave  the  train 
and  proceed  immediately  to  Mitchell's  Ford,  on  Bull  Eun. 
Mitchell's  Ford  is  on  the  direct  road  from  Manassas  Junction 
to  Centerville,  about  half  way  between  the  two  places,  and 
about  four  miles  from  each.  Centerville  lies  north  of  the 
junction,  and  had  been  occupied  by  the  enemy  under  General 
McDowell  on  the  preceding  day,  and  it  was  expected  that  he 
would  attempt  to  capture  the  junction  that  day,  the  I7th. 

The  regiment  reported  to  Brigadier-General  Bonham,  at 
Mitchell's  Ford,  and  was  posted  by  him  on  the  extreme  left 
of  his  brigade,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  ford.  While  going 
to  this  position  the  regiment  was  under  fire  for  the  first  time. 
While  passing  through  an  old  field,  the  enemy  fired  a  few  shot 
and  shell  in  our  direction.  Some  of  the  shell  exploded  quite 
near  us,  sounding  decidedly  ugly  and  causing  a  general  dis- 
position tO'  duck  one's  head.  The  fight  on  that  day  was  only 
an  artillery  duel,  with  but  little  damage  on  either  side.  No 
one  in  the  Twenty-first  was  hurt. 

That  night  the  Twenty-first  was  posted  at  the  ford,  occu- 
pying several  hundred  yards  on  each  side  of  the  same  and 
remained  in  that  position  up  to  and  during  the  battle  of  Sun- 
day, 21  July.  Early  on  the  morning  of  the  21st  the  enemy 
opened  fire  on  our  position  with  artillery  and  kept  it  up  for 
several  hours.  The  shot  were  aimed  too  high>  however,  and 
again  no  one  in  the  regiment  was  hurt.  At  first  the  men 
were  quite  nervous,  but  that  soon  passed  off  and  when  later  in 
the  day  the  Twenty-first  was  ordered  to  march  on  Centerville, 
a  shout  went  up  from  one  end  to  the  other  of  the  regiment  and 
in  ten  minutes  time  it  had  fallen  into  line,  waded  the  creek 
and  was  on  the  Centerville  side  ready  for  any  service  re- 
quired. From  some  mismanagement,  not,  however,  on  the 
part  of  the  commanding  officer  of  the  TWenty-first,  but  of 
the  commander  of  the  brigade,  nothing  was  accomplished  un- 
der this  order. 

First  Battalion.  227 

After  the  battle,  the  Twenty-first  remained  in  the  vicinity 
of  Manassas  for  several  weeks,  and  from  bad  water  and  the 
general  unhealthiness  of  the  country  there  was  much  sick- 
ness among  the  men  and  ofiicers.  Camp  was  next  moved  to 
a  point  near  Groveton  on  the  Manassas  Gap  Railroad  and 
about  eight  miles  west  of  the  junction.  The  change  of  camp 
seemed  to  do  no  good  and  in  a  short  time  there  were  between 
seven  and  eight  hundred  sick  men  in  camp.  Diarrhcea  and 
camp  fever  were  the  prevailing  diseases.  During  the  six  or 
seven  weeks  which  the  regiment  spent  in  this  camp,  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-four  of  its  members  died  in  camp  and  neigh- 
boring houses.  From  some  cause  the  loss  of  the  two  compa- 
nies, that  afterward  formed  the  battalion,  were  less  than  half 
of  that  of  any  other  two  companies  in  the  regiment.  From 
here  the  regiment  went  to  Bull  Run  Gap,  the  point  where  the 
railroad  passes  through  the  Bull  Run  mountains.  In  the 
latter  part  of  October  most  of  the  men,  who  had  survived, 
were  again  able  for  service  and  the  regiment  then  about  800 
strong,  moved  down  to  Oenterville,  where,  for  some  time,  a 
battle  seemed  imminent.  Soon  after  Christmas  the  Twenty- 
first  went  intO'  winter  quarters  on  the  railroad  between  Man- 
assas and  Bull  Run.  On  8  March,  the  Twenty-first,  with 
the  balance  of  the  army,  left  Manassas  Junction  and  fell  back 
to  the  south  bank  of  the  Rappahannock  river.  The  Twenty- 
first  was  then  a  part  of  Ewell's  Division,  which  remained  in 
the  vicinity  of  Rappahannock  station  until  April,  when  it 
moved  back  to  Gordonsville  and  from  there  moved  over  into 
the  Valley  of  "Virginia  and  united  with  the  forces  under  Gen- 
eral Jackson. 


On  the  march  to  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  the  division  halted 
for  two  or  three  days  near  Gordonsville.  During  that  halt 
the  First  Battalion  of  Sharpshooters  was  organized,  though 
the  two  companies  composing  it  remained  a  part  of  the 
Twenty-first  until  after  the  battle  on  25  May,  1862.  It  was 
in  that  fight  the  Twenty-first  had  its  real  baptism  of  blood  on 
the  field  of  battle.  In  that  fight  every  third  man  of  the  regi- 
ment that  went  in  was  killed  or  wounded  in  twenty  minutes. 

228  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

General  Jackson,  with  Taylor's  Brigade  of  Louisianians,  ap- 
proached Winchester  by  the  Valley  Pike,  while  Ewell,  with 
Trimble's  Brigade,  and  one  or  two  batteries,  approached  by 
the  plank  road  from  Port  Koyal.  Shortly  before  night,  on 
the  evening  of  the  24th,  Trimble's  Brigade,  with  the  Twenty- 
first  iTorth  Carolina  in  front,  came  upon  the  enemy's  picket, 
some  three  miles  out  from  the  town.  The  picket  was  soon 
driven  in  and  the  troops  advanced  until  they  were  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  from  Winchester.  Soon  after  dark  the  writer 
was  ordered  to  proceed  with  his  own  and  another  company  to 
a  skirt  of  woods  on  the  left  of  the  road  and  about  a  mile  from 
town.  It  was  expected  that  we  would  find  the  woods  occu- 
pied by  the  enemy's  skirmishers.  We  were  to  drive  them  out 
of  the  woods  and  hold  the  same  until  further  orders.  We 
found  no  one  in  the  woods,  but  the  enemy  had  left  evidence 
of  having  recently  been  there. 


At  daylight  on  25  May,  1862,  Colonel  Kirkland  came  up 
with  eight  co-mpanies  of  the  Twenty-first,  ordered  the  writer 
to  call  in  his  two  companies  and  join  the  regiment  and 
immediately  proceeded  down  the  road  toward  town  at  a 
double-quick.  Just  at  the  edge  of  the  town,  where  the  land 
was  cut  up  into  small  parcels,  surrounded  by  stone  walls  and 
without  any  warning  a  whole  brigade  of  Yankees  rose  up 
from  behind  a  stone  wall  on  our  left  and  less  than  seventy- 
five  yards  from  the  road  on  which  the  regiment  was  march- 
ing, and  poured  a  deadly  fire  into  our  ranks.  Colonel  Kirk- 
land ordered  a  charge ;  some  of  the  men  got  to  the  wall  behind 
which  the  enemy  were,  but  none  got  over  it.  We  then  fell 
back  behind  a  wall  that  ran  along  side  the  road  on  which  we 
had  been  marching  and  kept  up  the  fight  until  the  enemy's 
line,  which  was  much  longer  than  ours,  extended  around  on 
our  side  so  as  to  subject  us  to  a  flank  as  well  as  front  fire. 
The  regiment  was  then  moved  about  a  hundred  yards  to  the 
left,  in  order  to  protect  its  right  flank  and  formed  with  a  view 
of  making  another  attack  on  the  enemy's  position,  but  not  in 
front  of  the  stone  wall  this  time.     Our  intention  was  to  make 

First  Battalion.  229 

a  short  detour  and  get  on  both  sides  of  the  enemy's  wall  and 
attack  them  on  the  flank. 

The  men  were  thoroughly  aroused  and  had  no  idea  of 
giving  up  the  job  until  they  had  driven  the  enemy  from  its 
position.  At  this  juncture  orders  came  to  desist  from  making 
a  further  attack,  as  troops  were  being  sent  to  the  rear  of  the 
town  to  intercept  the  retreat  of  the  enemy.  About  this  time 
Major  Fulton,  with  the  two  other  companies,  came  up  and 
joined  the  regiment.  The  Major  with  two  companies  had 
been  sent  out  the  previous  night  into  another  part  of  the  field 
and  had  not  got  back  when  the  fight  began.  We  were  then 
ordered  to  protect  Latta's  battery,  which  was  on  a  hill  not  far 
away.  The  order  was  given  by  General  Ewell  in  person,  and 
was  very  emphatic.  We  were  told  to  go  with  the  battery 
wherever  it  went  and  not  to  leave  it  under  any  circumstances. 
In  a  short  time  the  battery  moved  off  briskly  to  and  through 
the  town.  We  followed  at  a  double-quick.  When  we 
reached  the  main  street,  we  found  it  full  of  the  citizens — old 
men,  ladies  and  children,  who  had  turned  out  to  feed  the  Con- 
federate soldiers.  Some  had  pitchers  of  water,  others  had 
plates  and  trays  of  bread  and  chicken  and  ham  and  all  kinds 
of  good  things  to  eat.  As  the  writer  was  passing  along,  a 
very  beautiful  young  girl  gave  him  a  glass  of  water,  at  the 
same  time  a  fine  looking  old  gentleman  seized  him  by  the 
arm,  saying  come  in  here,  opening  a  door.  I  was  led 
up  to  a  side  board  and  commanded  to  take  something. 
While  I  was  "taking  something"  in  came  the  good  lady  of 
the  house  with  fried  chicken  and  bread.  I  had  no  time 
to  stop  and  eat,  but  taking  my  hands  full  of  the  good  things, 
I  put  out  after  that  battery.  We  followed  it  all  that 
day.  Some  times  we  were  in  sight  of  it  and  some  times  not. 
On  reaching  Bunker  Hill,  twelve  miles  below  Winchester  on 
the  road  to  Martinsburg,  we  decided  to  halt  for  the  night  and 
give  the  stragglers  time  to  come  up.  These  continued  to 
come  in  for  two  or  three  hours  and  it  was  noticed  that  most 
of  them  had  something  that  was  not  water  in  their  canteens. 
We  were  on  the  road  again,  next  morning,  as  soon  as  it  was 
light  and  soon  overtook  the  battery  and  marched  into  Mar- 
tinsburg with  the  battery  and  Ashby's  Cavalry,   about  10 

230  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

a.  m.  In  a  little  more  than  twenty-four  hours  we  had  fought 
a  severe  battle  and  marched  twenty-two  miles  in  pursuit  of 
the  enemy.  The  Twenty-first  went  into  the  fight  with  about 
300  men,  the  Major  and  two  large  companies  being  absent. 
Of  these  104  were  killed  or  wounded.  Colonel  Kirkland 
was  severely  wounded  early  in  the  fight;  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Pepper  had  wounds  from  which  he  died  in  a  few  days ;  Cap- 
tains Hedgecock  and  Ligon  were  killed  in  the  charge  on  the 
stone  wall.  While  we,  with  Latta's  Battery  and  Ashby's 
Cavalry,  were  in  hot  pursuit  of  General  Banks,  we  supposed 
that  the  balance  of  the  brigade  was  coming  on,  but  more 
leisurely.  Finding,  however,  that  it  did  not  come  up,  we  re- 
ported to  Colonel  Turner  Ashby,  the  ranking  officer  present 
and  who  a  day  or  two  afterwards  was  promoted  to  Brigadier- 
General.  Colonel  Ashby  said  he  had  not  expected  any  in- 
fantry, bvit  directed  us  to  go  into  camp  and  await  further  or- 
ders. Next  day  he  informed  us  that  he  had  received  a  dis- 
patch from  General  Ttimble  inquiring  if  we  were  at  Mar- 
tinsburg  and  stating  that  it  had  not  been  intended  that  we 
should  follow  the  battery  there,  but  only  that  we  should  stay 
by  it  during  the  balance  of  the  fight  at  Winchester.  We, 
however,  understood  and  obeyed. the  order  of  General  Ewell 
literally  and  were  well  repaid  for  our  hard  march.  We 
found  Martinsburg  full  of  sutler's  stores  that  had  been  hastily 
abandoned.  The  railroad  depot  was  also  crowded  with 
choice  commissary  supplies  and  hundreds  of  boxes  of  nice 
things  that  had  been  sent  out  to  the  Federal  officers  and  sol- 
diers by  their  friends  at  home.  Every  soldier  that  wanted  a 
box  took  one.  One  of  them  opened  his  box  in  the  presence  of 
the  writer.  It  contained  a  dozen  bottles  of  claret,  at  which 
he  was  much  disappointed.  After  the  battle  at  Winchester 
the  two  companies  that  composed  the  first  battalion  were  de- 
tached from  the  Twenty-first  and  became  a  separate  com- 
mand. We  remained  at  Martinsburg  five  or  six  days  and 
then  rejoined  the  brigade  near  Winchester.  On  reaching 
Strasburg,  twelve  miles  southwest  of  Winchester,  we  left  the 
turnpike  and  took  a  road  leading  in  a  northwest  direction. 
After  marching  about  two  miles  we  encountered  the  head  of 
Fremont's  column.     Fremont,  with  25,000  men,  was  coming 

First  Battalion.  231 

down  from  northwest  Virginia  to  intercept  and  capture  Jack- 
son with  his  little  army  of  14,000  men.  Jackson,  however, 
as  was  his  custom,  got  to  the  right  place  first.  The  Con- 
federates were  quickly  formed  into  line  of  battle  and  after  a 
little  skirmishing  and  a  big  demonstration,  were  quietly  with- 
drawn and  reformed  in  line  on  the  high  ridge  just  west  of 
Strasburg,  where  we  remained  until  after  dark.  As  soon  as 
it  was  fully  dark  we  quietly  withdrew  and  made  a  rapid 
march  in  the  direction  of  Woodstock.  We  marched  until  2 
a.  m.  that  night.  After  that  we  proceeded  up  the  Valley  at 
our  leisure  and  were  not  molested  by  the  enemy  until  after 
we  left  the  pike  and  were  on  the  road  to  Port  Republic. 
Next  morning  after  leaving  the  pike  the  enemy's  cavalry  at- 
tacked our  rear  which  was  in  charge  of  General  Turner 
Ashby.  The  attack  was  quickly  repulsed  and  some  prisoners 
captured.  The  writer  saw  the  prisoners  a  few  minutes  after 
their  capture.  Among  them  was  a  large  fine  looking  officer 
of  the  rank  of  Colonel  and  in  full  Federal  uniform.  This 
officer  proved  to  be  Percy  Wyndham,  an  Englishman  and  sol- 
dier of  fortune,  who  commanded  a  brigade  of  Fremont's  Cav- 
alry. After  repulsing  the  attack  General  Ashby  pursued  the 
attacking  force  and  made  an  attack  upon  it,  after  it  had  been 
reinforced  by  infantry.  In  this  attack  he  was  killed.  His 
death  was  a  serious  loss  to  Jackson's  command.  He  was  not 
only  a  gallant  and  enterprising  officer,  but  also  an  exceed- 
ingly attractive  man.  The  writer  had  been  under  his  com- 
mand a  short  time  at  Martinsburg  and  had  seen  considerable 
of  him. 

The  next  day  was  Sunday,  a  bright,  balmy,  pure  day. 
About  the  middle  of  the  afternoon  we  halted  and  went  into 
camp  near  a  place  called  Cross  Keys,  which  was  only  a  cross 
roads  and  a  small  church  building  or  school  house,  about  one 
and  a  half  miles  from  Port  Republic.  All  were  glad  to  have 
a  little  rest. 


The  next  day  was  8  June.  Everything  was  very  quiet  in 
camp,  during  the  morning;  no  marching  orders  were  read 
and  the  general  impression  was  that  we  were  to  have  a  whole 

232  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

day's  rest.  This  impression  did  not  last  long.  General 
Trimble  ordered  the  battalion  to  go  back,  on  the  road  by 
which  we  came,  about  a  mile,  and  tate  possession  of  a  skirt 
of  woods  between  two  fields,  on  the  right  of  the  road,  and 
to  hold  the  same  until  he  came  up  with  the  balance  of  the  bri- 
gade. The  order  was  promptly  executed  and  as  soon  as  the 
brigade  was  in  sight,  the  battalion,  deployed  as  skirmishers, 
was  advanced  across  the  field  in  front.  The  field  was  in 
wheat  just  headed  out.  The  enemy  soon  made  their  ap- 
pearance in  force.  ,  The  skirmishers  fell  back  to  the  brigade, 
which  was  quietly  lying  behind  a  rail  fence,  which  ran  along 
the  edge  of  the  field  in  front.  Soon  the  enemy  came  up 
briskly,  in  line  of  battle,  with  no  skirmishers  in  advance. 
When  they  were  within  sixty  or  seventy  yards  of  the  fence 
the  brigade  rose  up,  fired  and  then  charged.  The  enemy 
broke  and  fied  precipitately  to  a  wood  beyond  the  field,  leav- 
ing, however,  some  200  dead  and  wounded.  The  brigade 
after  pursuing  a  short  distance  returned  to  its  first  position. 
The  field  in  front  was  only  about  a  third  of  a  mile  wide  and 
we  could  plainly  see  the  manceuvers  of  the  enemy,  and  that 
heavy  reinforcements  were  coming  up.  Soon  they  formed 
another  line  of  battle  and  began  tO'  advance  across  the  field. 
Our  orders  were  to  remain  perfectly  quiet,  withholding  our 
fire  until  they  were  within  short  range  and  then  let  them  have 
it.  Unfortunately,  however,  one  man  in  the  Fifteenth  Ala- 
bama could  not  resist  the  temptation  to  shoot  and  fired  be- 
fore they  had  advanced  fifty  yards  and  then  the  whole  of  the 
regiment  fired.  The  enemy  hastily  fell  back  into  the  woods 
and  did  not  again  attempt  to  advance.  Later  in  the  day  we 
attacked  them  simultaneously  in  front  and  on  their  left  flank 
and  drove  them  back  a  mile  or  more.  This  ended  the  fight 
on  our  right  wing.  When  the  fight  ended  the  whole  field 
of  battle  was  in  our  possession  and  the  enemy  had  been  driven 
back  fully  a.  mile  and  a  half. 

That  night  the  battalion  was  posted  in  the  woods  where  the 
fight  began.  The  moon  shone  brightly  and  I  walked  out 
where  some  of  the  enemy's  dead  and  wounded  were  still 
lying.  As  I  walked  along  the  wounded  would  speak  to  me. 
I  could  not  understand  what  they  said.     Finally  one  of  them 

First  Battalion.  233 

in  broken  English  said  they  were  asking  me  to  have  them  re- 
moved to  the  hospital.  They  were  all  Germans  and  I  learned 
that  some  of  them  had  been  in  America  only  a  few  weeks. 
In  a  short  time  the  ambulances  came  up  and  removed  the 
poor  fellows  who  were  paying  dearly  for  the  greenbacks,  for 
which  only,  they  were  fighting. 


Early  next  morning  we  crossed  the  river  at  Port  Eepublic, 
the  battalion  bringing  up  the  rear  and  being  the  laat  to  cross 
the  bridge.  Two  or  three  hundred  yards  before  reaching  the 
bridge  we  passed  a  straw  stack,  when  each  man  was  required 
to  take  up  a  bunch  of  straw  and  drop  the  same  on  the  bridge. 
After  the  battalion  had  crossed  the  straw  was  fired  and  in  a 
few  minutes  the  whole  bridge  was  in  flames.  After  the 
bridge  had  been  fired  a  single  Confederate  cavalryman  came 
up  to  cross.  Seeing  the  bridge  was  on  fire,  he  attempted  to 
swim  his  horse  across  the  river,  which  was  fiush  and  the  cur- 
rent strong.  In  the  middle  of  the  river  the  horse  became 
confused  and  both  horse  and  rider  disappeared  under  the 
water  and  were  seen  no  more.  While  this  was  going  on,  the 
hard  fought  and  bloody  battle  of  Port  Republic  was  being 
fought — about  two  miles  below  the  villaga  During  the 
night  General  Jackson,  leaving  General  Trimble,  with  his 
brigade,  to  face  Fremont  and  retard  his  advance,  had  moved 
the  greater  part  of  his  forces  to  the  south  side  of  the  river  and 
early  in  the  morning  met  and  defeated  GenerarShields,  whose 
forces,  it  was  said,  amounted  to  about  12,000.  The  battle 
was,  for  a  short  time,  stubborn  and  very  bloody — but  was 
over  before  Trimble's  Brigade  arrived  on  the  ground,  and 
Shields  was  in  full  retreat. 

After  this  we  encamped  on  the  Shenandoah,  near  Weir's 
Cave,  and  had  a  much  needed  rest  of  about  two  weeks.  Our 
next  move  was  southeastward  across  the  Blue  Eidge,  through 
Charlottesville  and  Gordonsville  and  on  towards  Eichmond. 


In  about  six  days  Ave  arrived  at  Ashland,  some  sixteen  or 
eighteen  miles  from  Eichmond.     Next  day  the  seven  days' 

234  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

fight  conunenced.  That  night  we  lay  not  far  in  the  rear  of 
McClellan's  right  wing.  We  were  near  enough  to  hear  the 
report  of  small  arms.  The  battalion  did  picket  duty  that 
night.  Next  day  we  soon  fell  in  with  the  divisions  of  D.  H. 
and  A.  P.  Hill,  and  when  it  was  known  that  we  were  Jack- 
son's troops  from  the  Valley,  were  greeted  with  shouts  of  ap- 
plause. All  the  roads  were  full  of  marching  troops.  Every 
now  and  then  a  shout  would  be  heard  in  front  or  rear,  and 
pass  along  the  line  in  our  direction.  The  men  would  imme- 
diately say  that  Jackson,  or  more  frequently,  "Old  Jack,"  as 
they  familiarly  and  affectionately  called  him,  was  coming. 
In  a  few  minutes  General  Jackson  and  his  staff  would  pass. 
Jackson's  Corps  marched  in  the  rear  that  day  and  of  course 
our  progress  was  slow.  About  the  middle  of  the  afternoon 
we  heard  firing  not  very  far  in  our  front.  General  Trimble 
took  his  brigade,  by  a  short  cut,  through  some  fields,  and  in  a 
short  time  we  were  on  the  field  of  the  first  battle  of  Gaines' 
Mill  or  Cold  Harbor.  Trimble's  Brigade  was  composed  of 
the  Fifteenth  Alabama,  Sixteenth  Mississippi,  Twenty-first 
Georgia,  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Regiments  and  the 
First  North  Carolina  Battalion.  In  this  battle  the  Georgia 
and  Alabama  Regiments  were  soon  engaged.  The  Mississip- 
pians  and  North  Carolinians  were  held  in  reserve  until  near 
the  close  of  the  fight.  Shortly  before  sundown,  an  ofiicer 
rode  up  to  General  Trimble,  who  was  sitting  on  his  horse 
near  where  I  was  and  said,  "General  Trimble,  General  Lee 
says  the  enemy  have  been  driven  on  both  flanks,  but  still 
holds  his  position  in  that  woods,"  pointing  towards  a  piece  of 
wood-land  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant.  "He  directs 
you  tO'  drive  them  from  it."  We  were  ordered  to  charge  as 
soon  as  we  came  in  sight  of  the  enemy.  On  reaching  the 
woods  we  first  went  down  a  steep  hill,  crossed  a  branch  and 
then  up  a  steep  hill.  When  we  got  to  the  top  of  the  hill  we 
saw  the  enemy  about  100  yards  in  front,  but  there  was  an- 
other branch  between  us  and  them.  We  immediately  raised 
the  rebel  yell  and  charged.  The  enemy  fired  as  soon  as  we 
came  in  sight,  stood  their  ground  and  fired  again  before  we 
got  tO'  them.  When  we  were  within  a  few  yards  of  them 
they  gave  way.     In  this  charge  a  few  men  in  the  battalion 

First  Battalion.  235 

were  wounded,  but  none  killed.  Doubtless  if  we  had  stopped 
to  fire  when  we  came  in  sight  of  the  enemy,  the  casualties  on 
our  side  would  have  been  much  greater.  Just  in  the  rear  of 
the  captured  position  were  hundreds  of  standing  teats.  In 
one  of  these  tents  Lieutenant-Colonel  Fulton,  of  the  TWenty- 
first  North  Carolina,  found  a  wounded  Federal  Lieutenant 
who,  upon  inquiry,  turned  out  to  be  a  member  of  a  Pennsylva- 
nia Regiment  and  a  distant  relative  of  his.  ISText  day  Gen- 
eral Jackson  with  his  corps  marched  eastward  to  a  point  on 
the  Richmond  &  Yorktown  Railroad,  to  intercept  the  enemy 
in  case  he  should  attempt  to  retreat  by  that  route.  Nothing 
of  special  interest  occurred  until  about  the  middle  of  the  af- 
ternoon, when  suddenly  we  heard  a  tremendous  noise  up  the 
road,  which  sounded  like  the  near  approach  of  a  great  storm 
and  instantly  a  train  came  rushing  down  the  road  at  a  fearful 
speed  and  pitched  into  a  small  creek  where  a  bridge  had  been 
destroyed,  accompanied  with  an  explosion  that  almost 
knocked  men  from  the  saddle  a  half  mile  away.  The  enemy 
had  loaded  a  train,  containing  a  number  of  box  cars,  with 
powder,  shells  and  other  ammunition,  and  turned  loose  the 
engine  with  a  high  head  of  steam  on.  Nobody  on  our  side 
was  hurt.  That  night  we  crossed  the  Ohickahominy  on  one 
of  McClellan's  bridges,  and  joined  in  the  pursuit.  The  bat- 
talion was  at  Malvern  Hill  and  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire, 
but  not  closely  engaged.  It  was  also  at  Harrison's  landing 
and  with  the  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  occupied  the  skir- 
mish line  nearly  two  days. 


After  the  seven  days'  fight  was  over  the  battalion  remained 
in  the  vicinity  of  Richmond  three  or  four  days  and  was  then, 
with  the  rest  of  the  brigade,  hurried  back  to  Gordonsville  to 
protect  that  place  from  a  raid.  We  encamped  near  Gor- 
donsville several  weeks.  The  next  fight  was  that  of  Cedar 
Mountain,  in  which  the  battalion  participated.  It  was  also 
in  Jackson's  raid  on  Manassas  Junction  and  in  all  the  hard 
fighting  done  by  Jackson's  troops  in  the  second  battle  of 
Manassas.     The  battalion  suffered  heavily  in  the  latter  fight. 

236  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Captain  Wilsoii,  of  Compaiiy  A,  was  severely  wounded; 
Lieutenant  Owen,  of  Company  B,  was  killed.  Eight  or  nine 
others  were  killed  and  quite  a  number  wounded.  The  bat- 
talion was  also  at  the  capture  of  Harper's  Ferry,  and  the 
battle  of  Sharpsburg,  sometimes  called  Antietam. 


The  battalion  remained  in  northern  Virginia  until  the  mid- 
dle of  November  and  then  moved  down  to  Fredericksburg  in 
time  for  the  battle  of  13  December,  1862.  In  the  beginning 
of  that  battle  our  position  was  in  the  second  line,  near  Hamil- 
ton's Crossing,  on  the  railroad.  We  were  directly  in  the  rear 
of  one  of  our  batteries  which  was  hotly  engaged  with  the  en- 
emy, the  enemy's  shot  and  shell  passing  over  us,  at  first  fif- 
teen or  twenty  feet  above  our  heads.  Their  aim  was  soon 
lowered  and  we  were  compelled  to  lie  flat  on  the  ground  to 
avoid  being  hit.  One  solid  shot  passed  between  the  writer 
and  the  man  lying  next  to  him,  and  the  Adjutant  of  the 
Twenty-first,  who  was  lying  a  few  feet  away,  was  instantly 
killed  by  a  solid  shot  striking  the  ground  directly  under  him. 
Under  such  circumstances  the  order  to  advance  was  a  welcome 
one.  The  enemy  had  broken  our  first  line  in  our  front.  We 
soon  drove  them  back  and  advanced  some  distance  beyond  the 
railroad.  This  position  being  much  exposed  we  fell  back 
to  the  railroad  cut,  in  which  we  remained  during  the  night. 
Many  of  our  dead  foes,  and  among  them  a  General  Jackson 
who  that  day  commanded  a  brigade  of  Pennsylvanians,  called 
Buck  Tails,  because  each  man  wore  a  wisp  of  a  buck's  tail  in 
his  cap,  were  lying  near  us  and  some  of  our  men  who  had 
worn  out  their  shoes  in  the  march  from  the  Valley  took  the  op- 
portunity tO'  get  a  new  supply.  In  this  fight  the  battalion  had 
some  wounded,  but  none  killed.  After  the  fight  was  over 
and  General  Burnside  had  got  back  to  the  north  side  of  the 
river,  the  battalion  with  the  rest  of  the  brigade  went  into  win- 
ter quarters  on  the  Rappahannock,  sixteen  miles  below  Fred- 
ericksburg. At  this  time  our  rations  were  small  in  quantity 
and  poor  in  quality.  Poor  beef,  corn  meal,  and  flour,  and  not 
enough  of  that,  constituted  the  bill  of  fare.  There  were  thou- 
sands of  ducks  on  the  river,  almost  every  day,  and  it  was 

First  Battalion.  237 

agreed  that  Captain  Adams,  Adjutant-General  of  the  brigade, 
and  the  writer  should  make  an  effort  to  bag  some  of  them.  We 
made  the  effort  and  the  result  was,  got  ourselves  bagged.  We 
borrowed  a  double-barreled  shot  gun  from  a  man  living  near 
our  camp  and  went  ducking.  The  river  at  that  point,  Port 
Royal,  is  about  500  yards  wide  and  was  picketed  on  the  south 
side  by  Confederates  and  on  the  north  by  Federal  cavalry. 
The  pickets  did  not  molest  each  other  nor  any  one  out  on  the 


While  we  were  out  a  heavy  wind  storm  came  up  from 
the  south,  blowing  directly  across  the  river,  and  in  spite  of 
all  we  could  do,  boat  and  duck  hunters  were  blown  over  to 
the  north  side  and  picked  up  by  the  Yankee  pickets.  We 
were  treated  very  well,  however,  by  our  captors,  and  were 
sent  up  to  General  Burnside  and  thence  to  Washington  City 
tO'  spend  the  winter  in  the  old  Capitol  prison.  We  were 
exchanged  and  got  back  tO'  the  Confederacy  in  time  for  the 
next  fight,  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville.  During  this  fight 
the  battalion  was  in  Early's  Division  and  was  engaged  more 
or  less  on  the  skirmish  line  or  in  line  of  battle,  from  Thurs- 
day morning  until  the  next  Monday  morning,  when  the  last 
of  the  enemy,  not  killed  or  captured,  succeeded  in  getting 
back  to  the  north  side  of  the  Eappahannock.  In  the  Sunday 
evening  fight,  Early's  Division  charged  and  drove  the  enemy 
from  a  strong  position.  General  Hoke  was  severely  wounded 
and  his  brigade  suffered  severely,  especially  in  officers.  In 
the  battalion  a  number  of  men  were  wounded,  but  not  killed 


The  next  move  was  that  which  culminated  in  the  battle  of 
Gettysburg.  General  Ewell  had  assumed  command  of  his 
corps,  and,  though  he  had  lost  a  leg  at  Second  Manassas, 
could  still  mount  and  ride  a  horse  quite  well.  At  the  be- 
ginning of  the  campaign  the  battalion  was  detached  from 
Hoke's  Brigade — then  commanded  by  Colonel  Isaac  E, 
Avery,  of  the  Sixth  North  Carolina,  and  ordered  to  report 
directly  to  General  Ewell. 

238  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  march  into  and  through  Pennsylvania  was  delightful, 
at  least  until  the  time  when  the  corps  left  Oarlisla  The 
country  was  magnificent  and  full  of  all  needed  supplies,  ex- 
cept certain  articles  which  our  soldiers  especially  needed, 
such  as  hats,  shoes,  etc.  These  articles  had  been  shipped 
away  or  concealed  so  that  we  did  not  find  them.  The  writer 
was  Military  Governor  of  Carlisle  for  nearly  two  days  and 
the  only  thing  that  he  got  for  governing  and  taking  care  of  the 
city  during  that  time  was  one  glass  of  beer.  When  the  corps 
left  Carlisle  the  battalion  had  orders  to  wait  until  all  the 
other  Confederates  were  out  of  the  city  and  then  bring  up  the 
rear.  We  left  just  before  daybreak  and  as  we  were  on  the 
point  of  marching,  several  hundred  Federal  prisoners  were 
turned  over  to  us  by  our  cavalry.  The  prisoners  were  Penn- 
sylvania militia  that  had  been  called  out  to  repel  our  inva- 
sion. What  to  do  with  them  was  the  question.  I  had  no 
idea  of  being  incumbered  with  such  a  large  lot  of  inoffensive 
people.  The  late  Colonel  D.  M.  Carter,  then  a  member  of 
the  military  court  of  Swell's  Corps,  who  was  with  me,  con- 
cluded that  the  best  thing  to  do  was  to  parole  them  and  let 
them  go  home.  After  some  trouble  we  got  them  into  a  long 
line,  single  file,  and  requiring  every  man  to  hold  up  his  right 
hand,  administered  to  them,  en  masse  an  oath  that  they  would 
not  take  up  any  arms  against  the  Confederacy  again  until 
they  had  been  regularly  exchanged.  They  evidently  took 
the  oath  willingly.  The  streets  of  Carlisle  were  macada- 
mized and  consequently  were  full  of  small  pebbles  and  stones. 
The  moon  was  shining  brightly  and  I  observed  that  the  pris- 
oners moved  about  very  gingerly,  but  did  not  know  the  cause 
until  happening  to  look  down  I  saw  that  the  last  one  of  them 
was  barefooted.  The  scene  was  extremely  ludicrous.  The 
battalion  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  matter.  The  prisoners 
were  just  as  we  received  them.  Possibly  they  exchanged 
their  shoes  for  tobacco,  as  was  sometimes  done  down  in  Vir- 
ginia, or  possibly  their  captors  may  have  taken  their  shoes 
from  them,  as  a  punishment  for  sending  out  of  our  reach  all 
the  shoes  that  should  have  been  in  the  stores.  From  Carlisle 
we  marched  in  the  direction  of  Gettysburg  and  when  near 
that  place  the  battalion  was  ordered  by  General  Ewell,  to 

First  Battalion.  239 

Cashtown,  a  small  village  some  three  miles  from  Gettysburg, 
to  guard  his  train  and  protect  it  from  Federal  cavalry.  ISText 
day  the  train  was  moved  tO'  the  right  and  to  a  point  immedi- 
ately in  the  rear  of  Longstreet's  Corps.  On  the  morning  of 
3  July,  hearing  that  there  was  Federal  cavalry  a  short  dis- 
tance in  our  rear,  Colonel  D.  M.  Carter  and  the  writer  rode 
back  a  mile  or  two  to  reconnoiter.  We  found  that  the  cav- 
alry had  been  in  the  vicinity,  but  were  gone.  Returning,  and 
just  as  we  reached  the  top  of  a  high  hill  and  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  in  rear  of  our  army,  the  artillery  iire  of  that  day 
opened.  In  a  few  minutes  a  large  number  of  guns  were  at 
work.  It  was  reported  that  about  140  guns  on  each  side  were 
firing  at  the  same  time.  The  scene  was  grand  as  well  as  ter- 
rible and  was  far  beyond  anything  that  I  had  witnessed  be- 
fore, though  I  was  at  Malvern  Hill  and  most  of  the  other  great 
battles  in  Virginia.  We  sat  on  our  horses  for  some  time  and 
witnessed  the  terrible  conflict.  Afterwards,  when  the  in- 
fantry got  to  work,  we  went  up  into  the  immediate  rear  of 
the  fight,  where  the  wounded  were  being  collected.  It  had 
then  begun  to  rain  and  for  most  of  the  wounded  there  was  no 


Next  morning,  4  July,  General  Ewell  ordered  the  battalion 
to  escort  his  train  back  to  Williamsport,  on  the  Potomac,  and 
sent  a  company  of  Alabamians,  commanded  by  a  Lieutenant, 
and  containing  about  thirty  men,  to  reinforce  it.  The  Ala- 
bamians were  placed  in  front,  and  the  battalion  brought  up 
the  rear.  The  train  contained  more  than  a  hundred  wagons 
and  ambulances,  and  when  strung  out  on  the  road  extended 
over  several  miles.  Our  route,  after  passing  through  a  valley 
for  several  miles,  led  up  a  mountain  side  by  a  narrow,  rough 
road  to  the  Gettysburg  and  Hagerstown  turnpike.  Soon 
after  we  started  an  exceedingly  heavy  rain  fell  which  ren- 
dered travel  slow  and  difficult. 

At  the  junction  of  our  road  with  the  pike  a  considerable 
force  of  our  cavalry  had  been  previously  stationed,  as  an  at- 
tack on  that  point  by  the  enemy's  cavalry  was  apprehended. 
During  the  afternoon  we  occasionally  heard  a  few  shots  on 

240  North  Carolina  Troops,   ]861-'65. 

top  of  the  mountain,  and  as  night  approached  the  firing  be^ 
came  frequent.  We  also  learned  from  couriers  who  came 
down  the  mountain  that  a  heavy  force  of  Federal  cavalry  was 
threatening  that  position.  With  the  battalion  were  a  few 
Federal  prisoners,  and  also  forty  or  fifty  Confederates  under 
arrest  for  various  minor  offences  during  the  campaign.  In 
addition  to  these  were  four  Confederate  under  sentence  of 
death  for  desertion,  and  were  under  a  separate  guard.  Just 
before  night  I  released  and  armed  all  the  Confederate  pris- 
oners except  the  four  under  sentence,  and  ordered  them  to 
fall  in  with  the  battalion,  telling  them  if  they  behaved  well 
that  night  I  would  report  the  same  in  their  behalf.  After 
nightfall  the  firing  on  top  of  the  mountain  greatly  increased. 
Taking  the  battalion  and  the  men  who  had  just  been  released 
from  arrest,  I  proceeded  up  the  mountain,  halting  the  train 
as  I  passed,  to  the  assistance  of  our  friends  at  the  junction  of 
our  road  with  the  pike.  Before  reaching  the  point  the  firing 
became  very  heavy  for  a  few  minutes  and  then  ceased  and 
was  followed  by  the  huzzas  of  the  enemy.  By  this  we  knew 
the  position  had  been  captured  by  them  and  that  they  would 
break  into<  that  part  of  the  train  that  had  passed  .that  point. 
We  went  ahead  as  fast  as  we  could  and  as  we  came  near  found 
the  enemy  had  placed  a  cannon  in  the  road  by  which  we  were 
approaching  and  were  firing  grape  shot  down  the  same  every 
few  minutes.  Fortunately,  the  road  made  a  sharp  turn, 
about  100  yards  from  the  gun  and  the  shot  did  not  sweep  the 
road  beyond  that  point.  After  a  sharp  engagement  we  cap- 
tured the  position  together  with  fifteen  or  twenty  prisoners. 
Among  the  prisoners  was  an  elderly  gentleman  named  Mitch- 
ell, who  was  army  correspondent  of  the  ISTew  York  Herald. 
We  also  captured  the  colored  servant  of  General  Kilpatrick 
and-  three  of  the  general's  saddle  horses.  The  enemy  cap- 
turned  and  carried  off  a  few  of  our  wagons  and  ambulances 
and  doubtless,  but  for  our  timely  arrival  and  attack,  would 
have  destroyed  a  large  part  of  the  train.  The  Confederates, 
that  I  had  released  and  armed  a  few  hours  before,  behaved 
well  and  a  number  of  them,  who  belonged  to  the  cavalry, 
mounted  themselves  on  horses  captured  that  night. 

A  very  remarkable  thing  occurred  next  morning  in  rear  of 

First  Battalion.  241 

the  train.  While  the  battalion  was  engaged  in  the  fight, 
some  Confederate  cavalry  that  arrived  at  the  point  of  attack 
at  the  same  time  as  the  battalion,  stampeded  and  rushing 
down  the  mountain  in  great  disorder  completely  dispersed  the 
guards  in  charge  of  the  prisoners  in  rear  of  the  train.  It 
was  a  very  dark  and  rainy  night.  They  were  in  a  dense 
woods.  It  was  impossible  to  recognize  any  one  and  no  at- 
tempt was  made  to  collect  the  prisoners  until  next  morning. 
After  daylight  three  of  the  Confederate  soldiers  that  were 
under  sentence  of  death,  reported  to  the  officer  of  the  guard 
and  all  the  Federal  prisoners  were  found  near  by.  Of  course 
after  that  the  three  Confederates  were  pardoned. 

We  remained  on  the  north  side  of  the  Potomac,  near  Wil- 
liamsport,  about  a  week  and  then  returned  to  Virginia  with 
the  rest  of  the  army.  A  few  weeks  thereafter  the  battalion 
was  sent  back  to  its  old  brigade,  again  commanded  by  General 
R.  F.  Hoke,  who'  had  recovered  from  the  wound  received  in 
the  battle  of  Chancellorsville. 


Nothing  of  special  interest  occurred  in  Virginia  in  the 
fall  of  1863.  In  February,  1864,  the  battalion  was  in  the 
New  Bern  expedition  tinder  General  Pickett.  In  an  attempt 
to  capture  the  bridge  across  Batchelor's  creek,  near  New 
Bern,  by  a  detail  of  twenty  men  under  Captain  John  A. 
Cooper,  now  a  resident  of  Statesville,  N.  C,  three  men  were 
killed  outright  on  the  bridge  and  a  number  severely  wounded. ' 
Among  the  killed  was  Henry  N.  Welsh,  who  deserves  special 
notice.  He  was  a  native  of  Davidson  county  and  one  of  the 
original  members  of  Company  B.  When  he  volunteered  he 
was  a  delicate  looking  young  man  and  it  was  not  thought  that 
he  would  be  able  to  stand  the  service  long.  After  an  attack 
of  fever  the  first  summer  he  enjoyed  good  health  and  was 
conspicuous  for  the  fidelity  and  promptness  with  which  he 
discharged  all  his  duties.  When  a  detail  was  called  for,  on 
service  considered  especially  dangerous,  he  was  the  first  or 
among  the  first  to  step  out.  He  had  been  in  the  service  from 
first  Manassas  to  this  time,  February,  1864,  and  had  never 
had  a  furlough,  but  under  the  furlough  system  of  the  Army 


242  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

of  JSFortliern  Virginia  was  then  entitled  to  one,  but  had  de^ 
f erred  taking  it  until  this  expedition  was  over.  He  was  shot 
in  the  head  and  instantly  killed  on  the  bridge  across  Bachel- 
or's creek.  We  sent  the  lifeless  body  of  this  youngest  child 
and  darling  home  to  loving  parents.  His  noble  and  gallant 
spirit  had  received  a  furlough  for  all  eternity. 

The  battalion  remained  in  !N"orth  Carolina  the  balance  of 
the  winter  aud  spring  of  1864,  and  was  in  the  expedition  un- 
der General  Hoke,  which  captured  Plymouth,  N.  C 

In  January,  1864,  the  writer  was  appointed,  by  Grovemor 
Vance,  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Sixty-sevemth  Regiment, 
Iforth  Carolina  State  Troops,  which  position  he  assumed  in 
^February  after  the  N&w  Bern  expedition.  He  is,  conse- 
quently, unable  to  give  a  detailed  account  of  the  services  of 
the  battalion  after  that  date. 


The  battalion  returned  to  Virginia  and  participated  in  the 
defense  of  Petersburg,  being  attached  to  General  Robert  D. 
Johnston's  Brigade,  Early's  Division,  96  Official  Records 
Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  pp.  1180  and  1270.  It  sur- 
rendered at  Appomattox  with  that  division,  the  battalion 
being  then  commanded  by  Lieutenant  R.  W.  Woodruff.  95 
Official  Records  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  p.  1270. 
In  one  of  the  last  engagements  near  Petersburg,  Captain 
R.  E.  Wilson  lost  a  leg ;  Lieutenant  C.  A.  Shultz  lost  an  arm 
•and  Lieutenant  W.  L.  Masten  was  killed. 

During  the  last  six  months  of  the  war  Captain  John  A. 
Cooper  served  on  the  staff  of  General  R.  F.  Hoke. 

I  learn  from  a  statement  sent  me  by  Mr.  T.  B.  Douthit,  of 
Salem,  who  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  Company  B, 
and  served  through  the  entire  war,  that  in  that  company 
eleven  men  were  killed  outright  in  battle,  eighteen  were 
severely  wounded,  some  of  them  entirely  disabled  for  further 
service,  and  seventeen  died  of  disease.  I  have  no  informa- 
tion of  the  exact  number  of  casualties  in  Company  A,  but 
presume  that  they  were  about  the  same  as  in  the  other  com- 

RuFus  W.  Wharton. 
Washington,  N.  0., 

9  April,  1901. 


1.    ^VhartoIl  J.  Green,  Ijeut.-Colonel.  2.    Frank  Patterson,  Surgeon. 

3.    H.  T.  Bahnson,  Hospital  Steward. 


By  WHARTON  J.  GREEN,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In  the  first  days  of  April,  1861,  the  telegraph  left  no  room 
for  doubt  that  the  United  States  Government  was  resolved  to 
try  to  revictual  Fort  Snmpter  then  beleaguered  by  the  young 
Government  just  springing  into  being. 

Each  fully  realized  that  this  meant  war.  The  next  train 
carried  the  writer  to  Charleston  as  a  would-be  volunteer 
gunner,  anxious  to  see  the  beginning  of  what  he  deemed  the 
inevitable  struggle  and  indeed  no  wise  loth  to  see  it  begin. 
In  this  he  was  disappointed,  as  orders  had  just  been  issued 
forbidding  any  additional  recruits  into  the  batteries.  He 
heard,  however,  the  opening  gun  of  the  mighty  drama  to  fol- 
low, and  a  day  later  the  final  one  which  preceded  the  surren- 
der of  this  almost  impregnable  fortress,  as  subsequent  events 
proved  it  to  be,  when  beseiged  and  besiegers  were  reversed. 
It  was  a  dramatic  sight  replete  with  patriotic  enthusiasm, 
even  as  witnessed  from  the  city  "Battery.  A  thrilling  one 
when  "the  old  flag"  was  hauled  down  in  token  of  evacuation 
and  "the  new  one"  run  up.  With  hu.ndreds  of  others  our  lit- 
tle boat  was  just  below  the  walls  when  it  was  done,  an  explo- 
sion of  cartridges  killing  three  of  the  garrison  while  saluting 
the  first. 

A  few  days  later  my  company,  that  is  the  one  in  which  I 
was  an  enrolled  private,  was  in  camp  at  the  State  Capital. 
The  very  first  I  think  to  go  into  the  camp  of  instruction  there 
was  the  "Warren  Guards,"  Captain  Ben.  Wade,  certainly 
one  of  the  first  three.  After  a  short  space  of  preliminary 
drill  it  was  assigned  to  the  Twelfth  Regiment,  Colonel  Sol. 

Note. — There  were  two  other  Second  Battalions,  one  of  Junior  Reserves, 
commanded  by  Major  J.  H.  Anderson  which  was  merged  into  the  Sev- 
enty-First Regiment  and  the  other  of  Senior  Keserves,  hereinafter  num- 
bered Twenty-Second  Battalion.— Ed. 

244  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Williams,  which  organized  at  Grarysburg  and  was  ordered 
first  to  Richmond,  thence  to  JSTorf oik. 

While  in  camp  there  Ex-Governor  Wise,  then  a  Brigadier- 
General,  sent  me  unsolicited  on  my  part,  authority  tO'  raise  a 
regiment  and  join  his  command,  known  as  the  Wise  Legion, 
Governor  John  W.  Ellis  gave  me  an  order  for  some  six  hun- 
dred Enfield  rifles,  the  only  ones  at  the  State's  disposal.  Un- 
fortunately, however,  before  all  my  companies  could  reach 
the  camp  of  formation  and  requisition  be  made  for  the  guns, 
this  glorious  son  of  ISTorth  Carolina  had  breathed  his  last,  and 
his  successor  revoked  the  order  and  gave  the  guns  to  another. 
The  Legislature  thereupon  voted  fifty  thousand  dollars  to 
arm^  and  equip  my  command.  Ordinarily  such  a  sum  would 
have  far  more  than  sufiiced,  but  in  those  days  weapons  of  ap- 
proved pattern  were  above  money  and  above  price,  simply 
because  they  were  not  to  be  had.  Luckily  my  command  waa 
composed  of  the  right  sort  of  men,  and  not  over  fastidious  as 
to  outfit.  Though  cheated  of  our  "Enfields,"  to  the  front  we 
would  go  with  squirrel  substitutes  and  double  barrel  shot  guns 
of  divers  calibre.  Every  man  was  afraid  that  he  could  not  get 
a  hand  before  the  game  would  be  ended.  And  so  these  honest 
workmen  took  the  best  tools  that  they  could  get,  and  there  was 
no  grumbling.  We  all  expected  better  after  our  first  fair  field 
and  an  honest  fight.  Fortunately  our  uncouth  armament 
was  supplemented  by  some  350  old  flint  lock  muskets  which 
Governor  Letcher,  of  Virginia,  generously  turned  over  to  us, 
because  his  folks  would  not  touch  such  tools.  After  being 
percussioned  by  the  Government,  they  made  very  respectable 
killing  implements,  especially  when  each  double  barrel  man 
carried  beside  a  two  foot  carving  knife  of  the  heft  of  a  meat 
axe  in  lieu  of  bayonet. 


On  12  December,  1861,  was  ordered  to  Wilmington  and  re- 
ported to  General  Joseph  R.  Anderson,  commanding  the  De- 
partment of  North  Carolina.  By  him  was  assigned  to  the 
duty  of  guarding  the  coast  above  and  below  Masonboro 
Sound,  some  seven  miles  to  the  east  of  that  city.  We  con- 
tinued in  the  discharge  of  that  duty  until  30  January,  1862, 

Second  Battalion.  245 

when  I  was  ordered  by  General  Cooper,  Adjutant  and  Inspec- 
tor General,  to  proceed  at  once  to  Eoanoke  Island,  then  threat- 
ened by  the  Federal  force  under  General  Bumside.  At  this 
time  the  Second  North  Carolina  Battalion  consisted  of  the 
following  eight  companies,  averaging  about  eighty-five  men  to 
the  company.  The  two  other  companies  necessary  to  a  regi- 
ment, had  not  reported. 

(Owing  to  the  loss  of  my  papers  when  captured,  necessity 
frequently  compels  the  use  of  proximates.) 


Wharton  J.  Geeen,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  commanding. 

Marcus  Eewin,  Major. 

Dr.  Frank  Patterson^  Surgeon. 

Dr.  Samuel  Young^  Assistant  Surgeon. 

— .  — .  McJSTuTT^  Adjutant. 

Captain  A.  H.  Shuford,  Quartermaster  and  Commissary. 

Kev.  H.  E.  BrookSj  Chaplain. 

Company  A — Madison  County,  N.  G. — Captain,  S.  F. 
Allen ;  Lieutenants,  Van  Brown, Condell. 

Company  B- — Stokes  County,  N.  C. — Captain,  Milton 
Smith;  Lieutenants,  J.  B.  Tucker,  N.  G.  Smith,  Edwin 

Company  C — Mechlenhurg,  County,  Va. — Captain,  E.  C. 
Overby;  Lieutenants,  B.  P.  Williamson,  Henry  S.  Wood,  B. 
R.  Williamson. 

Company  D — Pike  County,  Ga. — Captain,  Edward 
Smith ;  Lieutenants,  W.  H.  McClue,  R.  M.  Julian,  David  T. 

Company  E. — Meriwether  County,  Ga. — Captain,  Du 
Bose ;  Lieutenants,  J.  J.  Tucker,  W.  J.  Hudson,  J.  E".  Lee. 

Company  F — Randolph  County,  N.  C. — Captain,  T.  W. 
Andrews;  Lieutenants,  John  M.  Hancock,  Z.  J.  Williams. 

Company  G' — Forsyth  County,  N.  C. — Captain,  W.  H. 
Wheeler;  Lieutenants,  J.  S.  Swain,  H.  C.  Wheeler,  R.  Gor- 

Company  H — Surry  County,  N.  C. — Captain,  D.  M. 
Cooper;  Lieutenants,  L.  J.  ISTorman,  J.  Sayars,  J.  Gordon. 

As  has  been  said  above,  the  order  from  the  War  Depart- 
ment to  proceed  to  Roanoke  Island  (the  only  one  under  which 

246  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

I  could  venture  to  move),  reached  me  on  the  evening  of  30 
January.  Some  ten  or  twelve  days  anterior  thereto,  however, 
the  following  order  was  received  from  General  Wise  to  the 
same  eiTect: 

Norfolk^  Va.,  15  January,  1862. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  J.  Green,  Commanding,  Etc. : 

Sie: — You  will  as  early  as  practicable,  move  your  whole 
force  from  Wilmington,  JST.  C,  to  ISTorfolk,  Va.,  and  there  re- 
port to  General  Huger  for  transportation  to  Koanoke  Island. 
Bring  with  your  men  all  the  outfit  which  you  can  procure  at 
Wilmington,  and  make  requisition  at  Norfolk  for  deficien- 
cies. Prompt  movement  is  necessary,  as  the  enemy  are  near 
in  large  force. 

Heney  a.  Wise^ 

I  waited  at  once  on  General  Anderson  and  asked  for  per- 
mission to  start  the  next  day.  This  he  peremptorily  refused, 
threatening  arrest  if  the  attempt  was  made.  "You  are  un- 
der my  command,"  he  said,  "by  order  of  General  Cooper,  and 
no  less  authority  is  going  to  take  you  away  from  here." 

He,  however,  consented  that  Major  Erwin  might  to  to 
Richmond  and  lay  the  matter  before  the  Secretary  of  War 
for  final  arbitrament.  The  Major  carried  request  from  me 
to  obey  General  Wise's  order,  and  protest  against  it  from 
General  Anderson. 

After  the  interval  stated,  and  after  General  Wise  had  writ- 
ten the  Secretary  of  War  under  date  of  26  January,  "Please 
order  the  forces  of  my  Legion  under  Colonel  Green,  at  Wil- 
mington, N.  C,  *  *  *  to  be  forwarded  to  me,"  the  de- 
sired permission  (order)  arrived. 

Within  the  shortest  possible  time  that  transportation  could 
be  obtained,  about  thirty-six  hours  after  receipt  of  order,  we 
went  on  our  way  to  destination.  On  reaching  Norfolk,  was 
again  detained  two  or  three  days,  needlessly,  awaiting  water 
transportation,  starting  on  5  February. 


The  sequel  is  sufficiently  set  forth  in  my  report  of  oper- 
ations of  the  next  three  days  ensuing,  of  date  of  18  February, 

Second  Battalion.  247 

herewith  reproduced  from  Official  Records,  Vol.  9,  Series  1, 
to  which  should  be  added  that  this  command  was  the  only 
one  under  arms  outside  of  the  water  batteries  at  the  time  of 
the  surrender. 

Am  thus  explicit  in  details  concerning  this  first  great  dis- 
aster to  the  Confederate  cause  in  order  to  refute  the  unjust 
insinuations  of  General  Wise  that  I  was  needlessly  dilatory 
in  starting  from  Wilmington  in  obedience  to  his  orders.  In 
plain  words  that  those  issued  direct  from  the  War  Office  were 
not  subordinate  tO'  his.  The  absurdity  of  the  assumption  is 
not  deserving  of  comment.  If  any  were  needed,  it  is  sup- 
plied in  the  report  of  the  Congressional  Investigating  Com- 
mittee. General  Wise's  absence  from  the  island,  and  pres- 
ence on  the  mainland  during  the  entire  fighting,  shoiild  have 
made  him  more  cautious  in  his  reflections,  not  only  in  this 
case,  but  as  to  almost  every  other  regimental  commander  there 
present.  It  grieves  to  say  as  much  of  one  who  had  presump- 
tively done  a  favor.  A  brilliant  talker,  a  fiery  orator,  a 
pungent  writer,  and  withal  a  patriot,  all  this  he  was,  but  like 
some  other  political  generals,  a  very  indifferent  soldier. 

Querulous  with  superiors,  captious  tO'  equals,  insolent  to 
subordinates,  and  opinionated  in  the  superlative  degree, 
he  was  totally  unfitted  for  command  at  a  most  important  point 
and  at  a  most  critical  juncture.  Had  this  not  been  said  in 
effect  before  the  Investigating  Co^mmittee  relative  to  the  fall 
of  Roanoke  Island,  and  in  refutal  of  the  baseless  aspersion 
above  referred  to,  it  probably  would  not  here  appear.  !N"o 
less  is  due  to  my  gallant  command  as  well  as  to  myself  in  the 
proposed  embodiment  of  historic  regimental  sketches  of  the 
various  commands  of  our  State.  Immediately  after  ex- 
change the  Second  Battalion  was  upon  my  application  trans- 
ferred to  the  brigade  of  that  superb  soldier,  Junius  Daniel, 
which  after  his  death  at  Spottsylvania,  was  commanded  by 
his  worthy  successor.  General  Bryan  Grimes. 

Recurring  to  report  alluded  to,  let  it  be  premised  that  the 
Second  Battalion  was  most  needlessly  inchided  in  the  list  of 
prisoners  that  day.  After  the  fall  back  of  the  troops  engaged 
and  the  resolve  to  surrender,  an  official  order  to  re-embark  and 
strike  for  the  mainland  would  have  saved  every  man  in  it. 

248  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Report  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wharton  J.  Green,  Second 
North  Carolina  Battalion: 

OiNT  Board  Steamee  S.  K.  SpAULDiiirG^ 

Off  Roanoke  Island,  N.  C, 

February  18,  1862. 

SiK : — I  herewitli  submit  a  report  of  tbe  skirmish  in  which 
my  battalion  (Second  North  Carolina)  was  engaged  on  Sat- 
urday, the  8th  instant: 

In  obedience  to  orders  from  Adjutant-General  Cooper,  re- 
ceived on  the  evening  of  30  January,  I  struck  camp  in  the 
vicinity  of  Wilmington  on  the  morning  of  the  1st  instant,  and 
proceeded  hither  with  all  possible  dispatch.  Owing  to  the 
want  of  transports,  we  were  detained  two  days  and  upward 
in  Norfolk,  leaving  that  place  on  Wednesday,  the  5th  instant, 
in  tow  of  the  canal  tug  boat  White. 

On  Friday  when  about  thirty  miles  distant  from  the 
Island,  continued  discharges  of  artillery  informed  us  of  the 
progress  of  a  fight  between  the  Federal  fleet  and  Confederate 
batteries.  Being  entirely  ignorant  of  the  topography  of  the 
Island,  and  not  knowing  where  or  to  whom  to  report,  I  left 
our  transports  about  twenty  miles  hence  and  came  on  in  the 
steamer  for  information.  Having  obtained  which,  I  re- 
turned to  my  men  and  crowded  them  on  the  smallest  number 
of  transports  that  would  contain  them,  and  then  started. 
The  night  was  very  dark  and  stormy,  with  the  wind  against 
us,  conseqiiently  our  progress  was  slow. 

After  beating  about  until  midnight  our  pilot  declared  that 
he  had  lost  his  reckoning,  and  as  we  had  only  a  fathom  and  a 
half  of  water,  thought  it  safer  to  wait  for  daylight. 

About  2  a.  m.  Saturday,  a  number  of  Confederate  gunboats 
passed  us  from  the  direction  of  the  island,  one  of  them  run- 
ning into  the  schooner  Beauregard  (one  of  our  transports) 
and  seriously  injuring  her.  In  reply  to  our  challenge  and 
statement  of  our  condition,  all  the  answer  we  could  get  was 

that  one  of  the  boats  was  the  Beaufort,  the  other  the . 

Had  they  stopped  in  their  flight  long  enough  to  exchange 
pilots  with  us,  or  even  to  give  ours  the  necessary  instructions 
as  to  his  course,  my  battalion  would  have  reached  the  island 
in  time  to  have  participated  in  the  entire  action. 

Second  Battalion.  249 

Failing  to  do  so,  it  was  10  a.  m.  when  we  reached  the  island 
and  12  o'clock  before  the  men,  arms  and  ammunition  could 
be  got  on  shore,  owing  to  their  having  to  be  taken  on  lighters. 
Having  distributed  all  of  my  ammunition,  I  started  for  the 
scene  of  action,  but  soon  met  scores  of  stragglers,  who  re- 
ported everything  lost  and  the  Confederate  forces  entirely 

Notwithstanding  these  discouraging  reports,  my  men  kept 
in  good  spirits  and  pressed  on  with  animation.  On  reach- 
ing jonr  camp,  and  having  the  worst  reports  confirmed,  T 
called  upon  you  for  orders,  and  was  told  to  proceed  to  a  point 
some  mile  or  two  distant,  under  the  guidance  of  Major  Wil- 
liamson, and  take  position. 

After  proceeding  about  half  a  mile  we  came  suddenly  upon 
a  Federal  regiment,  which  I  have  since  learned  was  the  Twen- 
ty-first Massachusetts.  The  two  advanced  companies  of  the 
respective  commands  were  about  seventy-five  paces  apart,  I 
being  some  twenty  paces  in  advance  of  mine.  1  gave  the 
command,  "By  company  into  line,"  when  the  officer  in  com- 
mand of  the  Federal  regiment  threw  up  his  hand  and  cried 
out:  "Stop,  stop.  Colonel;  don't  fire;  you  are  mistaken!" 
Believing  it  to  be  a  trick,  I  repeated  my  command.  There^ 
upon  the  Federal  officer  gave  the  command,  "Fire."  My 
advanced  companies  returned  the  fire,  firing  at  will  after  the 
first  volley.  Finding  that  there  was  some  confusion,  and  not 
knowing  the  ground,  I  soon  became  satisfied  that  I  could  not 
form  my  men  in  line  of  battle  to  any  advantage  on  the  ground 
that  they  then  occupied,  so  I  ordered  them  to  fall  back  a  short 
distance  and  form  behind  the  log  houses  occupied  by  Colonel 
Jordan's  Regiment  as  quarters.  This  they  did  in  good  order. 
1'he  Federals  fell  back  immediately  after.  Immediately 
after  forming  behind  the  houses,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Fowle, 
of  the  Thirty-first  North  Carolina,  passed  by  with  a  white 
flag,  and  stated  that  a  surrender  had  been  determined  upon. 

My  loss  was  three  men  killed  and  five  wounded,  two  of 
whom  have  since  died.  I  am  happy  to  be  able  to  report  fa- 
vorably of  the  action  of  both  officers  and  men.  The  enemy's 
loss,  as  I  learned  from  themselves,  was  between  twenty  and 

250  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

thirty.     I  inarched  my  entire  command,  with  very  few  ex- 
ceptions, in  good  order  back  to  your  camp. 
I  am  sir,  very  respectfully. 

Your  obedient  servant, 

Whaktobt  J.  Grebw, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Second  North  Carolina  Battalion. 

To  Colonel  TI.  M.  Shaw. 

In  my  report  to  Colonel  Shaw  should  have  been  stated 
the  fact  that  I  strenuously  protested  against  surrender 
without  a  further  effort  to-  resume  our  original  lines,  pledg- 
ing my  command  to  hold  the  enemy's  advance  in  check  a  rea- 
sonable time  if  he  would  come  to  our  assistance  with  the 
other  troops.  This  I  certainly  understood  him  to  prO'mise  to 
do.  A  mistaken  sense  of  courtesy  or  delicacy  to  the  officer  in 
immediate  command  to  whom  report  was  submitted,  forbade 
its  insertion  at  the  time.  Sure  I  am  that  the  survivors  of  the 
gallant  gentlemen  who  were  present  at  that  interview,  and 
there  were  many,  will  vouch  to  the  accuracy  of  the  statement. 
The  Second  North  Carolina.  Battalion,  was  in  uribroJcen  line 
of  battle  with  the  enemy  advancing  in  full  force,  but  hoping 
reinforcements,  when  the  white  flag  of  surrender  passed. 
In  reply  to  my  expressed  purpose  to  double  quick  it  back 
to  the  transports  with  an  eye  to  escape,  the  answer  came, 
"This  island  and  all  upon  it  has  been  surrendered.  You  will 
make  the  attempt  on  your  peril  of  breach  of  terms." 

A  little  incident  of  juvenile  heroism  surpassing  that  of 
"the  boy  on  the  burning  deck,"  may  not  be  out  of  place. 
Whilst  awaiting  the  enemy  in  force,  a  little  lad  scarcely  mid- 
way in  his  teens,  walked  down  the  front  of  the  line,  his  right 
arm  dangling  at  his  side  but  still  clutching  his  trusty  double- 
barrel  with  his  left. 

"Colonel,"  he  said,  "they  have  broken  my  arm.  Can  I  go 
to  the  rear  and  let  Dr.  Patterson  look  after  it  ?" 

There  was  no  more  perturbation  in  his  voice  than  if  he  had 
been  asking  or  answering  a  question  on  parade.  There  was 
incipient  hero  there,  and  would  that  I  knew  him  to-day.  I'll 
stake  my  life  that  that  boy  has  never  proved  recreant  to  past 
manhood  duty,  or  gone  back  on  early  promise  then  made. 

Second  Battalion.  251 

A  few  days  after  the  surrender,  we  were  transferred  to  the 
steamer  S.  E.  Spaulding  with  Fort  Warren  as  objective 
point.  But  'through  the  efforts  of  General  Bumside,  who 
impressed  us  then  with  his  courtesy  and  soldierly  treatment, 
as  he  did  those  who  knew  him  after  the  war,  imprisonment 
was  changed  into  parole.  Fortunately  for  the  Confederacy 
later  on,  his  reach  of  requisite  for  the  chief  command  to 
which  he  was  assigned  against  the  greatest  soldier  of  his  age, 
fell  something  short.  But  better  far  than  the  reputation  of 
a  second-class  commander,  he  bore  "the  grand  old  name  of 
gentleman."  The  writer  is  thus  pleased  to-  acknowledge 
more  than  one  civility  received  at  his  hands,  including  an  ex- 
change of  body  servants,  his  and  mine,  the  first  being  then 
confined  at  Kichmond.  Mine,  Guilford  Christmas,  was  with 
me  before  and  during  the  war  and  has  been  with  me  ever 
since,  a  faithful  servant  and  a  true  friend,  once  exchanged  as 
said,  and  later  escaping  after  a  second  capture.  Had  not 
racial  interdict  precluded  his  enlistment,  the  Confederacy 
would  have  had  few  more  devoted  servants,  for  his  heart  was 
in  it. 

The  disparity  of  force  in  this,  the  second  great  battle  of 
the  war,  was  too'  great  to  admit  of  hope  for  the  weaker  after 
the  other  side  had  secured  a  foothold.  Colonel  Shaw  gives 
his  entire  available  force  exclusive  of  those  in  the  water  bat- 
teries at  1,434,  rank  and  file,  previous  tO'  the  arrival  of  my 
own  and  Major  Fry's  commands.  Loss  23  killed,  58 
wounded  and  62  missing.  General  Burnside  puts  his,  not 
counting  the  gunboats,  at  12,829,  loss  264.  To  make  the  dis- 
parity the  greater  they  were  commanded  by  educated  soldiers 
like  Burnside,  Foster,  Parke  and  Reno.  That  inequality 
was  a  little  too  much  so,  even  in  those  early  days,  when  to- 
paraphrase  Harry  of  England,  some  did  "think  upon  one 
pair  of  Soutliern  legs  did  march  five  Yankees." 

Later  on,  and  after  better  acquaintance,  few  objected  to 
having  the  carrying  capacity  of  those  locomotors  reduced  to 
three  or  even  twO'  blue  coats. 

Eight  or  ten  to  one,  was  out  of  all  reason.  On  21  Febru- 
ary the  battalion  was  paroled  at  Elizabeth  City.     We  were 

252  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

exchanged  on  18  August,  1862,  and  ordered  to  rendezvous  at 
Drewry's  Bluff. 


Whilst  in  camp  there  and  attached  to  Colonel  (later  Gen- 
eral) Daniel's  Brigade,  a  petition  was  set  afoot  looking  to  a 
reorganization.  Although  opposed  to  it  on  principle  as  cal- 
culated to'  introduce  politics  into  camp,  and  although  from 
the  peculiar  constitution  of  this  command,  it  could  have  been 
avoided,  nevertheless  when  it  became  obvious  that  such  was 
the  desire  of  a  number  of  the  officers,  no  obstruction  was  inter- 
posed on  my  part.  In  the  reorganization  35  September,  I 
was  superceded  as  commanding  officer  by  Captain  W.  H. 
Wheeler,  who,  however,  resigned  a  few  days  thereafter,  where- 
upon Captain  Charles  E.  Shober,  of  the  Forty-fifth  Regi- 
ment, was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  PI.  L.  An- 
drews Major,  later  promoted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and 
killed  at  Gettysburg.  A.  W.  Green  was  appointed  Adjutant, 
and  Captain  D.  M.  Cooper,  A.  Q.  M.  Company  C  was  soon 
thereafter  transferred  to  a  Virginia  command.  At  the  time 
the  Second  Battalion  was  attached  to  this  superb  brigade,  it 
was  composed  of  the  Thirty-second,  Forty-third,  Forty-fifth 
and  Fifty-third  Regiments,  which  continued  intact  until  the 
end  of  the  war. 

Shortly  after,  about  1  January,  1863,  the  brigade  was  or- 
dered to  Goldsboro,  IST.  C,  in  anticipation  of  a  forward  move 
by  the  enemy.  I  went  there  at  ouce  to  volunteer,  but  was 
told  by  General  Daniel  that  I  would  be  enrolled  on  his  staff 
as  a  supernumerary  or  volunteer  aide,  until  something  in  the 
line  should  turn  up.  Thence  shortly  after,  the  brigade  was 
ordered  to  Kinston  where  it  remained  until  17  May,  1863, 
when  it  was  moved  upon  the  Rappahannock. 


Whilst  in  camp  at  Kinston  we  were,  by  General  D.  H. 
Hill's  orders,,  moved  down  the  right  side  of  the  ISTeuse,  Pet- 
tigrew's  Brigade  keeping  abreast  on  the  other  with  the  object 
in  view  of  taking  ISTew  Bern  by  surprise.  Daniel's  advance 
after  reaching  a  point  contiguous  to  that  place  was  subject  to 
gun  signal  from  the  co-operating  column  upon  capture  of 

Second  Battalion.  253 

the  gunboats  on  that  side  of  the  river.  These,  however,  got 
up  steam  in  time  to  prevent  capture,  and  so  the  attempt  fell 

General  Hill  next  attempted  the  capture  of  Washington, 
which  was  represented  as  being  short  of  provisions  and  sup- 
plies. A  battery,  Fort  Hill,  was  planted  below  the  town  to 
prevent  relief  by  the  gunboats.  Whilst  here  Generals  HiU, 
Daniel,  Robertson  and  myself  rode  over  to  the  fort  to  take  in 
the  situation.  The  gunboats  were  anchored  some  two  or 
three  miles  off,  just  out  of  reach  of  our  pop-guns  and  had 
kept  up  an  incessant  fusillade  on  the  garrison  for  a  day  or  two 
previous  without  doing  any  harm.  Before,  however,  we 
had  been  in  there  fifteen  minutes,  I  was  knocked  down  by  a 
ten  pound  piece  of  shell. 


Soon  after  this  the  brigade  was  ordered  to  Virginia,  and 
on  arrival  was  assigned  to  Major-General  E.  E.  Rodes'  Divis- 
ion comprising  the  following  other  brigades,  viz. :  Eamseur's 
ISTorth  Carolina,  Iverson's  ISTorth  Carolina,  and  Doles' 
Georgia,  and  no  better  division  was  there  in  any  army.  Most 
fortunate  were  we  in  brigade  and  divisional  commanders. 
Both  Rodes  and  Daniel  were  born  soldiers,  and  both  died  on 
the  field  of  battle  in  glorious  discharge  of  duty.  The  divis- 
ion was  in  Ewell's  Corps.  On  Daniel's  death  Bryan  Grimes 
became  his  worthy  successor  and  later  on  the  successor  of  the 
lamented  Rodes. 

About  the  first  of  June,  1863,  our  division,  Rodes',  broke 
camp  at  Hamilton  Crossing,  a  few  miles  from  Freder- 
icksburg, and  started,  whither  few  knew,  but  many  surmised. 

At  Brandy  Station  9  June,  1863,  we  became  aware  that  a 
fight  was  going  on  in  front.  Were  hastily  formed  and  moved 
forward  to  the  point,  upon  nearing  which  General  Lee  in  per- 
son met  General  Daniel  and  told  him  that  he  was  to  keep  his 
command  concealed  under  the  brow  of  a  hill  except  upon 
emergency,  as  it  was  a  cavalry  fight  and  he  did  not  wish  the 
enemy  to  learn  that  he  was  on  the  move.  Shortly  after  met 
the  corpse  of  my  old  Colonel,  Sol.  Williams,  being  brought 
out  on  horseback  by  his  brother-in-law,  Lieutenant  Pegram. 

254  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

He  was  shot  through  the  forehead,  and  Pegram  told  us  that 
General  B.  F.  Davis  had  just  been  killed  on  the  other  side 
by  the  self  same  wound.  He  and  I  were  classmates  and 
close  friends  at  West  Point,  and  yet  his  death  reached  me 
without  a  pang  of  regret,  for  he  was  fighting  under  the  wrong 
flag,  being  a  Mississippian. 

Gallant  Sol.  Williams  had  only  been  married  a  week  or 
two  to  the  daughter  of  Captain  Pegram,  who  won  lasting 
honor  in  the  Confederate  States  Navy.  Singular  coinci- 
dence her  cousin  and  another  old  classmate  of  mine,  General 
John  Pegram,  was  killed  in  front  of  Petersburg  after  the 
same  brief  nuptials.  He  married  the  beautiful  and  brilliant 
Hettie  Cary,  of  Baltimore. 

General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart  (another  classmate)  repulsed  the 
enemy  that  day  after  a  hard  day's  fight,  although  he  had  been 
taken  by  surprise  in  the  morning.  He,  too,  was  killed  later 
on  in  front  of  Richmond.  Here  let  it  be  remarked  by  way 
of  parenthesis,  that  nine  out  of  twelve  of  that  glorious  class 
(that  of  1850)  who  espoused  our  side  were  killed  in  battle,  all 
with  one  exception,  wearing  the  insignia  of  General,  Stuart, 
Pender,  Gracie,  Pegram,  Deshler,  Villipique,  Mercer,  Ran- 
dall and  one  other  whose  name  now  escapes  me.  Was  there 
ever  a  nobler  holocaust  of  young  heroes  on  the  altar  of  patri- 
otism, each  thirty  or  thereabouts?  Generals  Stephen  D. 
Lee  and  Custis  Lee  are  the  sole  survivors,  as  far  as  I  am  able 
tO'  ascertain. 


Prom  Brandy  the  division  moved  on  towards  the  Potomac, 
passing  through  Front  Royal,  Winchester  and  Berryville. 
At  the  last  place  came  near  capturing  Brute  Milroy  and  his 
entire  force,  but  with  the  coward's  instinct  he  saved  his  vile 
neck  by  precipitate  fiight.  He  was  one  of  the  three  who 
were  made  infamously  immortal  by  Confederate  executive 
mandate  that  they  were  not  to  be  accorded  the  rights  of  pris- 
oners of  war ,  if  captured.  Beast  Butler  and  Turchin,^  the 
barbarian,  were  the  two  others.  Let  the  triumvirate  of  gold 
laced  felons  stand  pilloried  where  they  were  put,  in  the  scorn 
of  all  true  soldiers  through  all  time  to  come,  to  teach  would- 

Second  Battalion.  255 

be  imitators  that  wars  must  henceforth  be  conducted  by  gen- 
erous and  humane  rules  instead  of  barbaric.  Moving  on 
through  Martinsburg  we  forded  the  river  at  Williamsport 
and  camped  a  couple  of  days  at  Hagersto^^vn,  Md.  There 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Shober  resigned  and  on  the  promotion  of 
Major  Andrews,  Captain  Jno.  M.  Hancock,  of  Company  T. 
became  Major.  Thence  on  to  Greencastle,  Pa.,  where  there 
was  another  halt  for  a  day.  Thence  to  Carlisle  where  we 
took  possession  of  the  Government  barracks. 

The  next  day  (Sunday)  the  flag  pole  which  had  been  cut 
down  by  the  enemy,  was  replaced  and  the  "Stars  and  Bars" 
wafted  to  the  breeze. 


30  June  made  an  early  start  and  a  forced  march  to  Heidel- 
berg, eleven  miles  short  of  Gettysburg.  The  next  morning 
bright  and  early  started  again.  Had  proceeded  but  a  short 
distance  when  the  opening  guns  of  that  momentous  conflict 
fell  upon  the  ear.  On  arrival  were  deployed  in  line  of  battle 
in  a  skirt  of  woods.  The  enemy  at  once  began  to  shell  us. 
General  Daniel  ordered  the  brigade  to  lie  down  until  ready  to 
advance.  While  he  and  I  were  standing  just  in  front  of  the 
Second  Battalion  holding  our  horses,  a  shell  exploded  in  a 
few  feet  of  the  left  killing  and  wounding  nine  men.  Proba- 
bly no  one  missile  occasioned  more  loss  to  life  during  the  war. 
A  little  later  the  men  were  ordered  to  rise  and  advance.  The 
enemy  were  some  five  or  six  hundred  yards  in  front,  and  re- 
sults showed  had  set  a  most  deadly  trap  for  us.  When  half 
way  between  our  starting  point  and  their  line,  were  ordered 
to  lie  down  whilst  our  guns  in  the  rear  played  on  their  ranks. 
Then  rose  and  charged  to  the  brink  of  the  deep  cut  of  the  rail- 
road, beyond  which  at  some  hundred  paces  the  enemy  were 
drawn  up  in  line. 

The  men  in  their  ardor  slid  iowa  the  almost  precipitous 
bank  and  attempted  to  scale  the  opposite,  but  to  no  effect.  An 
enfilading  battery  to  our  right  then  opened  sweeping  "the 
cut"  with  terrible  effect.  Suggesting  to  Colonel  Brabble,  the 
senior  officer,  to  face  to  the  left  and  clear  the  gap,  I  scram- 
bled to  the  top  and  got  one  shot  at  the  advancing  foe  with  a 

256  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

musket  taken  from  a  sick  boy  at  the  start,  with  whom  my 
horse  was  left.  Believe  it  was  with  effect,  as  it  caused  a 
pause  in  the  line  behind  and  delayed  a  down  pouring  fire 
until  we  got  out  of  that  horrible  hole.  As  soon  as  it  was  done 
the  men  who  had  behaved  like  veterans  so  far,  became  tempor- 
arily demoralized.  Then  it  was  that  the  soldier  loomed  up 
and  plucked  the  flower  safety  out  of  the  nettle  danger,  Junius 
Daniel  is  the  man  referred  to. 

In  his  stentorian  tones  audible  in  command  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  or  more  away,  he  ordered  the  men  to  halt  and  reform  on 
him.  This  they  did  without  regard  to  company  or  regimen- 
tal formation  almost  to  a  ma'n,  advanced  at  once  and  inflicted 
a  loss  on  the  enemy,  from  all  accounts  greater  than  that  which 
they  had  just  sustained.  A  sublime  picture  of  heroism  that, 
on  the  part  of  commander  and  command.  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Andrews  was  killed  and  Major  Hancock  wounded  while 
gallantly  leading  their  men  and  during  the  remainder  of  the 
actions  at  Gettysburg  the  battalion  was  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain Van  Brown,  of  Company  PI. 

Just  then  I  was  knocked  down  by  a  wound  in  the  head  and 
had  to  go  back  to  the  field  hospital.  Here  the  scene  was  sick- 
ening in  the  extreme.  By  sundown,  hundreds  of  wounded 
had  arrived,  and  the  horrid  work  of  amputation  was  going 
briskly  on.  Here  I  pause  to  pay  brief  tribute  to  an  unpre- 
tentious hero  who  did  his  duty  as  grandly  as  any  other  on 
that  bloody  field  although  his  only  weapons  were  scalpel,  saw 
and  bandage.  Though  Daniel's  Brigade  had  the  largest 
wounded  list  of  any  other  at  Gettysburg,  the  surgical  staff 
was  something  short  that  day.  But  there  was  one  who  was 
a  host  in  himself.  For  three  days  and  nights  with  coat  off 
and  sleeves  rolled  up,  I  do  not  think  Dr.  Frank  Patterson, 
my  old  surgeon,  then  brigade  surgeon,  relaxed  in  his  bloody 
work  of  mercy  half  an  hour  at  a  time.  If  he  closed  his  eyes 
in  sleep  during  that  dread  ordeal,  it  escaped  my  observation, 
although  in  thirty  feet  and  full  view  of  the  operating  table. 

"The  Glorious  Fourth"  was  a  fateful  day,  not  only  for 
that  glorious  army,  but  for  the  cause,  for  far  away  Vicksburg, 
the  key  of  the  Mississippi,  had  fallen. 

The  retreat  began  in  regular  order  on  that  day.  Lieutenant 

Second  Battalion.  257 

Wm.  R.  Bond,  of  General  Daniel's  staff,  now  of  Scotland 
Neck,  likewise  wounded,  and  myself,  were  assigned  to  a  one- 
horse  wagon  driven  by  Guilford.  The  wounded  train  was 
tacked  on  to  a  part  of  the  ordnance.  That  night  having  to 
pass  through  a  long  defile,  it  was  subjected  to  an  annoying 
fire  from  above,  Kilpatrick's  Division  having  ridden  ahead 
and  taken  position  on  each  bank  of  the  road.  This  doughty 
hero  should  have  been  cashiered  for  not  capturing  that  entire 
train,  for  it  was  only  guarded  by  two  squadrons  of  cavalry. 
As  it  was,  he  only  took  some  thirty  or  forty  ambulances  and 
ordnance  wagons. 


Shortly  after  getting  through  the  deep  cut  of  the  road  our 
little  mounted  escort  broke  and  went  tO'  the  head  of  the  train. 
An  ordnance  wagon  loaded  with  old  guns,  took  off  one  of  our 
rear  wheels  in  trying  to  pass,  and  before  Bond  and  I  could 
pick  ourselves  up,  a  dozen  revolvers  were  bearing  on  us.  It 
was  then  that  volubility  told.  Guilford  with  a  flow  of  words 
unparalleled  in  his  speech  before  or  since  convinced  the  gen- 
tlemen on  horseback  that,  "we  surrender,  we  are  prisoners, 
for  God's  sake  don't  shoot."  Believing  that  the  entire  ord- 
nance train  was  lost  and  all  lost  with  it,  it  is  within  bounds 
tO'  say  that  his  impromptu  eloquence  elicited  but  scant  thanks 
from  either  of  the  two  "prisoners." 

Thence  were  carried  to  the  hospital  at  Frederick,  from 
there  to  Fort  McHenry,  thence  to  Fort  Delaware  for  a  while 
and  from  there  to  Jolmson's  Island  in  Lake  Erie,  which  con- 
tinued to  be  the  residence  of  most  of  the  officers  until  near 
the  surrender.  My  cartel  was,  I  believe,  the  last  one  ante- 
cedent thereto.  Many  projects  for  wholesale  escape  had  been 
formed  during  otir  imprisonment,  but  were  always  frustrated 
by  some  secret  spy  or  cowardly  informer. 

But  tO'  return  to  the  Second  North  Carolina  Battalion  at 
Gettysburg.  It  fell  short  of  a  full  regiment,  and  yet  it  is 
doubtful  whether  any  full  regiment  in  that  matchless  army 
sustained  the  loss  in  killed  and  wounded  that  it  did.  One 
hundred  and  fifty-three  is  authenticated  record.  Perhaps 

258  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

it  is  better  to  give  an  excerpt  from  a  letter  received  from 
JH.  A.  London: 

u^Ar  *  *  r^]^Q  Second  Battalion  at  Gettysburg  had  more 
men  killed  and  wounded  than  any  full  regiment  in  Pickett's 
Division.  Its  killed  was  twenty-nine  (including  its  com- 
mander, Lieutenant^Colonel  Andrews),  and  wounded  124. 
The  Fifty-seventh  Virginia  regiment  had  26  killed  and  95 
wounded,  which  was  the  heaviest  mortality  of  any  of  Pickett's 
regiments.  Major  James  Iredell,  of  the  Fifty-third,  who 
took  command  at  Orange  Court  House  (Major  Hancock 
having  been  captured  at  Gettysburg),  was  killed  at  Spottsyl- 
vania,  where  the  battalion  was  nearly  all  captured,  killed  or 
-wounded.  I  do  not  think  any  field  officer  commanded  the 
"battalion  after  Iredell's  death.  It  remained  with  Daniel's 
Prigade  until  the  end,  but  I  do  not  know  its  number  at  Ap- 
pomattox— a  mere  handful,  however.  It  was  a  noble  band 
and  shared  fully  in  all  the  glory  of  Daniel's  (afterwards 
Grimes')  Brigade.      *     *     * 

Yours  truly, 

"H.  A.  London." 


The  following  addenda  is  from  the  pen  of  a  gallant  soldier 
of  the  same  brigade,  Sergeant  Cyrus  B.  Watson,  of  the  Forty- 
fifth  North  Carolina,  now  one  of  the  most  distinguished  law- 
yers of  our  State.      He  says : 

"From  September,  1862,  the  date  given  by  Colonel  Green 
when  the  Second  North  Carolina  Battalion  became  a  part  of 
Daniel's  Brigade  till  9  April,  1865,  it  fought  along  side  of  my 
regiment,  the  Forty-fifth. 

"Four  companies  of  the  battalion  were  from  the  coxmties 
of  Randolph,  Forsyth,  Stokes  and  Surry,  and  the  men  com- 
posing them  had  many  acquaintances  in  our  regiment,  from 
which  there  existed  a  friendly  feeling  between  the  men  of  the 
two  commands.  After  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  this  senti- 
ment grew  stronger,  from  the  fact  that  the  two  commands 
were  together  in  the  dreadful  conflict  in  and  about  the  rail- 
road cut  that  cost  both  so  many  lives. 

Second  Battalion.  259 


"Again  on  10  May,  1864,  the  Torty-fifth  Eegiment  felt  the 
touch  of  the  Second  Battalion,  while  holding  the  line  to  the 
left  of  the  break  caused  by  the  crushing  of  Doles'  Brigade  by 
the  massed  forces  of  the  enemy.  In  each  of  these  engage- 
ments the  battalion  lost  a  commander. 

"On  the  latter  occasion  the  companies  on  the  right  of  the 
battalion  were  doubled  back  on  those  of  the  left,  and  in  this 
position  fought  almost  hand-to-hand  with  the  enemy  until 
nearly  annihilated. 

"The  morning  after  this  conflict,  the  dead  of  the  Maine 
Regiment  which  led  the  assault  on  the  Second  Battalion  and 
the  Forty-fifth  Regiment  were  scattered  thickly  and  indis- 
criminately over  the  field. 

"This  Second  Battalion  had  a  number  of  commanders  be- 
side the  two  noble  men,  Andrews  and  Iredell,  who  lost  their 
lives,  and  these  changes  had  the  effect  to  some  extent  of  inter- 
fering with  discipline.  General  Daniel  would  some  times 
call  it  "my  little  mob,"  but  its  fighting  and  staying  qualities 
were  never  questioned.  ISTo  regiment  of  the  brigade  ever 
complained  that  it  lagged  in  a  charge  or  faltered  in  the  line. 

"I  personally  knew  many  of  its  officers  and  men.  Most  of 
them  who  survived  the  war  have  since  passed  away.  The 
officers  living  as  far  as  I  can  recall  are  C.  F.  Robinson,  A.  Q. 
M.,  of  Farmington,  N.  C. ;  Captain  W.  H.  Wheeler,  of  Win- 
ston, N.  C,  and  Lieutenant  Dempsey  S.  Brown,  of  Company 
G  (written  "Boon"  in  the  Roster),  now  living  in  Missouri. 

"And  I  am  reminded  just  here  that  one  evening  just  before 
Christmas,  1862,  two  young  lieutenants  of  the  battalion  in- 
vited me  over  to  their  camp  to  help  devour  a  roasted  wild  ( ?) 
turkey  that  "some  of  the  boys"  had  found  the  night  before 
perched  upon  an  old  loom  in  an  out  house  in  the  neighbor- 
hood the  night  before.  It  was  argued  that  the  old  gobbler 
had  no  pass  and  was  subject  to  arrest. 

"I  have  said  that  the  battalion  was  not  noted  for  its  disci- 
pline, and  this  is  true,  but  it  is  no  less  true  that  no  body  of 
men  belonging  to  the  army  of  General  Lee  sustained  a  bet- 
ter reputation  for  heroic  devotion  to  duty  in  the  hour  of  bat- 
tle than  the  Second  North  Carolina  Battalion." 

260  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

This  is  high  praise  from  a  high  source.  The  career  of 
the  battalion  is  largely  told  in  the  histories  in  this  work 
of  the  Thirty-second,  Forty-third,  Forty-fifth  and  Fifty-third 
North  Carolina  Eegiments  which  were  in  the  same  brigade 
and  in  the  sketch  of  the  "Daniel-Grimes"  Brigade  by  Captain 
W.  L.  London,  A.  A.  G-.  The  handful  of  the  battalion  left 
surrendered  with  the  brigade  on  that  bright  Sunday  morning 
at  Appomattox. 

Whaeton  J.  Geeett. 
Fayetteville,  N.  C, 

9  April,  1901. 


(light  aetillehy.  ) 

By  JOHN  W.  MOORE,  Major. 

This  command  went  into  camp  near  Ealeigh  in  Febru- 
ary, 1862,  and  was  mustered  into  service  on  the  27th  of  that 
month.  General  McClellan  soon  after  that  began  the  trans- 
fer of  the  great  army  that  had  for  months  previously  been 
held  for  the  defense  of  Washington  and  commenced  his 
movement  for  the  capture  of  Richmond  by  way  of  the  penin- 
sula, which  lies  between  the  James  and  York  rivers.  The 
batatlion  while  yet  awaiting  its  guns  and  horses,  was  or- 
dered to  tlie  Confederate  Capital,  to  take  part  in  its  defense. 
The  field  and  staff  officers  at  that  time  and  with  small  change 
until  the  end  of  the  war  consisted  of — 

John  W.  Mooee^  of  Hertford  county,  Major. 
Augustus  M.  Mooke,  of  Chowan,  Adjutant. 
Henry  G.  Teadee^  of  Hertford,  Quartermaster. 
W.  A.  B.  NoECUM^  of  Chowan,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
ExuM  B.  Claek,  Sergeant  Major. 
Oliver  T.  Gilbeet^  Commissary  Sergeant. 
J.  F.  JuLicH,  Chief  Bugler. 

There  were  in  the  battalion  three  batteries.  Company  A 
was  recruited  in  Northampton  county.  Andrew  J.  Ellis, 
Captain;  W.  J.  Rogers,  First  Lieutenant;  J.  ~N.  Ramsey, 
First  Lieutenant ;  and  John  M.  Webb,  Second  Lieutenant. 

Company  B  was  formed  of  men  enlisted  mostly  in  Chowan 
and  Tyrrell  counties.  Its  officers  were  William  Badham, 
Captain,  of  Chowan ;   First  Lieutenant,  ISTelson  McCleese, 

Note. — There  was  another  Third  Battalion  (Reserves)  commanded  by 
Major  Hooks  which  was  merged  into  the  Seventy-Eighth  Regiment, 
(Eighth  Reserves)  and  later  another  Third  Battalion,  also  Reserves, 
which  was  commanded  by  Maj.  J.  T.  Littlejohn  and  whose  services  are 
told  herein  under  the  heading  "Twenty-Third  Battalion  " — Ed. 

262  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Tyrrell;  First  Lieutenant,  John  M.   Jones,  Chowan;   Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  David  J.  Gaskins,  Chowan. 

Company  C  consisted  of  men  who  chiefly  were  reared  and 
enlisted  in  Hertford.  Its  officers  were  then,  Julian  G, 
Moore,  Captain ;  John  M.  Sutton,  First  Lieutenant ;  Alfred 
M.  Darden,  First  Lieutenant ;  John  E.  Powell,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant.    Lieutenants  Sutton  and  Powell  were  Bertie  men. 

around  eiohmond. 

The  battalion  having  been  sent  to  the  front  before  getting 
its  equipment  of  light  artillery  when  General  McClellan  drew 
near  Richmond  with  his  immense  army  the  coimmand  was 
ordered  from  the  camp  of  instruction  and  did  its  first  ser- 
vice by  occupying  Battery  No.  1.  This  was  an  extensive 
earthwork  which  was  near  the  York  Kiver  Railroad,  and 
commanded  the  highway  leading  from  Mechanicsville,  which 
was  only  six  miles  away  and  was  the  nearest  point  of  ap- 
proach made  by  the  United  States  Army.  There  General 
McClellan  had  strongly  protected  the  right  flank  of  his  forces 
and  several  bloody  conflicts  occurred  before  the  seven  days' 
of  battle  resulted  in  the  defeat  and  withdrawal  of  the  Fed- 
eral forces. 

The  Third  Battalion  remained  near  Richmond  for  some 
time  afterwards  and  in  September,  1862,  was  ordered  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  Valley  of  Virginia  and  report  to  General  R.  E. 
Lee.  The  battle  of  Sharpsburg  had  just  been  fought  and 
we  met  the  Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia  in  its  cantonments 
around  Martinsburg.  Having  reported  to  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Pendleton,  Chief  of  Artillery,  the  Third  Battalion  was 
received  into  his  corps  and  served  therein  until  early  in 
December  when  General  Burnside  began  his  famous  race  for 
the  capture  of  Fredericksburg.  We  were  in  camp  at  Culpep- 
per Court  House  one  dreary  winter  evening  when  an  orderly 
brought  orders  for  our  instant  departure  for  Fredericksburg, 
The  discomforts  and  haste  of  that  movement  exceeded  any- 
■  thing  of  the  kind  we  saw  during  war.  After  pressing  on  for 
two  miserable  days  through  the  terrible  roads  crossing  South- 
western Mountains  and  reaching  a  point  flfteen  miles  from 
Fredericksburg,  orders  came  for  the  battalion  to  proceed  to  a 

Third  Battalion.  263 

railroad  bridge  some  miles  south  of  Fredericksburg,  where 
defenses  had  been  constructed  for  the  security  of  the  bridge. 
We  were  sorely  disappointed  in  not  being  permitted  to  take 
part  in  the  great  battle  fought  a  few  days  later,  so  near  uh, 
but  it  was  all  important  that  no  raiding  party  of  the  enemy 
should  be  allowed  to  bum  the  bridge  over  which  nearly  all 
the  svipplies  for  General  Lee's  army  had  then  to  pass.  We 
remained  at  the  bridge  until  Burnside^s  defeat  and  in  a  few 
days  were  ordered  to  the  defense  of  our  own  State. 


When  the  Third  Battalion  had  reached  Wilmington,  that 
is  the  main  body  of  the  men,  we  had  more  than  a  week  of 
waiting  apparently  before  us,  before  our  horses  could  reach 
us  by  the  long  march  overland  from  Richmond,  Va.  But  on 
Sunday  morning  after  our  arrival.  General  Whiting  notified 
Major  Moore  that  his  horses  had  arrived  at  Goldsboro  and 
that  enough  of  them  were  in  such  condition  that  one  of  his 
batteries  could  be  properly  horsed.  He  was  ordered,  there- 
fore, to  take  the  men  and  guns  of  one  battery  and  to  reach 
Kinston  as  soon  as  possible  and  report  to  General  French. 
Two  days  before  General  Foster  had  left  JSTew  Bern  with 
twenty  thousand  Federal  troops  and  had  been  steadily  driving 
back  the  Confederate  forces,  but  was  as  yet  unable  to  cross 
from  the  south  side  of  ISTeuse  river. 


By  reason  of  a  defective  engine,  we  were  nearly  all  day 
making  the  run  to  Mosely  Hall,  where  we  found  General 
French  and  our  battery  horses.  Troops  from  Virginia  and 
other  points  were  pouring  in  and  the  enemy  was  reported  close 
at  hand  across  the  river.  Just  before  night,  by  General 
French's  order.  Lieutenant  Nelson  McCleese  was  sent  with 
the  right  section  of  Badham's  battery  to  the  defense  of  the 
bridge  at  White  Hall,  on  ISTeuse  river.  These  two  guns  were 
supported  by  the  Eleventh  Regiment,  the  Thirty-first,  Colonel 
Evans'  Sixty-third  (Fifth  Cavalry),  and  Colonel  Ferebee's 
Fifty-ninth  (Fourth  Cavalry)  Regiment.  At  an  early  hour 
Monday  morning  Foster  drove  in  the  Confederate  picket 

264  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

across  the  river  and  attempted,  by  a  tremendous  infantry  and 
artillery  fire,  to  so  drive  off  the  men  on  onr  side,  that  he  could 
pontoon  and  cross  the  river.  More  than  a  dozen  pieces  of 
artillery  were  brought  to  bear  upon  the  point  where  Lieu- 
tenant McClee&e  and  his  men  were  so  bravely  holding  their 
ground.  From  early  in  the  morning  until  well  past  midnight 
this  unequal  struggle  went  on.  McCleese  lost  but  two  men 
and  two  horses,  but  his  right  gun  was,  after  being  struck  re^ 
peatedly,  finally  disabled  by  a  shell  that  broke  the  axle  and 
struck  down  five  of  his  cannoneers.  After  such  creditable 
service,  Lieutenant  McCleese  was  relieved  by  Lieutenant  J. 
G.  Moore,  who  brought  a  fresh  section  into  action.  The  en- 
emy, however,  soon  ceased  firing  and  moved  for  another 
bridge  a  few  miles  higher  up  the  stream.  At  that  place  on 
the  next  day  Lieutenant  John  M.  Jones,  with  the  centre  sec- 
tion of  Battery  B,  did  also  most  effective  service. 

It  is  proper  to  say  here  that  the  battalion  at  this  time  con- 
tained only  two  batteries.  It  was  found  so  difficult  in  the 
fall  of  1862  to  procure  enough  cavalry  and  artillery  horses 
that  many  artillery  and  cavalry  companies  were  induced  to 
change  themselves  into  infantry.  Then,  too,  many  four-gun 
batteries  were  by  orders  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  formed  into 
large  six-gun  batteries  by  uniting  the  men  of  both  companies 
and  allowing  them  to  elect  officers  for  the  new  command  thus 
formed.  When  the  order  for  distributing  inchoate  com- 
mands reached  Major  Moore  in  Camp  Lee,  near  Hichmond, 
in  1862,  the  Third  Battalion  contained  five  companies.  There 
were  in  addition  to  the  three  already  mentioned,  two  others, 
commanded  by  Captains  Thomas  Capehart  and  Solomon 
White.  The  latter  of  these  two  gave  up  its  artillery  organ- 
ization and  joined  a  regiment  of  infantry. 

Batteries  A  and  D  were  combined  under  the  command  of 
Captain  Ellis,  while  Company  C  was  added  to  Battery  B  tin- 
der Captain  Badham  and  Captain  Julian  G.  Moore  became 
First  Lieutenant  in  the  same  until  in  March,  1863,  by  another 
order  from  Kichmond,  Company  C  was  reorganized  iinder  the 
officers  as  mentioned  above. 

Third  Battalion.  265 


After  the  battle  of  Goldsboro,  the  Third  Battalion  was  or- 
deretl  to  reunite  by  Company  B  inarching  across  the  country 
to  rejoin  the  other  half  of  the  command  at  Wilmington. 
During  the  whole  year  of  1863,  the  enemy  left  the  Cape  Fear 
region  unassailed,  so  there  were  only  the  ordinary  incidents  of 
a  life  in  camp  so  far  as  the  Third  Battalion  was  concerned. 
About  1  November,  1863,  General  Whiting  relieved  Colonel 
George  Jackson  of  his  command  at  Kenansville,  to  assume 
charge  of  the  intrenched  camp  then  being  constructed  above 
Fort  Fisher.  Major  J.  W.  Moore,  with  Battery  A,  under 
Captain  Ellis,  went  to  his  new  post  of  duty  and  found  a  little 
army  embracing  all  three  branches  of  military  service  repre^ 
sented.  Two  squadrons  of  cavalry  were  kept  on  outpost 
duty  and  a  battalion  of  heavy  artillery  doing  infantry  duty 
were  camped  in  close  proximity  to  Battery  A-  This  force 
was  kept  for  the  security  of  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Rail- 
road ;  and  also  to  secure  Froelich's  sword  factory  at  Kenans- 
ville, that  had  been  burned'  by  a  raiding  party  some  time  be- 
fore and  was  then  making  sabres  for  the  Confederate  Gov- 

At  the  same  time  Battery  C,  under  Captain  J.  G.  Moore, 
was  assigned  duty  at  Fort  Caswell,  while  Battery  B,  under 
Captain  William  Badham,  was  assigned  for  duty  on  Smith's 
Island  or  Bald  Head.  The  new  year  of  1864  was  inaugu- 
rated by  an  important  military  movement  in  North  Caro- 


General  George  Pickett  was  sent  by  General  Lee  with 
live  brigades  of  his  veteran  troops,  against  the  United  States 
forces  then  holding  the  city  of  New  Bern.  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Martin,  with  two  regiments  of  infantry,  three  squadrons 
of  South  Carolina  Cavalry  and  two  batteries  of  Light  Artil- 
lery was  sent  by  way  of  Smith's  Mills  across  White  Oak 
river,  to  cut  railroad  connections  from  Morehead  City.  The 
Third  North  Carolina  Battalion  was  represented  in  the  move- 
ment by  Battery  A,  under  the  immediate  command  of  Cap- 
tain A.  J.  Ellis.     He  and  his  command  did  noble  service  in 

266  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  battle  at  Newport  barracks.  Tbe  enemy  witb  a  force 
about  equal  to  that  of  General  Martin,  was  driven  from  its 
positions  on  both  sides  of  the  road,  and  besides-  considerable 
loss  in  killed  and  wounded  left  about  two  hundred  prison- 
ers. The  same  battery  had  by  its  splendid  practice  against 
a  block  house  earlier  in  the  day  so  dismayed  the  garrison  that 
it  was  captured  without  loss  to  the  assailants,  who  came  charg- 
ing upon  it  across  an  open  plain. 


Adjutant  (since  Judge)  Aug.  M.  Moore  contributes  the 
following  incident: 

"When  Pickett  was  sent  to  attack  New  Bern  in  the  winter 
of  1864,  a  small  detachment  of  about  1,500  men,  infantry, 
cavalry  and  artillery  under  General  Martin  was  sent  to  cap- 
ture Moreliead,  and  the  large  army  supplies  collected  at  that 
point.  Pickett  failed  to  do  anything,  and  in  a  few  days  with- 
drew his  forces,  but  the  expedition  under  Martin  was  par- 
tially successful,  and  had  it  not  been  for  the  withdrawal  of 
Pickett's  forces,  we  would  in  a  few  hoxirs  have  captured  More- 

After  two  sharp  skirmishes,  the  entire  force  of  Martin, 
Seventeenth  North  Carolina,  Forty-second  North  Carolina, 
Ellis'  Battery  A  of  Moore's  Battalion,  and  about  250  men  un- 
der Lieutenant-Colonel  R.  J.  Jeffords,  Fifth  South  Carolina 
cavalry,  engaged  the  enemy  in  the  afternoon  about  two  miles 
from  Newport.  The  enemy,  as  well  as  our  infantry,  was  on 
each  side  of  the  straight  road  leading  to  Newport,  near  the 
town,  and  to  the  left  and  rear  of  the  enemy  was  their  fort,  a 
strong  eartliwork,  mounting  several  guns. 

The  writer  was  sitting  on  his  horse  on  and  near  the  left 
of  the  road,  watching  the  effect  of  shells  firing  from  a  small 
brass  field  piece  over  the  heads  of  the  Seventeenth  North 
Carolina,  as  that  gallant  regiment  was  advancing  and  engag- 
ing the  enemy.  Occasionally  a  shell  came  screaming  from 
a  rifled  field  ]3iece  of  the  enemy,  stationed  about  two  thou- 
sand yards  down  the  road  and  in  full  view  of  Ellis  and  oth- 
ers of  us.  For  a  little  while  it  seemed  as'  if  the  enemy  was 
to  have  all  that  fun  to  themselves,  when  a  sudden  and  sharp 

Third  Battalion.  267 

command  from  Captain  Ellis  attracted  my  attention  and, 
looking  around,  I  saw  him  straighten  himself  in  his  saddle, 
and  with  his  gun  dash  down  the  narrow  road  towards  the  en- 
emy. Every  once  in  a  while  he  would  wheel  into  position, 
his  lead  horses  sometimes  falling  in  the  deep  and  wide  ditch, 
go  into  battery,  fire  a  few  well-directed  shots,  and  then  he  was 
again  leading  his  gun  at  a  gallop,  only  to  go  into  battery 
and  again  fire. 

We  were  warm  personal  friends,  and  anxious  to  know 
what  had  become  of  him  and  his  gallant  men,  the  writer 
dashed  down  the  road  to  learn  what  he  could.  So  rapid  had 
been  Ellis'  charge  with  his  artillery,  that  two  of  his  seven  men 
were  wounded  along  the  road  by  the  enemy's  skirmishers. 
The  gallant  officer  and  men  had  passed  the  line  of  our  advanc- 
ing troops,  and  when  I  found  him,  the  enemy  was  fleeing,  and 
Ellis,  with  the  glee  of  a  boy  was  standing  in  the  road  patting 
the  fine  gun  he  had  captured,  and  laughing  with  his  little  gun 
crew  that  followed  him  in  that  wild,  dashing  charge.  They 
had  run  the  enemy's  cannoneers  with  their  horses  from  their 
gun,  and  whilst  their  infantry  support  had  not  fied. 

I  have  seen  and  read  of  many  desperate  and  gallr.ut  acts 
during  the  Civil  War,  but  of  none  that  ever  surpassed,  if  in 
fact  equalled  the  one  I  have  attempted  to  describe. 

That  was  more  than  thirty-six  years  ago,  and  some  of  thr 
brave  boys  "who  charged  artillery  with  artillery"  have  doubts 
less  passeid  away.  Captain  Ellis,  however,  is  still  alive,  and 
residing  at  Garysburg,  where  as  an  accomplished  and  success- 
ful physician,  he  has  filled  a  useful  life  full  of  gentle  acts,  and 
crowned  it  with  the  esteem  and  affection  of  the  people  of  that 


After  General  Pickett's  failure  before  New  Bern,  there 
were  no  more  movements  of  importance  involving  the  Third 
aSTorth  Carolina  Battalion  until  about  1  November,  1864. 
Major  J.  W.  Moore  was  ordered  to  leave  his  post  at  Kenans- 
ville,  in  Duplin  county,  and  with  Battery  A,  to  report  to  Brig- 
adier-General Louis  Hebert,  then  commanding  the  defences  at 
the  mouth  of  Cape  Fear  river.     The  battalion  was  thus  once 

268  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

more  all  assembled  in  the  same  locality.  Battery  A  being 
posted  at  Smithville,  Company  B  on  Bald  Head,  and  Com- 
pany C  in  Fort  Caswell.  It  had  been  evident  for  some  time 
to  Major-General  Whiting  that  a  great  movement  was  to  be 
made  for  the  capture  of  Wilmington.  It  was  the  only  post 
of  importance  through  which  the  Confederate  Government 
could  secure  foreign  supplies.  The  immense  superiority  of 
the  naval  forces  of  the  United-  States  had  either  captured  or 
blockaded  all  other  Southern  ports  sO'  that  on  W^ilmington 
alone  hung  the  hope  of  our  further  continuing  the  long  and 
bloody  struggle.  But  as  the  year  of  our  Lord  1864  drew  to 
its  close,  just  as  the  hearts  of  all  Christendom  grew  glad  at 
the  approach  of  the  Christmas  festivities,  a  great  fleet  bearing 
many  thousands  of  soldiers,  appeared  in  the  of&ng  before  Fort 
Fisher  and  at  daybreak  began  to  bombard  that  great  work, 
while  hundreds  of  boats  were  bearing  the  soldiers  from  the 
ships  tO'  the  land  between  Fisher  and  the  intrenched  camp, 
four  miles  above  at  Sugar  Loaf.  As  we  had  no  troops  at  the 
latter  point  but  a  small  battalion  under  Colonel  George  Jack- 
son, very  little  resistance  could  be  made  against  the  landing. 

General  Bragg  having  assumed  command,  ordered  Major 
Moore  to  report  to  General  E.  F.  Hoke  at  Sugar  Loaf.'  Bat- 
tery B.  remained  on  Bald  Head  and  Company  C  went  to 
swell  the  gai-rison  of  Fort  Fisher,  where  the  greater  part,  of  it 
was  captured  in  the  seeoud  attack  14-15  Janizary,  1865,  after 
having  lost  heavily  in  defending  the  doomed  fort.  The  re- 
mainder of  the  battery  under  Lieutenant  A.  M.  Darden,  with 
the  other  two  batteries,  all  reported  for  duty  at  Fort  Ander- 
son 10  February,  1865.  99  Official  Records  Union  and  Con- 
federate Armies,  p.    1155. 

After  the  fall  of  Fisher,  Battery  A  had  the  honor  of  cover- 
ing the  perilous  retreat  to  Wilmington  and  afterwards  had 
quite  a  lively  experience  in  checking  the  Federal  piirsuit  when 
the  Southern  army  was  crossing  Northeast  river  at  the  Her- 
mitage. Battery  B,  imder  Captain  William  Badham,  on  the 
fall  of  Fort  Fisher  and  the  abandonment  of  the  lower  forts, 
did  similar  service  for  the  troops  retreating  under  General 

Lieutenant  J.  M.  Jones,  at  Old  Town,  won  high  mention 

Third  Battalion.  269 

for  the  desperate  defence  he  made  of  his  post  and  only  re- 
tired when  further  resistance  became  impossible.  It  only  re- 
mains to  be  told  that  Battery  A  once  more  did  glorious  service 
at  the  battle  of  Bentonville,  and  along  with  Battery  B,  and 
such  part  of  Battery  C  as  had  not  been  carried  from  Fort 
Fisher  as  prisoners  of  war  were  surrendered  at  Greensboro  by 
General  J.  E.  Johnston. 

John  W.  Moore. 


26  April,  1901. 


(Wright's  battalion.) 

By  the  editor. 

The  battalion  called  the  Foiirth  Battalion  during  the  war 
■was  commanded  by  Major  Clement  Gr.  Wright  and  rendered 
efficient  service  in  Eastern  JSTorth  Carolina,  mostly  near  Wil- 
mington, the  details  of  which  would  be  of  interest,  but  they 
are  now  almost  irrecoverable.  Wright's  (Fourth),  ISTether- 
ciitt's  (Eighth),  and  Whitford's  (Eleventh)  Battalions  and 
indeed  Evans'  (later  Sixty-third  Regiment)  were  all  at  first 
styled  Partisan  Bangers.  In  May,  1863,  Wright's  Battalion 
reported  300  men  present  for  duty.  9B  (Serial  Vol.)  Off. 
Bee.  Union  and  Oonfed.  Armies,  107Jf-.  August  3,  1863,  it 
was  combined  with  the  Eighth  Battalion  (ISTethercutt's) 
which  had  rendered  stirring  service  mostly  in  the  New  Bern 
section.  The  two  battalions  with  the  addition  of  some  inde- 
pendent companies  formed  the  Sixty-sixth  jSTorth  Carolina 
Begiment,  of  which  A.  D.  Moore  became  Colonel  and  which 
was  assigned  to  Martin's,  later  Kirkland's,  Brigade.  The 
history  of  that  regiment  is  told  by  its  Adjutant,  George  M. 
Rose,  in  Vol.  3  of  this  work. 

The  battalion  which  is  numbered  Fourth  in  Moore's  Ros- 
ter, Vol.  4,  pp.  241-247,  was  officially  known  as  the  Twelfth, 
Battalion,  under  which  head  its  services  are  narrated  fur- 
ther on. 

There  was  also  a  Fourth  Battalion  (Junior  Reserves)  com- 
manded by  Major  John  M.  Reece,  and  which  was  in  January, 
1865,  merged  into  the    Seventy-second    Regiment     (Third. 
Jimior  Reserves.) 



By  VIRGIL  S.  LUSK',  Captain  Company  A. 

The  Fifth  North  Carolina  Battalion  of  Cavalry  was  or- 
ganized during  the  winter  of  1862  at  Jacksboro,  Tennessee, 
by  the  election  of  A.  H.  Baird,  of  Madison  County,  as  Major, 
who  was  at  that  time  Captain  of  a  cavalry  company,  thereto- 
fore organized  in  Madison  County,  and  on  outpost  duty  at 
Clinton  Tennessee. 

The  battalion  was  composed  of  the  following  five  compa- 
nies: Captain  V.  S.  Lusk's  company,  of  Madison  County, 
theretofore  Captain  Baird's  company ;  Captain  Hardin's  com- 
pany, from  Ashe  County ;  Captain  English's  company,  from 
Mitchell  County;  Captain  Gillespie's  company,  from  Tran- 
sylvania County;  and  Captain  Tate's  company,  from  Burke 
County.  Captain  JnO'.  B.  ISTelson,  of  Marshall,  E".  C,  was 
Commissar)',  Captain  Donald  McKenzie,  of  Morganton, 
Quartermaster,  and  L.  IT.  Smith,  of  Burnsville,  was  Adju- 

At  the  time  of  the  organization,  all  the  companies  men- 
tioned were  on  outpost  duty  along  the  Cumberland  Moun- 
tains, extending  from  Cumberland  Gap  to  Huntsville,  in 
Scott  County.  While  they  were  in  camp  south  of  the  Cum- 
berland Mountains,  it  was  not  unfrequent  for  them  to  do 
scout  duty  along  the  border  of  Kentucky  as  far  north  as  Bar- 
boursville,  Piiieville,  Whitley  and  Monticello,  and  the  terri- 
tory south  of  the  Cumberland  river.  At  this  time  this  sec- 
tion of  Kentucky  was  badly  disputed  territory.  One  day  it 
was  occupied  by  the  Federal  outpost,  and  the  next  day  it  was 
occupied  by  the  Confederate  forces.  When  we  wanted  a  lit- 
tle amusement  in  the  way  of  a  fight  we  would  go  into  the  dis- 

NoTE. — There  was  another  Fifth  Battalion  (Reserves)  in  1864,  Beasley's, 
which  later  was  merged  into  the  Seventy-First  Regiment  (Second  Junior 
Reserves. )  The  Fifth  Battalion  in  Moore's  Roster  was  always  known  as, 
and  was  officially  styled,  the  Thirteenth  Battalion. — Ed. 

272  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

puted  territO'ry  and  challenge  the  Federal  outpost  for  a  fight, 
and  generally  got  what  we  went  after  and  sometimes  more 
than  we  contracted  for.  In  addition  to  this  kind  of  warfare, 
the  covmtry  was  infested  with  bands  of  irregular  troops  known 
to  the  army  as  "bushwhackers,"  and  the  most  dangerous  en- 
emy with  which  we  were  confronted.  We  had  tO'  be  con- 
stantly on  the  lookout  for  this  irregular  force,  and  exercising 
all  the  diligence  and  precaution  possible,  we  were  often  fired 
upon  and  sometimes  lost  a  brave  soldier  killed  or  wounded. 

It  does  not  require  a  great  degree  of  personal  bravery  to 
go  into  battle  when  one  is  confronted  by  an  open  foe,  but  to 
be  constantly  expecting  to  be  shot  from  a  thicket  or  from  the 
top  of  every  hill  one  passes,  is  a  condition  that  tries  the  nerve 
of  the  bravest  soldier.  This  is  the  kind  of  duty  the  Fifth 
Battalion  was  called  upon  to  do  dxiring  the  winter  of  1862-'63 
and  so  continued  u.p  to  July,  1863,  and  tO'  give  some  idea  of 
the  hardships  of  such  service,  I  will  add  that  while  we  had  a 
commissary  and  quartermaster's  department,  we  seldom  had 
a  ration  of  bacon  or  saw  a  sack  of  flour,  a  blanket  or  a  pair  of 
shoes,  except  such  as  we  furnished  ourselves.  We  were  often 
fifty  miles  from  headquarters  in  a  section  of  country  where  it 
was  impossible  to  carry  army  supplies  in  any  other  way  than 
in  a  haversack  and  that  was  not  always  supplied  with  the 
necessaries  of  life.  Sometimes  we  had  something  to  eat  and 
so'metimes  we  did  not  have  anything  tO'  eat.  Sometimes  we 
had  a  shelter  over  us  and  then  sometimes  our  shelter  was  the 
blue  sky  or  the  lowering  clouds.  Sometimes  we  slept  under 
a  blanket  and  sometimas  that  blanket  was  the  driven  snow. 
Many  was  the  time  that  the  command  went  into  winter  quar- 
ters under  an  oil  cloth  in  the  jamb  of  the  fence  with  a  chunk 
for  a  pillow,  and  awoke  in  the  morning  to  find  the  earth  cov- 
ered with  snow. 

Company  A  (Lusk's  company)  was  ordered  forward  from 
Knoxville  sometime  in  ISTovember,  1862,  and  from  that  time 
on  never  saw  a  tent  or  had  a  day's  rest.  Tlie  entire  command 
remained  on  detached  duty  and  was  never  together  under 
one  commander  until  some  time  in  June,  1863,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  Saunder's  raid  intO'  East  Tennessee,  at  which  time 
the  several  companies  were  hurriedly  called  in  from  outpost 

Fifth  Battalion.  273 

duty  and  joined  in  the  pursuit  of  the  invaders  under  the  com- 
mand of  Major  A.  H.  Baird.  At  this  time  the  cavalry  force 
in  the  Department  of  East  Tennessee  was  very  light,  scatr 
tered  from  Bristol  to  Chattanooga,  principally  guarding  the 
several  gaps  of  the  Cumberland  Mountains.  The  enemy  was 
known  to  be  in  force  north  of  the  Cumberland  river  and  a 
close  vi'atch  was  kept  up  all  along  the  line. 

Company  A,  of  the  Fifth  Battalion,  was  stationed  at  Win- 
ter's Gap  and  being  the  only  cavalry  command  between  Big 
Greek  Gap  and  Kingston,  was  taxed  beyond  its  capacity  in 
doing  outpost  duty  along  the  south  of  the  Cumberland  river, 
covering  a  territory  extending  from  Barboursville  to  Monti- 
cello.  Being  thus  scattered,  the  cavalry  force  found  them- 
selves  in  bad  condition  to  resist  a  well  organized  force  of  the 
enemy  of  several  thousand  strong,  consisting  of  cavalry, 
mounted  infantry  and  artillery.  A  detachment  of  Company 
A  (Lusk's),  Fifth  Battalion,  was  the  first  to  encounter  the 
enemy  at  Tluntsville,  on  the  south  fork  of  the  Cumberland 
river.  The  outposts  were  called  in  as  rapidly  as  possible  and 
couriers  dispatched  tO'  headquarters  at  Knoxville,  notifying 
the  General  in  command  of  the  approach  of  the  enemy  by  way 
of  Wortburgh  and  tlae  Emory  river  road  going  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Kingston.  It  was  thought  then  that  the  object  was 
the  destruction  of  the  railroad  bridge  at  Loudon. 


Camp  at  Winter's  Gap  was  abandoned  by  the  company  and 
a  vigorous  pursuit  of  the  raiding  column  was  begun.  The 
company  at  that  time  numbered  about  one  hundred  fighting 
men.  We  harrassed  the  rear  and  left  flank  of  the  enemy  dur- 
ing the  entire  night,  retarding  his  progress  all  that  it  was 
possible  to  do  with  tlae  force  under  my  command.  It  soon 
became  apparent  that  Knoxville  was  the  objective  point  of 
the  enemy's  attack  instead  of  the  Loudon  Bridge.  The 
raiding  force  forded  Clinch  river  below  Clinton,  swung 
around  by  Lenoir  Station  on  the  East  Tennessee  and  Georgia 
Railroad,  drew  up  on  the  north  side  of  Knoxville  and  opened 
a  bombardment  of  the  city.  There  were  no  defences  to  the 
city,  and  the  enemy  took  up  a  position  north  of  the  railroad 

274  .  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

and  commenced  bombarding  the  city  at  close  range.  The 
other  companies  of  the  Fifth  JS'orth  Carolina  Battalion  had 
joined  Company  A  and  together  with  the  First  Louisiana 
Regiment  under  Colonel  Scott,  attacked  and  drove  off  the 
enemy  before  much  damage  was  inflicted  by  the  bombard- 
ment; meanwhile,  a  detachment  of  the  enemy  had  been  sent 
forward  to  destroy  the  railroad  bridge  across  the  Holston 
river  at  Strawberry  Plains.  The  enemy  then  commenced  a 
rapid  retreat  towards  Cumberland  Mountains,  when  a  run- 
ning tight  was  Icept  up  during  the  entire  day.  It  was  evi- 
dent that  the  raiding  column  was  making  for  Big  Creek  Gap 
with  the  hope  to  reach  Kentucky  by  way  of  Pine  Mountain 
road.  During  the  day  several  bloody  encounters  took  place 
in  which  the  Fifth  Battalion  participated,  notably  a  fight 
that  took  place  in  the  vicinity  of  Maynardsville.  The  enemy 
was  sorely  pressed  and  it  looked  like  surrender  was  about  the 
only  thing  possible  for  tlaem  to  do.  It  was  certain  that  they 
coiild  not  hold  out  if  daylight  continued,  and  in  order  to  kill 
time  they  took  up  a  strong  position  at  the  end  of  a  long  lane, 
coimnanding  the  only  approach  to  the  stronghold,  and  awaited 
the  approach  of  the  Confederates.  A  detachment  of  the 
Fifth  Battalion  led  by  Major  Baird,  and  a  similar  detach- 
ment from  the  First  Louisiana  under  Captain  Scott,  charged 
and  drove  the  enemy  from  their  selected  position.  In  this 
charge  the  brave  Captain  Scott,  of  the  First  Louisiana,  was 
killed,  while  Major  Baird's  horse  was  killed  under  him.  The 
writer  did  not  see  the  gallant  charge,  being  detailed  with  his 
company  to  support  a  battery  in  another  part  of  the  field,  but 
those  who  did  witness  it  spoke  of  it  in  the  highest  terms. 

jSTight  was  coming  on  and  the  enemy  was  making  heroic  ef- 
forts to  reach  Cumberland  Mountains.  Clinch  Mountain 
had  been  crossed  and  the  enemy  driven  across  Clinch  river. 
Orders  were  issued  to  press  forward  with  all  possible  speed 
and  use  extra  exertions  to  overtake  the  enemy  before  night — 
with  the  enemy  it  was  night,  the  Cumberland  Mountains  or 
certain  capture.  Company  A,  of  the  Fifth  ISTorth  Carolina 
Battalion,  was  ordered  to  the  front  and  commanded  to  charge 
the  enemy.  The  order  was  obeyed  and  the  charge  was  suc- 
cessful.    The  enemy  was  rotited,  scattered  in  every  direction 

Fifth  Battalion.  275 

and  abandoned  a  battery  of  artillery,  horses,  guns,  blankets 
and  everything  else  that  retarded  their  escape  across  Powell's 
river  to  the  trackless  wilds  of  the  Cumberland  Mountains. 
We  followed  them  next  morning  across  the  mountains,  but 
they  had  made  good  their  escape,  and  we  only  found  here  and 
there  an  abandoned  horse  or  a  straggling  soldier. 

The  raiding  force  having  been  driven  across  the  Cumber- 
land Mountains  into  Kentucky,  we  returned  to  Powell's  Val- 
ley and  went  into  camp  near  Big  Creek  Gap  to  recuperate  our 
jaded  horses  and  rest  the  exhausted  men.  This,  I  think,  was 
the  first  time  the  battalion  had  all  been  together  in  camp 
during  the  organization.  This  much-needed  rest  was,  how- 
ever, of  short  duration.  The  battalion  was  destined  to  par- 
ticipate soon  in  more  serious  and  bloody  warfare  than  it  had 
been  engaged  in  during  the  whole  of  its  military  career. 

Just  at  tliis  time  General  Morgan  had  invaded  Indiana 
and  Ohio,  and  it  very  soon  developed  that  the  result  would 
probably  be  the  capture  of  his  entire  force  unless  something 
was  done  to  relieve  him  of  the  embarrassing  position  by  which 
he  was  surrounded.  What  I  am  abo'Ut  to  state  on  this  subject 
is  info'rmation  derived  from  Colonel  Scott.  Seeing  the  posi- 
tion of  General  Morgan  in  Ohio',  it  was  determined  to  organ- 
ize a  movement  from  East  Tennessee  for  his  relief,  and  to 
that  end  a  cavalry  force  from  Chattanooga,  another  force 
from  the  Cumberland  Gap  section  and  a  third  force  from 
Bristol  were  to  be  pushed  forward  into'  Kentucky  with  all 
possible  speed  tO'  the  relief  of  Morgan,  unite  the  three  columns 
at  Lexington,  and  if  necessary  to  relieve  General  Morgan,  to 
make  a  descent  upon  Cincinnati.  The  Fifth  ISTorth  Carolina 
Battalion  was  brigaded  with  the  First  Louisiana,  Tenth  Con- 
federate (Alabama)  and  the  Fifth  Tennessee,  all  under  the 
command  of  Colonel  Scott,  of  the  First  Louisiana  Cavalry. 
Unfortunately,  Major  A.  H.  Baird  was  stricken  down  with 
a  very  severe  attack  of  typhoid  fever  and  was  unable  to  be 
moved,  much  less  accompany  the  battalion  on  a  long  and 
onerous  expedition,  and  had  to  be  left  in  the  hospital  at  Fin- 


The  battalion  was  placed  under  command  of  Captain  Lusk, 

276  North  Carolina -Troops,  1861-'65. 

Captain  of  Company  A.  After  the  column  started  and  had 
gotten  well  on  its  mission  towards  Lexington,  news  of  the 
capture  of  General  Morgan's  command  was  received  at  head- 
quarters and  couriers  sent  to  recall  the  expedition.  The 
courier  sent  with  the  dispatch  for  Scott's  Brigade  never 
reached  his  destination,  being  either  killed  or  captured  by  the 
"bushwhackers."  In  perfect  ignorance  of  the  capture  of 
Morgan's  command  in  Ohio,  we  pressed  on  towards  Lexing- 
ton with  all  possible  speed.  The  columns  from  upper  and 
lower  East  Tennessee  being  recalled,  left  the  central  column 
without  any  support  whatever.  We  encountered  a  force  of 
the  enemy  at  Eichmond,  Kentucky,  strongly  posted  on  the 
road  south  of  the  town.  A  sharp  and  spirited  engagement 
ensued  lasting  from  early  in  the  morning  until  noon,  in  which 
the  whole  brigade  was  engaged.  The  enemy  was  finally 
routed,  many  being  captured  and  killed.  The  Fifth  Bat- 
talion was  actively  engaged  in  this  battle,  maintaining  an  im- 
portant position  on  the  left  flank  of  our  line  and  finally  par- 
ticipating in  the  charge  that  routed  the  enemy  from  their 
strong  position  and  drove  them  through  the  town  and  across 
the  Kentucky  river.  Without  halting  tO'  take  needed  rest  or 
reckon  the  casualties  of  battle,  we  pushed  on  in  the  direction 
of  Lexington,  frequently  coming  in  collision  with  detach- 
ments of  the  enemy,  expecting  every  hour  to  hear  from  the 
Chattanooga  column  at  the  common  rendezvous.  Just  before 
reaching  the  city  we  observed  a  great  cloud  of  rising  dust, 
such  as  is  generally  produced  by  a  moving  squadron  of  cav- 
alry, and  thought  full  surely  it  was  the  expected  column,  and 
every  moment  looked  for  the  arrival  of  a  courier  with  a  dis- 
patch announcing  the  approach  of  the  expected  reinforce- 
ments. Just  at  this  time  we  were  fired  upon  by  a  detachment 
of  the  enemy's  outposts.  Shots  were  exchanged,  and  the 
horse  of  the  vedette  killed  and  himself  captured.  We  after- 
wards found  in  the  soldier's  pocket  a  Cincinnati  newspaper 
containing  a  full  account  of  the  capture  of  General  Morgan 
and  his  command.  This  was  the  first  information  we  had 
received  of  the  surrender  of  Morgan,  but  this  was  not  the 
worst  news  we  received  from  the  captured  vedette.  We  were 
told  by  him  that  we  were  confronted  by  12,000  Federal 

Fifth  Battalion.  277 

cavalry  and  mounted  infantry,  and  in  proof  of  his  statement 
he  pointed  to  the  great  cloud  of  rising  dust  plainly  visible  on 
the  horizon  off  to  our  left  flank.  This  was  a  condition  not  to 
be  envied ;  our  force  did  not  exceed  1,500  all  told — tired  men 
and  jaded  horses;  two  hundred  miles  from  our  lines  in  an 
enemy's  country,  confronted  by  a  force  many  times  as  strong 
as  our  own  and  a  force  of  unknown  proportions  lurking  in  our 
rear  ready  to  assail  us  at  the  first  opportunity,  with  the  cer- 
tain knowledge  that  no  succor  was  available,  the  surroimding 
prospects  were  anything  but  pleasing.  To  engage  such  a 
force  in  open  conflict  was  like  sheer  nonsense,  and  would  cer- 
tainly have  resulted  in  the  annihilation  of  the  entire  com- 
mand, then  and  there.  True,  we  might  have  enriched  the 
world's  history  by  a  display  of  heroic  splendor  commensurate 
with  that  of  Leonidas  and  his  invincible  band  of  three  hun- 
dred Spartans  who  facing  Xerxes'  army  of  a  million  of  Per- 
f?ian  soldiers,  yielded  up  their  lives  in  the  narrow  pass  of 
Thermopylae  rather  tlian  retreat,  or  by  emulating  the  charge 
of  the  "Light  Brigade"  that  rode  down  into  the  "Valley  of 
Death"  at  Balaklava.  The  result  would  have  been  the  same. 
Leonidas'  display  at  Thermopylae  has  enriched  the  pages  of 
the  ^vorld's  history  with  an  act  of  unparalleled  heroism  and 
bravery,  and  still  the  Persian  army  invaded  Greece.  The 
world  of  modern  chivalry  applauds  the  bravery  of  the  "Six 
Hundred"  who  boldly  rode  "into  the  jaws  of  death"  at  Bala- 
klava, and  yet  the  Crimean  war  did  not  end  a  day  sooner. 
That  little  band  of  tired  and  hungry  Confederate  soldiers 
drawn  up  in  line  of  battle  along  the  Lexington  and  Winches- 
ter pike  possessed  all  the  courage  and  bravery  necessary  to 
have  made  that  "dark  and  bloody  ground"  as  memorable  in 
the  history  of  the  world  as  that  of  Thermopylae  or  Balaklava. 
They  had  the  courage  to  do  and  die — they  were  Confederate 
soldiers.  Discretion  is  said  to  be  the  better  part  of  valor, 
and  it  seemed  to  prevail  on  this  occasion.  To  risk  a  battle 
with  a  force  ten  times  the  strength  of  our  own  would  have 
been  inexcusable  folly.  We  might  have  hurled  our  tired  and 
exhausted  squadron  of  1,500  famished  soldiers  and  jaded 
horses  against  the  cohorts  of  the  enemy,  but  it  would  have 
been  to  us  what  the  sunken  road  of  Ohain  was  to  the  French 

278  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

cuirassiers  at  Waterloo — a  burial  ground.  While  we  might 
have  covered  ourselves  with'glory,  still  the  cause  for  which  we 
fought  would  not  have  been  advanced  in  the  least.  Observa- 
tions of  military  men  of  modern  education  is  that  one  live  sol- 
dier is  worth  a  whole  battalion  of  dead  ones. 

"  For  he  that  fights  and  runs  away 
May  turn  and  fight  another  day  ; 
But  he  that  is  in  battle  slain 
Will  never  rise  to  fight  again." 


We  knew  the  struggle  must  come  sooner  or  later ;  that  the 
enemy  flushed  with  victory  and  outnumbering  us  ten  to  one, 
would  not  suffer  us  to  retreat  unmolested.  Our  horses  had 
subsisted  on  little  more  than  green  fodder  for  three  days, 
while  the  men  had  had  nothing  to  eat  but  green  corn  snatched 
from  the  stalks  and  hastily  roasted.  jSTight  was  coming  on 
and  we  hoped  during  that  time  to  find  some  sheltered  position 
where  the  jaded  horses  and  tired  soldiers  might  find  the  mtich 
needed  rest  and  refreshment.  Retreat  was  inevitable,  if  in 
fact,  it  were  possible. 

The  Fifth  Battalion  under  command  of  Captain  Lusk,  wa8 
ordered  to  the  rear  to  cover  the  retreat,  and  the  head  of  the 
column  turned  in  direction  of  Winchester.  Before  reach- 
ing Winchester,  the  advance  of  the  enemy  was  firing  on  the 
rear  guard,  while  the  main  force  was  plainly  visible  pressing 
forward  with  great  vigor  and  in  force.  We  passed  through 
the  town  under  a  sharp  fire  from  the  enemy  just  as  night  set- 
tled down.  A  fight  was  inevitable.  The  Fifth  Battalion 
and  the  Tenth  Confederate  were  thrown  across  the  country 
road  east  of  the  town  and  took  up  a  position  on  top  of  a  hill, 
the  JSTorth  Carolinians  holding  the  right  of  the  line  and  the 
Tenth  Confederate  the  left,  with  orders  to  check  the  advance 
of  the  enemy. 

Tn  front  of  _the  Fifth  Battalion  was  a  cultivated  field  from 
which  the  rye  had  recently  been  cut  and  stood  thick  in  large 
shocks  on  the  ground.  The  men  had  been  dismounted  and 
ordered  to  take  shelter  behind  these  rye  shocks  which  offered 
a  kind  of  breastworks.  We  did  not  have  long  to  wait.  The 
enemy  very  soon  appeared  in  the  field  below  our  position  and 

Fifth  Battalion.  279 

opened  a  vigorous  fire,  which  was  returned  all  along  our  line. 
By  this  time  it  was  very  dark  and  impossible  to  locate  the  en- 
emy except  by  the  flash  of  their  guns,  or  to  ascertain  how  nu- 
merous the  force  was  in  front  of  us.  The  enemy  was  doing 
a  vast  amount  of  shooting,  but  owing  tO'  the  fact  that  our 
horses  were  beyond  the  top  of  the  hill  and  the  men  protected 
behind  the  rye  shocks,  very  little,  if  any  damage,  was  being 
done.  Owing  to  the  darkness,  it  was  impossible  to  ascertain 
the  effects  of  our  resistance.  The  fighting  was  kept  up  into 
the  night  and  the  enemy  made  no  attempt  to  force  our  posi- 
tion from  the  front,  but  we  discovered  a  flank  movement  on 
our  right  which  we  were  unable  to  check.  This  forced  us  to 
abandon  our  position  in  the  rye  field  and  fall  back  on  the  road 
in  the  direction  of  Irvine.  The  night  was  intensely  dark  and 
to  add  hardships  and  discomfort  to  the  already  almost  insuf- 
ferable condition,  a  heavy  rainstorm  set  in  and  continued 
throughout  the  entire  night.  Owing  tO'  the  darkness  and 
storm  it  was  for  a  time  supposed  that  the  enemy  would  be 
content  to  remain  under  shelter  in  Winchester  until  morning. 
The  expectation  was  not  realized.  JSTotwithstanding  the  in- 
tense darl^ness  of  the  night  and  the  steady  downpour  of  rain, 
the  enemy  pressed  vigorously  on  our  rear  gaiard,  keeping  up 
a  desultory  fire  all  night  long.  Owing  to  the  darkness,  it  was 
impossible  to  preserve  anything  like  a  military  organization 
of  the  forces  composing  the  rear  guard ;  one  could  not  know 
who'  was  before  or  behind ;  when  tO'  advance  or  when  to  fall 
back;  whether  your  file  leader  was  an  officer  or  a  private; 
whether  you  were  firing  on  a  friend  or  a  foe,  or  whether  the 
shot  intended  for  the  enemy  might  not  kill  a  friend.  There 
was  a  general  mix-up  of  commands — friends  and  foes.  Fed- 
erals and  Confederates.  Occasionally  forces  got  so  badly 
mixed  that  it  was  impossible  to  tell  of  a  certainty  whether  one 
was  v/ith  his  own  command  or  whether  he  was  with  the  Yan- 

N'otwithstanding  the  seriousness  of  the  situation,  some 
amusing  incidents  occurred  which  might  have  been  funny 
under  more  favorable  circumstances,  one  of  which  will  serve 
to  illustrate  the  situation.  The  enemy  had  just  fired  a  vol- 
ley, seemingly  at  close  range.     A  soldier  at  my  side  railed 

280  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

out  an  oath  to  quit  such  foolishness ;  that  they  were  shooting 
their  own  men.  "What  command  is  this  ?"  he  inquired,  and 
being  informed  that  it  was  the  Fifth  ISTorth  Carolina  Battal- 
ion of  cavalry,  exclaimed:     "By ,  boys,  I'm  in  the 

wrong  command,"  broke  ranks  and  sped  away.  As  he  dashed 
away  he  left  a  pressing  invitation  to  return  the  visit.  Those 
of  us  who  lived  through  the  scenes  of  that  awful  night  will 
never  live  long  enough  to  blot  it  from  their  memory.  The 
raging  storm,  the  blaclmess  of  the  night,  the  crashing  thunder, 
the  flashing  lightning,  the  drenching  rain,  the  roaring  artil- 
lery, the  bursting  shells  and  the  constant  rattle  of  the  enemy's 
small  arms,  the  heroic  efforts  of  the  brave,  tired,  famished 
and  drenched  soldiers  to  beat  back  the  aggressive  enemy,  will 
never  pass  from  the  memory  of  those  who  lived  through  it  all. 
The  horses  of  many  of  the  soldiers  had  either  been  killed  or 
disabled,  while  many  others  had  given  out  by  sheer  exhaus- 
tion, and  the  brave  riders,  nothing  daunting,  were  with  the 
column  trudging  along  the  muddy  road  on  foot  always  in  line 
to  face  the  enemy.  The  slain  were  left  where  they  fell,  while 
those  of  the  wounded  who  could  ride  were  mounted,  and 
those  who  could  not  were  thrust  into  a  stuffy  ambulance  and 
sent  forward,  some  to  die,  and  others  to  fall  into  the  hands 
of  the  enemy.  This  was  war — cruel,  heartless,  relentless 
war,  that  crushes  all  love  of  humanity  and  sympathy  out  of 
the  hearts  of  men.  War,  that  mad  game  the  world  so  loves 
to  play.  IJaylight  dawned  upon  us  somewhere  on  the  road 
midway  between  Winchester  and  Irvine  after  an  all-night's 
fight,  without  a  morsel  to  eat,  either  for  man  or  beast,  as  wet 
as  a  driving  storm  could  make  us,  not  a  dry  thread  on  us,  and 
confronted  by  an  enemy  seemingly  as  vigilant  as  they  were 
the  preceding  night.  I  had  notified  the  Colonel  command- 
ing that  I  must  have  reinforcements,  that  my  command  had 
been  fighting  all  night,  and  was  so  exhausted  that  it  was  im- 
possible for  them  to  hold  the  enemy  in  check  much  longer. 
In  response  I  received  as  reinforcements  a  detachment  of  the 
Fiftla  Tennessee  and  two  pieces  of  artillery  with  orders  to 
hold  the  enemy  in  check  at  all  hazards.  I  subsequently  as- 
certained that  during  the  night  the  enemy  had  succeeded  in 
throwing  a  force  in  our  rear  south  of  the  Kentucky  river  in 

Fifth  Battalion.  281 

the  hope  of  cutting  off  our  retreat  at  Irvine.  This  force  had 
to  be  disposed  of  before  the  main  force  of  the  enemy  reached 
that  point.  This  force  was  successfully  attacked  and  de- 
feated, losing  eighty  prisoners,  a  battery  and  many  horses. 
The  Fifth  Battalion  was  not  in  this  engagement,  being  other- 
wise engaged  with  the  enemy  on  the  main  road  leading  to 
Winchester.  We  had  taken  up  a  position  on  a  hill  close  to  a 
churcli,  while  the  battery  was  stationed  on  another  hill  in 
our  rear  and  on  the  opposite  bank  of  a  creek  with  high  banks. 
The  creek  or  river  or  whatever  it  might  be  called,  was  swollen 
and  out  of  banks.  The  stream  was  crossed  by  a  wooden 
bridge,  floored  with  loose  planks.  Our  position  seemingly 
was  impregnable.  Our  line  was  formed  along  the  top  of  a 
hill  behind  a  rail  fence,  which  the  soldiers  had  torn  down  and 
constructed  into  hasty  breastworks.  The  horses  had  been  re- 
moved to  a  sheltered  position  on  the  other  side  of  the  creek. 
The  enemy  soon  attacked  us  both  with  artillery  and  mus- 
ketry. Our  battery  replied  while  our  men  behind  the  rail 
pile  greeted  them  with  a  well  directed  volley  from  their  rifles. 
The  tight  lasted  from  early  in  the  morning  until  the  middle 
of  the  forenoon,  when  we  were  ordered  to  fall  back  to  avoid  a 
flank  movement  by  the  enemy  on  our  left.  We  tore  up  the 
plank  on  the  bridge  and  threw  it  into  the  stream  and  fell  back 
on  the  main  road  in  tlie  direction  of  Irvine. 


The  topography  of  the  country  lying  between  the  place 
where  we  had  the  last  fight  at  the  creek  and  Irvine  is  uneven, 
rough  and  mountainous.  ISTorth  of  Irvine  (just  how  far  is 
not  known)  a  range  of  mountains  run  at  right  angles  to  the 
main  road  along  which  we  were  falling  back.  The  main  road 
followed  a  narrow  valley  for  quite  a  distance  with  cleared 
fields  on  both  sides  of  the  road  extending  up  on  the  sides  of 
the  moiuitains.  This  valley  culminated  at  a  low  gap  in  the 
moimtain  through  which  the  main  road  passes  to  Irvine, 
flanked  by  a  high  mountain  on  both  sides  of  the  gap.  The 
valley  is  also  flanked  by  high  mountains  on  both  sides.  While 
there  were  cleared  fields  on  both  sides  of  the  valley,  extending 
well  up  on  the  sides  of  the  mountains,  a  lane  fence  constructed 

282  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

with  heavy  rails  and  staked  and  ridered  extended  for  a  consid- 
erable distance  north  from  the  low  gap.  The  Tenth  Confed- 
erate had  been  ordered  to  the  front  and  its  place  supplied  by 
the  Fifth  Tennessee,  and  with  the  exchange  of  forces  ordered 
to  hold  this  low  gap.  The  Fifth  jSTorth  Carolina  was  posted 
on  the  right  and  the  Tennesseeans  on  the  left.  A  short  dis- 
tance north  of  tlie  apex  of  the  gap  and  on  the  right  of  the  road 
a  deep  ravine  or  hollow  extended  down  the  mountain  tO'  the 
lane,  and  inside  of  the  high  fence.  This  ravine  afforded  an 
excellent  protection  for  the  men  and  horses.  The  fence  was 
torn  down  and  the  battalion  filed  into  the  mouth  of  the  ravine, 
dismounted  and  took  position  along  the  top  of  the  elevation 
in  front.  The  Tennesseeans  were  not  so  well  protected,  how- 
ever, but  owing  to  obstructions  in  their  front,  the  position  was 
thought  to  be  almost  impregnable  insomiich  as  the  high  moun- 
tains on  our  flanks  made  it  impossible  for  the  enemy  to  force 
us  back  by  a  flank  movement,  as  they  had  been  doing  all  the 
preceding  night  and  morning.  By  the  time  we  got  well  into 
position  the  enemy  was  in  sight  down  the  valley.  This  was 
the  first  time  we  had  had  an  opportunity  to  see  the  enemy  in 
force.  From  our  elevated  position  we  could  see  for  some  con- 
siderable distance  down  the  valley.  It  was  a  scene  not  tO'  be 
forgotten  especially  by  that  little  handfiil  of  half  starved  and 
bedraggled  Confederate  soldiers  posted  along  the  top  of  that 
hill  awaiting  the  coming  struggle.  The  storm  of  the  night 
had  passed  and  the  bright  sun  shed  its  loving  rays  upon  friend 
and  foe.  The  enemy  had  discovered  our  position  and  like  a 
gathering  storm  wheeled  into  line.  To  the  soldier  the  evolu- 
tion was  a  premonition  of  the  coming  struggle,  a  precursor  of 
battle ;  to  the  scholar,  it  was  a  suggestion  of  the  hosts  of  Sen- 
nacherib "Like  the  leaves  of  the  forest  when  the  summer  is 

Soon  a  battery  of  artillery  got  intO'  position  and  opened  a 
vigorous  shelling  on  our  position,  directed  principally  against 
the  position  occupied  by  the  Fifth  Tennessee  on  the  left  of 
our  line.  The  cannonading  continued  for  an  hour  or  more 
and  so  far  as  doing  any  damage  to  us  might  have  continued 
until  the  close  of  the  war — our  position  was  bomb-proof.  This 
fact  the  enemy  soon  discovered  and  made  preparations  for 

Fifth  Battalion.  283 

another  and  more  aggressive  attack.  Our  artillea-y  had  been 
sent  to  the  front  to  assist  in  clearing  the  pass  at  Irvine,  and 
up  to  this  time  we  had  not  fired  a  shot,  not  being  in  rifle 
range.  The  enemy's  battery  ceased  firing  and  a  heavy  cav- 
alry force  was  thrown  forward  and  commenced  a  rapid  move- 
ment up  the  valley.  It  was  clear  they  were  making  prepara- 
tions to  charge  our  position.  The  enormous  squadrons  be^ 
gan  a  rapid  move.  Then  was  witnessed  a  fearful  sight.  All 
this  vast  host  of  cavalry  with  sabers  drawn  that  fiashed  in  the 
early  sunlight  of  the  morning  like  shafts  of  light  on  the  pol- 
ished slcy,  banners  waving,  bugles  sounding  that  well  known 
note  that  has  sent  dismay  into  the  ranks  since  men  learned  the 
art  of  war,  there  was  no  mistaking  the  meaning  of  the  move- 
ment. It  was  clear  to  every  one  that  the  little  handful  of 
Confederates  could  not  withstand  the  mighty  onset  of  that 
vast  host.  But  what  was  to  be  done  ?  We  had  been  ordered 
tO'  hold  this  position,  and  every  one  who  has  served  as  a  sol- 
dier knows  Avhat  this  meant.  I  tried  tO'  take  in  the  awful  sit- 
uation. To  stand  still  was  certain  death  or  capture.  There 
are  times  in  battle  when  the  soul  hardens  a  man,  even  to 
change  the  soldier  intO'  a  statue  and  all  his  flesh  becomes  as 
granite.  This  condition  seemed  to  have  come  to  the  men  who 
stood  along  that  hill-top  with  their  rifles  firmly  grasped  await- 
ing the  onslaught.  Not  a  murmur  fell  from  a  single  lip ;  not 
a  hand  trembled,  and  not  a  cheek  blanched.  There  were  no 
weak  souls  or  cowards  there.  Not  a  man  flinched  from  the 
pending  suicide.  The  road  was  full  far  as  we  could  see. 
The  cleared  fields  on  both  sides  of  the  lane  fence  were 
crowded  with  the  enemy's  cavalry  pressing  forward.  When 
in  range  each  man  rose  up  and  discharged  his  rifle  full  in  the 
fafce  of  the  charging  squadron.  On  they  came  unchecked  by 
the  effort  of  the  brave  men  in  front.  In  front  of  the  North 
Carolinians  was  an  abrupt  rise  on  the  surface  running  down 
to  the  main  road.  This  obstruction  forced  a  right  oblique 
movement  into  the  main  road  at  the  terminus  of  the  ravine. 


Our  line  was  broken  and  the  position  of  the  Tennesseeans 
on  the  left  of  the  road  was  completely  enveloped  by  the  enemy. 

284  North  Carolina  Troops,  l861-'65. 

If  we  had  ever  had  an  idea  of  abandoning  our  position  this 
movement  made  it  utterly  impossible.  The  road  at  the 
mouth  of  the  ravine  was  closed  by  a  compact  mass  of  the  en- 
emy, on  our  right  was  a  high  mountain,  while  the  open  space 
to  our  left  and  the  road  tO'  our  rear  was  all  in  the  possession 
of  the  enemy  in  great  force.  The  situation  presented  three 
possibilities — surrender,  stand  up  and  be  shot  down  by  an 
enfilading  fire,  or  cut  our  way  through  the  mass  of  the  enemy 
in  our  rear.  It  may  have  been  foolhardy,  but  we  chose  the 
latter.  Only  a  moment  and  every  trooper  was  in  the  saddle. 
I  shall  never  forget  to  the  day  of  my  death  the  scene  of  that 
moment.  Each  soldier  seemed  to  be  impressed  with  the  mo- 
mentousness  of  the  task  before  him  and  rose  tO'  the  sublimity 
of  a  hero.  Owing  to  the  narrowness  of  the  gorge,  it  was  im- 
possible to  charge  in  line  of  battle,  and  the  column  was  f  o^rmed 
by  left  wheel  into  column  of  fours.  Forward  !  Trot ! !  Gal- 
lop ! ! !  Charge ! ! ! !  Down  that  narrow  gorge  dashed  the 
Fifth  North  Carolina  Battalion  of  Cavalry,  riding  at  full 
speed  to  attack  an  enemy  ten  to  one,  riding  right  into  the  jaws 
of  death.  We  had  to  pass  out  of  the  mouth  of  the  gorge 
through  that  broken  down  fence.  On  dashed  the  squadron 
over  loose  stones  in  the  bottom  of  the  gorge,  the  clash  and 
clang  of  the  empty  scabbards,  the  mighty  force  behind  that 
forced  forward  the  front  ranks.  The  head  of  the  column 
struck  the  broken  gap  in  the  fence  and  scattered  the  heavy 
rails  right  and  left  like  a  great  projectile  impelled  by  some 
mighty  force.  The  head  of  the  column  struck  the  left  flank 
of  the  enemy.  It  was  a  sudden  plunge  into  a  vortex  of 
gleaming  sabres  and  glittering  carbines ;  a  hand-to-hand 
struggle ;  a  scene  never  to  be  forgotten  when  this  fiery  mass 
of  living  valor  rolled  upon  the  unyielding  foe;  rider  and 
horse,  friend  and  foe  went  down  together  like  stubble  before 
a  consi^ming  fire.  I  never  knew  how  many  of  the  battalion 
were  killed  and  captured  in  this  unequal  contest.  I  know 
that  the  company  (A)  that  I  commanded  went  into  the  fight 
with  no  strong,  and  only  13  answered  at  roll-call  the  follow- 
ing night.  I  was  mounted  on  a  thoroughbred  Kentucky  horse, 
said  to  have  been  the  horse  ridden  by  General  ZoUicoffer  at 
the  battle  of  Fishing  Creek.     He  was  a  horse  of  wonderful 

Fifth  Battalion.  285 

strength,  speed  and  intelligence.  The  report  of  firearms  and 
the  smell  of  gunpowder  made  him  fiarious.  How  to  avoid  cap- 
ture was  the  absorbing  question.  I  knew  that  unless  they 
could  overcome  the  power  of  my  horse  they  could  not  get  me ; 
and  I  left  him  free  to  talie  care  of  himself.  Men  and  horses 
went  down  before  him  as  if  struck  by  an  avalanche.  I  have 
often  wondered  why  I  was  not  killed  nor  my  horse.  The 
forces  were  so  mixed  that  firearms  could  not  be  used  without 
danger  of  killing  friend  instead  of  foe  is  the  only  solution. 
I  reached  the  main  top  of  the  hill  and  as  I  turned  down  on 
the  other  side,  a  horse  had  been  shot  and  fallen  across  the 
road,  and  just  as  my  horse  made  an  effort  to  leap  over  the 
prostrate  horse,  it  made  an  effort  to  rise  and  tripped  my  horse. 
We  both  went  down  into  the  soft  mud  together.  Just  then 
Lieutenant  Keebler  came  up  and  seeing  my  condition,  ex- 
claimed, "My  God !  Captain  Lusk  is  killed."  But  I  was  not, 
though  it  looked  very  much  like  it.  I  pulled  myself  out  of 
the  mud,  assisted  by  horse  to  rise,  remounted  amid  a  shower 
of  minie  balls  and  rode  away  solitary  and  alone  to  rejoin  the 
command  at  Irvine. 

This  disaster  annihilated  for  the  time  the  entire  rear  guard. 
I  do  not  know  just  how  far  it  was  from  the  battle  ground  to 
the  Kentucky  river,  but  I  do  know  that  from  the  place  where 
my  horse  fell  in  the  road  to  just  before  reaching  the  river  I 
never  saw  a  single  soldier  except  the  ones  who  were  shooting 
at  me.  Just  before  reaching  the  river  I  was  met  by  a  detach- 
ment of  the  First  Louisiana  Regiment,  together  with  a  num- 
ber of  soldiers  from  other  commands,  posted  in  the  road  north 
of  the  river.  Having  met  no  resistance  since  the  fight  at  the 
Gap  of  the  mountain,  the  enemy  was  recklessly  pressing  for- 
ward, deeming  it  unnecessary  to  respect  the  small  detachment 
stationed  in  the  road  and  never  halting  a  moment  to  ascer- 
tain whether  it  was  convenient  for  us  to  move  out  of  the  way 
or  whether  it  was  more  prudent  for  them  to  return,  but 
charged  pell-mell  right  in  among  us.  The  forces  engaged 
were  small,  but  the  fighting  was  desperate.  A  thought  of 
this  fight  in  after  years  always  brings  with  it  a  reflection  of 
sadness.  I  never  during  the  whole  war  with  cool  deliberation 
shot  one  of  my  fellow  men.     If  I  ever  killed  a  man  during 

286  North  Carolina  Troops.  1861-'65. 

the  war  I  am  ignorant  of  the  fact.  On  this  occasion,  how- 
ever, I  came  nearer  doing  so  than  at  any  time  during  my 
whole  experience  as  a  soldier.  One  of  the  enemy,  a  cavalry- 
man, with  deliberate  aim,  had  just  shot  down  right  by  my 
side  one  of  the  Louisiajia  cavalry.  I  saw  the  blood  gush  from 
his  mouth.  He  fell  forward  on  his  horse  and  with  a  groan 
fell  to  the  ground.  Some  how  the  sight  so  affected  me 
that  I  lost  sight  of  the  fact  that  the  same  man  was  in  close 
proximity  with  a  deadly  revolver  in  his  hand  bent  on  a  mis- 
sion of  death  to  others.  I  raised  my  eyes  tO'  look  right  into 
the  muzzle  of  a  gleaming  pistol  barrel.  His  horse  plunged 
forward  and  he  missed  his  intended  victim.  I  was  next  at 
the  score  with  a  Colt's  navy.  If  the  poor  man  is  not  dead  he 
certainly  is  a  pensioner  on  account  of  wounds  received  in  bat- 
tle. I  have  always  regretted  this  episode  in  my  war  expe- 
rience, but  I  console  my  feelings  when  I  reflect  that  he  had 
made  it  necessary  for  one  of  us  to  conclude  our  military  op- 
erations for  a  time  at  least.  It  was  a  fight  to  the  death. 
Those  of  the  enemy  who  were  left  alive  discovered  their  mis- 
take and  beat  a  quick  retreat  to  the  main  body  of  the  enemy. 
By  the  time  we  got  across  the  river  close  by,  the  enemy  fairly 
swarmed  on  the  opposite  bank.  The  enemy  was  on  one  side  of 
the  river  and  we  were  on  the  other.  We  had  a  battery  of  four 
guns,  two  howitzers  and  two  rifle  pieces,  captured  from  the  en- 
emy in  Powell's  Valley.  Our  battery  took  up  a  position  on  an 
eminence  south  of  the  town,  while  the  enemy  occupied  a  posi- 
tion on  the  north  of  the  river.  An  artillery  dtiel  was  kept 
up  until  the  middle  of  the  afternoon,  the  enemy  occupying 
one  bank  of  the  river  and  our  force  occupying  the  other  bank. 
Our  force  was  finally  withdrawn  in  order  to  avoid  a  flanking 
colunm  on  our  right  and  fell  back  in  the  direction  of  Lancas- 
ter. We  saw  no  more  of  the  enemy  until  about  midnight, 
when  we  were  again  attacked  in  force,  and  a  fight  kept  up  all 
the  remainder  of  the  night.  The  next  morning  about  sun 
lip,  it  became  necessary  to  check  the  enemy  and  a  stand  was 
made  at  a  place  somewhere  between  Lancaster  and  Mt.  Ver- 
non, Ky. 


Just  at  what  place  the  fight  took  place,  or  what  was  the 

Fifth  Battalion.  287 

final  result  of  the  fight,  I  never  knew.  I  had  rallied 
the  remnant  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Battalion,  which 
together  with  detachments  from  other  commands,  constituted 
the  rear  guard.  Just  at  daylight  the  rear  guard  was  charged 
by  an  overwhelming  force  of  the  enemy  and  my  horse  shot 
dead  under  me.  In  the  fall  one  of  my  feet  was  pinned  down 
and  before  I  was  able  to  extricate  myself,  I  was  surrounded 
and  captured.  Here  my  connection  with  the  Fifth  Battalion 
ceased.  I  was  never  with  the  command  afterwards,  as  I  re- 
mained in  prison  until  tlie  close  of  the  war,  during  which 
time  (two  years)  I  was  imprisoned  in  six  common  jails  and 
one  penitentiary.  The  principal  part  of  the  imprisonment, 
however,  was  on  Johnson's  Island,  in  Lake  Erie,  off  San- 
dusky, Ohio.  The  incidents  connected  with  the  two  years 
of  imprisonment  during  the  war  would  form  an  interesting 
chapter  in  this  narrative,  but  as  I  am  dealing  with  the  history 
of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Battalion  of  Cavalry,  the  narra- 
tive must  stop  here  so  far  as  I  am  concerned.* 


From  C.  T.  Garrett,  of  Hot  Springs,  N.  C,  First  Lieuten- 
ant of  Company  A,  who  took  command  of  the  battfilion  as 
senior  officer  after  my  capture  in  Kentucky,  and  remained 
with  the  battalion  until  after  the  consolidation,  I  have  learned 
the  following  facts  connected  with  the  history  of  the  remnant 
of  the  battalion  that  sTirvived  the  Kentucky  expedition.  Pre- 
ceding the  fight  at  Mt.  ^^emon,  and  subsequent  to  the  capture 
of  Captain  Lusk,  Lieiitenant  Garrett  rallied  the  survivors  of 
the  battalion,  amounting  in  all  to  fifteen  men,  and  was  as- 
signed to  the  command  of  the  rear  guard,  as  the  senior  officer 
of  the  battalion.  The  enemy  fairly  swarmed  in  all  direc- 
tions. Every  converging  road  seemed  to  be  held  by  a  strong 
force  of  the  enemy.  Driven  back  on  one  road,  they  would 
appear  in  force  on  the  flank.  Thus  the  fight  was  kept  up  for 
some  time  against  a  greatly  superior  force,  until  finally  a 
strona;  force  of  the  enemy  succeeded  in  getting  between  Lieu- 

*Colonel  John  S.  Scott's  interesting  report  will  be  found  in  S4  Off. 
Rec  Union  and  Confed.  Armies  8S9 — 84S  wherein  he  names  Captain 
Virgil  S.  Lusk  among  those  he  thanks  for  "most  gallant  conduct." — Ed. 

288  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

tenant  Garrett  and  the  main  column  of  the  Confederates,  thus 
severing  the  rear  guard  completely  from  the  main  command. 
Not  being  of  sufficient  force  to  cut  their  way  through  the 
enemy's  lines,  they  were  forced  to  withdraw  to  the  side  of  a 
steep  mountain. to  escape  capture.  An  effort  was  made  to 
flank  the  enemy  and  make  their  way  to  tlie  command,  then 
engaged  with  the  enemy  in  what  appeared  to  be  a  bloody  bat- 
tle somewhere  in  the  vicinity  of  Crab  Orchard.  This  effort 
was  found  tO'  be  impossible,  as  the  whole  country  was  overrun 
with  the  enemy  in  all  directions.  Our  forces  Avere  driven 
back  in  the  direction  of  Rockcastle  river,  and  all  hope  of  re- 
gaining the  command  was,  therefore,  made  impossible.  A  hur- 
ried counsel  was  held.  One  of  two  alternatives  was  inevita- 
ble :  either  surrender  ot  fight  their  way  back  to  our  lines  along 
the  Ciunberland  Mountain,  fifty  miles  away  and  through  an 
enemy's  country.  Viewed  in  any  light  the  situation  was  a 
desperate  one.  Between  them  and  the  brigade  was  the  whole 
force  of  the  enemy,  while  between  them  and  the  Cumberland 
Mountains  was  a  foe  more  dangerous  than  an  army  with  ban- 
ners— that  irregiilar  force  known  to  the  army  as  "bushwhack- 
ers"— always  on  the  alert,  -and  doubly  sO'  on  this  occasion. 
Tt  was  known  that  the  brigade  had  passed  through  this  sec- 
tion only  a  fev-  days  previous,  and  the  whole  country  was 
aroused  and  on  the  lookout  for  our  return.  This  section  of 
Kentucky  was  intensely  union  in  sentiment,  and  nearly  everj' 
man  in  it  was  either  a  regular  soldier,  or  a  self -constituted 
soldier,  ready  for  battle  at  a  minute's  notice.  They  were 
thoroughly  organized,  and  while  they  were  not  always  a  co'm- 
pact  organization  in  a  body,  the  discharge  of  a  gun,  the  blast 
of  a  horn,  or  the  flash  of  a  rocket  in  the  sky  at  night,  would 
bring  together  a  military  force,  armed  with  the  deadly  Ken- 
tucky rifle,  ten  times  the  strength  of  the  little  band  grouped 
on  the  mountain  side  discussing  what  was  best  to  be  done. 
While  they  talked  in  whispers  they  saw  the  enemy  hurrying 
by  along  the  country  road,  in  the  valley  below,  "and  swiftly 
forming  in  the  ranks  of  war,"  while  in  the  distance  could  be 
heard  the  boom  of  the  cannon  as  the  battle  raged  on  the  dis- 
tant plain.  When  the  vote  was  taken  not  a  single  voice  was 
heard  for  surrender,  but  all  were  unanimous  in  the  resolve 

Fifth  Battalion.  289 

to  fight  their  way  to  our  lines  south  of  the  Cumherland  Moun- 
tains. With  this  resolve  firmly  fixed  in  their  minds  they 
started  on  their  perilous  jonrney.  Famished  soldiers,  and 
broken  down  horaes,  their  retreat  was  necessarily  slow — slow 
because  they  were  physically  unable  to  make  it  rapid;  slow 
beca\ise  the  safety  of  the  detachment  made  it  necessary  to  ex- 
amine every  defile  and  turn  in  the  road  to  make  sure  it  did 
not  conceal  a  deadly  enemy.  Learning  that  the  crossing  of 
the  Cumberland  river  was  guarded  by  the  enemy,  the  detach- 
ment effected  a  crossing  below  the  town  of  Barboursville,  and 
after  three  days  ceaseless  toil  and  constant  vigils,  the  detach- 
ment reached  our  lines  at  Big  Creek  Gap.  Just  one  week 
previous  the  same  men  had  marched  through  this  narrow  de- 
file with  buoyant  hopes  and  animated  expectations.  ISTow  be- 
hold the  return;  starved  and  emaciated  soldiers,  with  torn 
and  soiled  uniforms,  hatless,  coatless,  and  blanketless.  Some 
of  the  detachment  were  mounted  on  impoverished  horses  that 
limped  along  the  mountain  defile,  with  flopping  ears  and 
drooping  head,  while  others  were  so  famished  that  they  were 
unable  to  carry  the  tired  soldier  on  their  festering  backs,  and 
were  allowed  to  stagger  along  as  best  they  could,  panting  be^ 
neath  the  scorching  rays  of  a  July  sun,  while  the  hungry 
owner  trudged  along  the  weary  way  footsore  and  tired.  Such 
was  the  return  of  the  Fifth  ISTorth  Carolina  Battalion  of  Cav- 
alry, fifteen  strong,  all  told,  which  one  week  previous  had 
marched  out  over  the  same  roads  with  five  full  companies,  as 
fine  looking  a  body  of  soldiers  as  conld  be  found  in  any  com- 
mand of  th.e  army.  Thus  terminated  one  of  the  hardest,  and 
for  the  numbers  engaged,  one  of  the  bloodiest  campaigns  of 
the  war.  I  never  knew  how  many  we  lost  in  this  campaign. 
I  read  an  account  in  a  Cincinnati  paper  which  purported  to 
give  an  account  of  the  several  engagements,  and  that  fixed  the 
killed  and  captured  at  seven  hundred.  I  do  not  intend  to 
convey  the  idea  that  fifteen  men  were  all  that  was  left  of  the 
battalion  after  the  return  of  the  brigade  from  Kentucky.  It 
is  presumed  that  some  of  the  men  clung  to  the  main  force,  and 
in  this  way  returned  to  their  several  co^mpanies ;  while  others 
were  sick  in  the  hospital  or  on  detail,  while  still  others,  were 

290  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

absent  on  leave  and  detached  service.  Judging  from  the  de- 
pleted ranks  of  Company  A,  it  will  be  safe  to-  say,  that  less 
than  fifty  men  of  the  battalion  returned  from  the  expedi- 
tion. The  battalion  halted  at  Big  Creek  Cap  only  long 
enough  to  feed  and  rest  their  tired  and  starving  horses,  and 
refresh  the  men  with  something  to  sustain  the  inner  man,  to 
which  they  had  been  strangers  for  the  last  full  week,  then 
pushed  on  rapidly  as  possible  and  reported  to  General  Pegram 
at  Maryville,  south  of  Tennessee  river,  and  was  ordered  to 
Concord  to  recuperate.  The  recuperation  was  of  short  dura- 
tion, it  was  apparent  at  this  time  that  the  enemy  was  pre- 
paring a  foTward  movement  intO'  East  Tennessee,  as  well  as 
all  along  the  front,  bordering  the  Kenttieky  line,  and  it  be- 
came necessary  to  utilize  all  the  cavalry  force  at  the  com- 
mand of  the  army  to  watch  the  movements  of  the  enemy 
along  the  Cumberland  river  and  the  eastern  Cumberland 
Mountain  range.  The  fragment  of  the  Fifth  Battalion 
slightly  increased  by  this  time  in  numerical  strength,  under 
Lieutenant  Garrett  was  ordered  to  the  front  to  do  outpost 
dnty  along  the  border  of  Kentucky;  to  watch  the  enemy  in 
that  vicinity,  and  keep  the  General  in  command  of  the  De- 
partment of  East  Tennessee  posted  as  to  their  movement. 
The  Battalion  did  not  have  long  to  wait. 


The  enemy  threw  a  strong  force  across  the  Cumberland 
Mountain  at  Big  Creek  Gap.  The  battalion  hastened  across 
the  mountain  and  intercepted  the  enemy  at  Jaekslioro,  and 
together  with  the  Tenth  Confederate  Regiment  and  a  Ten- 
nessee Regiment  attacked  the  enemy  on  the  road  between 
Jacksboro  and  Clinton.  A  sharp  engagement  ensued.  The  en- 
emy greatly  outnumbered  the  Confederate  forces,  and  the  lat- 
ter fell  back  in  the  direction  of  Kingston.  The  Federal  forces 
crossed  Clinch  river  above  ClintxDn  and  went  in  the  direction 
of  Knoxville,  while  the  Confederates  crossed  the  Clinch  be- 
low Clinton  and  fell  back  on  Kingston,  where  a  junction  was 
formed  with  the  remainder  of  the  brigade,  which  continued 
to  fall  back  on  the  East  Tennessee  and  Georgia  Railroad. 
This  movement  brought  on  a  fight,  which  was  kept  up  until 

Fifth  Battalion.  291 

the  brigade  crossed  the  Tennessee  river  at  Loudon  and  de- 
stroyed the  bridge  at  that  place.  The  Confederates  were  on 
one  side  of  the  river  and  the  Federals  were  posted  on  the  other 
side.  A  fine  opportunity  was  afforded  for  an  artillery  duel 
across  the  river  which  lasted  for  several  hours.  The  Fifth 
Battalion  was  under  fire  during  the  entire  cannonading.  Here 
Major  Baird,  who  had  been  down  with  a  severe  attack  of 
typhoid  fever,  appeared  and  took  command  of  the  battalion, 
which  continued  to  fall  back  in  the  direction  of  Chicka- 
raauga.  A  stand  was  made  at  Pea  Ridge,  and  a  fierce  fight 
took  place  between  Scott's  Brigade  and  a  brigade  of  the  en- 
emy's mounted  infantry,  which  lasted  all  the  afternoon  and 
into  the  night,  when  the  enemy  retreated  in  confusion.  The 
Fifth  Battalion  participated  in  this  battle  and  displayed 
gi'eat  courage  and  bravery. 


Here  I  must  take  leave  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Bat- 
talion of  Cavalry,  as  it  goes  off  the  roster  as  a  separate  organ- 
ization in  the  military  service  of  the  Confederate  Army, 
being  merged  into  tlie  Sixth  Eegiment  of  Cavalry  on  3  Au- 
gust, 3  863,  by  the  consolidation  of  the  Fifth  Battalion  with 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Folk's  Seventh  Battalion.  I  was  not  con- 
tent to  leave  the  reputation  of  the  brave  ofiicers  and  private 
soldiers  who  fought  by  ray  side  during  the  trying  scenes  of 
that  bloody  struggle  and  shared  with  me  the  hardships  of  the 
campaigns  of  the  late  war,  to  the  pen  of  any  one  who  knew 
not  of  the  brave  deeds  and  heroic  bearing  of  the  men  compos- 
ing the  Fifth  Battalion  of  Cavalry.  As  a  part  of  the  Sixty- 
fifth  ISTorth  Carolina  (Sixth  Cavalry),  the  Fifth  Battalion 
participated  in  the  great  battle  of  Chickamauga  under  the 
conunand  of  Colonel  Folk,  and  bore  themselves  with  becom- 
ing bravery  and  soldierly  bearing  through  the  thickest  of  the 
battle.  After  that  battle  the  regiment  was  dispatched  to  the 
assistance  of  General  Longstreet  in  his  campaign  against 


At  Philadelphia,  Tenn.,  a  bloody  encounter  took  place 
between  the  Sixty-fifth  and  the  enemy's  forces  under  com- 

292  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

mand  of  General  Wolford.  Lieutenant  Garrett,  in  command 
of  what  used  to  be  Company  A  of  the  Fifth  Battalion,  with  a 
detachment  from  other  companies  composing  the  old  Fifth 
Battalion,  was  sent  forward  to  locate  the  enemy,  supposed  to 
be  posted  on  a  different  road  than  that  along  which  the  main 
column  was  marching.  It  was  soon  discovered  that  the  en- 
emy was  posted  on  the  main  route  in  front  of  the  Confederate 
forces.  The  Confederates  immediately  charged  and  routed 
the  enemy  which  made  an  effort  to  escape  by  the  other  road, 
and  in  so  doing  got  between  Lieutenant  Garrett's  detachment 
and  the  Confederate  column.  Upon  discovering  the  situa-- 
tion  the  little  detachment  turned  upon  the  enemy  when  a 
bloody  fight  ensued  in  which  many  were  killed  and  wounded 
on  both  sides.  In  this  fight  Lieutenant  Garrett's  horse  was 
killed  and  himself  captured.  He  remained  in  prison  on 
Johnson's  Island  u.ntil  the  close  of  the  war.  What  was  left 
of  the  old  Fifth  Battalion  followed  the  Sixty-fifth  Eegiment 
intO'  Eastern  North  Carolina,  where  they  remained  until  dis- 
banded at  the  close  of  the  war.  In  concluding  this  narrative 
of  the  battalion  it  is  a  source  of  regret  that  I  am  not  able  to 
award  to  each  officer  and  private  soldier  his  full  meed  of 
merit,  but  I  will  say  that  no  braver  band  of  soldiers  ever  be- 
strode a  steed  or  drew  a  saber  on  any  battlefield  in  any  cause, 
than  those  who  fought  in  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Battalion 
of  Cavalry. 

ViEGii.  S.  LtrsK- 


26  April,  1901. 


(armory  guards.  ) 

By  M.  p.  TAYLOR,  Major. 

The  Sixth  Battalion  or  "Armory  Guard,"  was  stationed 
at  the  Fayetteville  arsenal  and  armory  during  the  war  be- 
tween the  States.     It  consisted  of  seven  companies. 


It  may  be  well  to  give  a  brief  sketch  of  the  Fayetteville 
arsenal  and  armory  as  a  matter  of  historical  record,  touching 
the  construction  of  the  various  buildings,  as  there  is  not  a 
vestige  of  them  left,  having  been  totally  destroyed  by 
Sherman  on  his  famous  march  through  the  Carolinas.  The 
Fayetteville  arsenal  and  armory  were  located  on  what  is 
known  as  "Haymount,"  which  overlooks  the  historic  old  city 
of  Fayetteville.  They  were  constructed  by  the  United  States 
Government  previous  to  the  war,  under  the  immediate  super- 
vision of  Mr.  William  Bell  as  architect,  but  in  charge  of  vari- 
ous army  ofHcers  of  high  distinction  as  commandants  of  the 
post.  It  was  one  of  the  loveliest  spots  anywhere  in  the  South, 
and  was  very  often  visited  by  strangers  from  various  States 
and  greatly  admired.  Conspicuous  octagonal  high  brick  and 
stone  towers  were  located  at  the  four  corners  of  the  enclosure, 
while  symmetrical  walls  and  massive  iron  railing  and  heavy 
iron  gates  surrounded  the  premises.  Handsome  two-story 
brick  and  stone  buildings  for  officers'  quarters  and  the  accom- 
modation of  the  troops  adorned  the  front  and  sides,  while 
in  the  centre,  rear  and  both  sides  were  large,  commodious 
buildings  used  for  the  storing  of  small  arms,  fixed  ammuni- 
tion, commissary  and  quartermaster  supplies.     In  the  centre 

Note. — This  Battalion  thougln  numbered  "Sixth"  in  Moore's  Roster  was 
never  thus  officially  designated,  but  was  styled  the  "Armory  Guards." 
There  was  a  Battalion  officially  designated  as  the  Sixth  Battalion  which 
was  increased  and  became  the  Sixtieth  Regiment.  There  was  another 
Sixth  Battalion  (Reserves)  which  became  part  of  the  Seventieth  Reg- 
iment — Ed. 

294  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

of  the  enclosure  were  the  gun  carriage  and  machine  shops — ■ 
the  former  with  Mr.  T.  S.  Barrett  as  superintendent,  who  had 
served  the  United  States  Government  formerly  at  "Old  Point 
Comfort"  for  a  number  of  years  before  the  war,  while  in  the 
rear  part  of  this  enclosvire  was  a  large  rifle  factory,  contain- 
ing all  of  the  rifle  works  brought  frpm  Harper's  Ferry,  Vir- 
ginia, and  handsome  frame  dwellings  for  various  officers' 
quarters.  With  the  exception  of  these  last,  all  the  build- 
ings were  constructed  of  brick,  trimmed  with  stone.  Mr, 
Bell  continued  during  the  entire  war  as  architect  of  all  build- 
ings, and  was  a  Scotchman  of  national  reputation. 

Some  one  hundred  yards  from  the  rifle  factory,  were  two 
large  brick  magazines  for  storage  of  powder  and  fixed  ammu- 

Captain  J.  A.  J.  Bradford,  U.  S.  A.,  was  in  command  at 
the  opening  of  hostilities.  He  resigned  from  the  United 
States  Army  and  was  made  Colonel  of  the  Tenth  North  Car- 
olina Eegiment  (First  Artillery).  In  1863,  I  think  it  was, 
he  was  taken  desperately  ill  and  died,  and  was  buried  with 
military  honors  by  the  battalion  in  the  rear  of  the  arsenal 
buildings  at  his  particular  request.     I  had  the  honor  of  com- 

manding the  escort. 


There  was  stationed  at  the  post,  under  command  of  Lien- 
tenant  J.  A.  IDeLagTiel,  a  co'mpany  of  United  States  artillery, 
who  held  the  post  up  to  the  day,  when  by  order  of  Governor 
John  W.  Ellis,  General  Walter  Draughon  in  command  of  the 
State  militia  was  ordered  to  take  possession  of  the  arsenal. 
General  Draughon  gathered  his  forces,  consisting  of  the  Fay- 
etteville  Independent  Light  Infantry  company,  under  com- 
mand of  Major  Wright  Huske;  the  LaFayette  Light  In- 
fantry, under  command  of  Captain  Joseph  B.  Starr,  and  or- 
ganized other  companies  from  "Cross  Creek,"  "Flea  Hill," 
"Rockfish"  and  "Quewhifile"  districts,  representing  branches 
of  the  artillery,  cavalry  and  infantry  service,  numbering  in 
all  about  500  men.  General  Draughon  ascended  the  hill  and 
halted  his  command  just  outside  of  the  arsenal  enclosure,  and 
made  a  formal  demand  for  the  surrender  of  this  property  in 

Sixth  Battalion.  295 

the  name  of  His  Excellency  John  W.  Ellis,  Governor  of  the 

Lieutenant  DeLagnel  accompanied  General  Draughon 
where  he  could  make  an  inspection  of  his  command,  when  the 
following  conversation  took  place  between  himself  and  the 
famous  old  "Captain  Bulla:"  Lieutenant  DeLagnel  halted 
in  front  of  Captain  Bulla's  command  and  remarked  to  the 
Captain  that  he  seemed  to  have  arms  but  no  ammunition, 
whereupon  Captain  Bulla  ran  his  hands  in  both  pockets  of 
his  pants,  pulling  out  buckshot  and  powder  horns  and  exhib- 
ited them  to  him.  Said  Lieutenant  DeLagnel:  "Are  these 
all  the  men  you  have  to  capture  my  battery  and  the  arsenal  ?" 
"ISTo,"  said  Captain  Bulla,  "the  woods  is  full  of  them." 

Lievitenant  DeLagnel  having  satisfied  himself  that  any  ef- 
fort on  his  part  of  resistance  would  be  fruitless,  surrendered 
without  the  firing  of  a  gun,  except  the  salute  by  his  battery 
on  hauling  down  the  United  States  flag.  Lieutenant  De- 
Lagnel with  his  command,  marched  out  of  the  enclosure  with 
their  small  arms  and  equipments,  and  the  State  troops 
marched  in  and  took  possession.  The  State  troops  were  kept 
on  guard  until  the  Confederate  States'  forces  cook  charge. 

Lieutenant  DeLagnel  took  the  steamer  for  Wilmington  and 
shipped  by  vessel  for  New  York,  where  he  gave  up  his  com- 
mand and  resigned  his  United  States  commission.  Return- 
ing South  he  joined  the  Confederate  Army,  and  was  one 
of  the  most  distinguished  and  gallant  officers  in  the  service. 
He  was  severely  wounded,  I  think,  at  the  battle  of  "Rich 
Mountain,"  in  Virginia,  and  for  two  days  and  nights  re- 
mained in  the  woods  within  the  enemy's  lines  for  fear  of 
being  taken  a  prisoner  and  without  any  attention  of  a  surgeon 
to  look  after  his  wound,  and  it  was  in  mid-winter,  which 
caused  him  great  suffering. 

Major  John  C.  Booth  was  placed  in  command  of  the  arse- 
nal. He  was  also  an  old  United  States  Army  man,  and  thor- 
oughly versed  in  ordnance  duties,  and  was  selected  for  the 
position  on  that  account.  The  task  of  organizing,  enlarging 
the  buildings  and  adding  an  armory  of  construction,  was  a 
gigantic  imdertaking.  Captain  Booth  worked  incessantly, 
never  considering  that  every  day  his  bodily  strength  was 

296  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

growing  weaker,  until  he  was  forced  to  take  his  bed,  and  in  a 
few  short  months  he  died.  He  was  buried  with  military  hon- 
ors by  the  battalion.  He  was  an  officer  of  marked  ability,  a 
splendid  executive  officer,  and  was  universally  loved  by  the 
entire  armory  force.  He  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Major 
during  his  illness.  On  his  death  Captain  Charles  P.  BoUes 
assumed  command  until  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  A.  DeLagnel 
was  placed  in  command,  which  was,  I  think,  about  three 
weeks,  and  who  only  remained  at  the  post  about  six  months, 
when  he  returned  to  the  field  again  in  Virginia.  He  was  re- 
lieved at  the  arsenal  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  F.  L.  Childs,  who 
continvied  in  command  until  the  close  of  the  war. 


The  companies  composing  this  command  were  the  ordnance 
corps  of  fifty  men  and  three  artificers,  Joseph  D.  Gurley, 
JSTeill  L.  Monroe  and  Alexander  McDonald.  Thomas  Ste- 
vens, an  old  United  States  army  Sergeant,  was  appointed  by 
Major  Booth  as  Ordnance  Sergeant  and  Commissary  and 
Quartermaster  Sergeant  of  the  post. 

The  sj^ecial  duty  of  the  Ordnance  Corps  was  to  perform 
guard  duty.  It  was  Company  A,  of  the  battalion.  Captain, 
Charles  P.  BoUes ;  First  Lieutenant,  Samuel  A.  Ashe. 

Company  B — Captain,  Armand  L.  DePosset;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, David  J.  Ray ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Malcolm  W.  Mon- 
roe ;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  John  T.  Pitter. 

This  command  was  organized  and  drilled  at  this  post,  and 
constituted  a  part  of  this  battalion  until  they  were  ordered  to 
report  at  Wilmington  to  Major-General  Whiting.  Captain 
DePosset  left  Fayetteville  with  118  rank  and  file. 

Company  C — Captain,  George  W.  Decker ;  First  Lieuten- 
ant, Charles  P.  Banks ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Charles  E.  Rob- 
erts; Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Alouzo  Garrison.  Pank 
and  file,  60  men. 

Company  D — Captain,  William  P.  Wemyss ;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, James  F.  Woodward  ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Samuel  J. 
Walton ;  Junior  Second  Tjieutenant,  Malcom  McTnnis.  Rank 
and  file,  Y3  men. 

Sixth  Battalion.  297 

Company  E — Captain,  Martin  VanBuren  Talley;  First 
Lieutenant,  Robert  F.  Epps ;  Second  Lieutenant,  William  T. 
Battley ;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  James  A.  Aheam.  Rank 
and  file,  61  men. 

Company  F,  Cavalry — Captain,  James  W.  Strange; 
First  Lieutenant,  R.  H.  liolliday ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Chris- 
topher C.  McMurray.     Rank  and  file,  69  men. 

This  command  only  remained  for  a  few  months,  and  was 
transferred  to  more  active  service,  doing  duty  in  Eastern 
North  Carolina  from  Weldon  to  Wilmington.  Captain 
Strange  had  commanded  Company  D,  Nineteenth  North  Car- 
olina Regiment  (Second  Cavalry). 

Company  G — Captain,  James  D.  Buie ;  First  Lieutenant, 
Lauchlin  W.  Currie ;  Second  Lieutenant,  George  W.  Gates. 
Rank  and  file,  61  men. 

Francis  L.  Childs  was  LieutenanihGolonel  of  the  battalion, 
and  Matthew  P.  Taylor  Major. 

The  total  rank  and  file  of  this  battalion  was  509  men. 

The  battalion  was  as  well  drilled  and  as  thoroughly  disci- 
plined as  any  command  in  the  Confederate  service. 

When  General  Butler  made  his  famous  attack  on  Fort 
Fisher  and  attempted  to  land  his  troops,  all  work  at  the  arse- 
nal and  armory  was  suspended  and  this  entire  command  was 
sent  to  report  to  Major-General  Whiting.  The  command 
remained  several  days  near  Fort  Fisher,  and  finding  General 
Butler  had  abandoned  his  purpose,  this  command  was  ordered 
back  to  Fayetteville  and  work  again  resumed  in  the  various 
departments.  The  large  majority  of  this  battalion  had  been 
in  many  a  hard-fought  battle  with  Lee  and  Jackson,  but  being 
skilled  artisans  and  mechanics  of  a  high  order,  they  were  de- 
tailed from  their  commands  for  this  most  important  duty  at 
the  arsenal  and  armory,  but  they  were  always  ready  to  obey 
the  summons  to  the  field. 

The  Confederate  Government  moved  the  Harper's  Ferry 
machinery  from  the  rifle  factory  there  to  the  Fayetteville  ar- 
senal and  armory,  together  with  thirty-five  men  with  their 
families,  with  Mr.  Phillip  Burlchart  as  master  armorer. 
The  services  of  these  skilled  workmen  were  highly  appro- 

298  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ciated,  as  the  work  turned  out  by  them  was  greatly  needed  by 
the  troops  in  the  field.  About  500  splendid  rifles  were  turned 
out  monthly,  with  any  amount  of  small  arms  ammunition  and 
numbers  of  heavy-size  gun  carriages  for  sea  coast  defenses 
and  many  light  artillery  gun  carriages  and  caissons. 

As  this  is  a  matter  of  history,  as  I  understand  it,  it  will  not 
be  amiss  to  give  the  names  of  these  pioneers  from  Harper's 
Ferry  who  left  their  homes  and  followed  the  Southern  flag 
and  cast  their  lot  with  the  Southern  cause.  They  were 
patriots  worthy  of  their  names,  and  a  roll  of  them  should  be 
preserved.  There  were  six  Englismen  whose  names  I  have 
been  unable  to  get  who  also  deserve  especial  mention  at  my 
hands  for  similar  service. 


James  Merrick,  John  Hewett,  Otho  Hewett,  Wm.  Martin, 
Wm.  Copeland,  Phillip  Schayman,  Wm.  ISTicholson,  T'oUect 
Duke,  Louis  Keyser,  Joe  Keyser,  John  Schilling,  John  Price, 
Timothy  Harrington,  Phillip  Burldiart,  Joe  Biirkhart,  Mc- 
Cloud  liewis,  Jesse  Graham,  John  Cord,  Levi  Decker,  Thos. 
Boswell,  Joe  Boswell,  V.  Talley,  J.  E.  P.  Daingerfield,  Jacob 
Sponcellor,  Richard  Clowe,  Hamson  Clowe,  John  Claspy, 
Wm.  Hewitt,  Geo.  W.  Decker,  Adam  Brown,  Jeremiah  Fuss, 
Geo.  Fuss,  Allan  Fuss,  Hiram  Llerrington,  Herbert  Herring- 
ton,  Frank  Herrington,  Orrie  Herrington,  Phillip  Burkhart, 
Jr. ,  George  Burkhart,  Archibald  Kitzmiller,  John  H.  Clowe, 
W.  H.  Clowe,  Rees  H.  Butler,  Jas.  Clasby,  Geo.  Clasby, 
Benj.  Price,  Balden  Johnson. 

Sergeant  Stephens  deserves  special  mention  at  my  hands. 
He  was  an  old  United  States  Sergeant,  and  joined  the  South- 
ern Army  at  great  peril.  He  was  one  of  the  most  methodical 
and  accurate  accountants  I  ever  knew — wrote  a  beautiful 
hand  writing,  was  never  sick  or  lost  a  day  during  the  four 
years  he  was  in  our  service. 

When  Ijieutenant-Colonel  Del^agnel  was  returned  to  the 
field  the  command  of  the  arsenal  and  armory  devolved  upon 
me  for  about  two  months,  lintil  the  arrival  of  Major  F.  L. 

Captain  Bolles  had  been  employed  on  the  coast  survey  by 

Sixth  Battalion.  299 

the  United  States  Government  for  many  years  previous  to 
the  war,  and  was  a  man  of  marked  ability.  Since  the  close  of 
hostilities  he  has  been  employed  by  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment in  the  Bureau  of  Hydrography  at  Washington,  D.  C. 
Lieutenant  Samuel  A.  Ashe  was  the  assistant  to  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Child  s  in  the  laboratory  and  had  particular  supervis- 
ion of  the  magazines,  testing  powders  and  making  fireworks 
and  ammunition.  Dr.  Benjamin  Robinson  was  Surgeon 
of  post;  T.  J.  Robinson,  was  appointed  superintendent 
of  laboratory  by  reason  of  his  long  experience  in  that  branch 
of  business  in  Washington,  D.  C.  Captain  J.  E.  P.  Dain- 
gerfield  was  made  military  storekeeper  and  paymaster  by 
Major  Booth  because  of  long  experience  at  the  arsenal  and 
armory  at  Harper's  Ferry. 

Thomas  C.  DeRosset  acted  as  secretary  in  Colonel  Child's 
office,  Mr.  Robert  Johnson  was  chief  clerk,  and  E.  P.  Powers 
assistant  to  Johnson.  In  the  military  storekeeper's  office 
was  William  J.  Woodward,  who  was  placed  in  the  ordnance 
department  by  Major  Booth  and  General  J.  Gorgas,  Chief 
of  the  Ordnance  Bureau  at  Richmond,  and  he  was  one  of  the 
most  efficient  officers  at  the  post.  On  the  approach  of  Gen- 
eral Sherman's  army,  all  work  was,  of  course,  siispended,  and 
the  entire  command  after  removing  all  the  machinery  possi- 
ble, together  with  the  large  amount  of  supplies,  were  ordered 
to  camp  at  the  Gulf  in  Moore  County,  and  remained  there 
until  the  surrender  at  Greensboro,  and  were  included  in  Gen- 
eral Johnston's  surrender. 


Since  writing  the  above,  I  have  received  some  very  valua- 
ble suggestions  relative  to  the  "Old  Arsenal"  before  the  war, 
and  very  cheerfully  give  them,  that  my  report  may  be  full 
and  complete  in  regard  to  this  grand  old  place.  My  sketch 
above  written  was  gathered  from  the  best  information  I  could 
obtain  from  those  resident  at  Fayetteville  previous  to  the  war. 

The  ante  bellum  commandants  should  be  in  the  following 
order:  Captain  Bradford  was  the  first  commandant.  The 
building  of  the  arsenal  was  begun  in  1835  under  his  com- 
mand.    He  was  many  years  in  command,  and  was  siicceeded 

300  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

by  Captain  A.  B.  Dyer  about  1853,  who  remained  until  about 
1857.  Captain  Bradford  was  then  returned,  and,  after  a 
brief  stay,  was  succeeded  by  Captain  Ohas.  P.  Kingsbury. 
Captain  Kingsbury  remained  perhaps  half  a  year,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Major  T.  T.  S.  Laidley,  who  remained  until  a 
short  time  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  when  Captain 
Bradford  was  again  restored ;  and,  the  place  being  turned  into 
a  military  post,  a  company  of  artillery  was  added  under  com- 
mand of  Brevet  Major  Samuel  Anderson,  J.  A.  DeLagnel 
being  First  Lieutenant. 

Dyer,  Kingsbury  and  Laidley  remained  on  ISTorthern  side, 
though  Dyer  and  Laidley  were  Virginians,  Kingsbury  was  a 
ISTorthern  man  by  birth,  though  appointed  as  from  ISTorth 
Carolina.  Dyer  became  Major-Greneral  and  Chief  of  Ord- 
nance of  the  United  States  Army  during  the  war.  Kings- 
bury was  Brigadier-General  and  Chief  of  General  McClellan's 
Staff  when  McClellan  had  supreme  command.  Laidley  be- 
came Colonel  of  Ordnance,  and  missed  becoming  the  head  of' 
the  department  by  a  turn  of  favoritism. 

On  the  Southern  side  Anderson  became  Chief  of  Artil- 
lery on  General  Huger's  Staff,  and  afterwards  Chief  of 
General  E.  H.  Anderson's  Staff.  DeLagnel,  who  was  a  ver- 
itable hero,  after  the  exciting  and  somewhat  romantic  career 
already  alluded  to,  became  Assistant  Chief  of  Ordnance  of 
the  Confederacy  under  General  J.  Gorgas.  DeLagnel  was 
the  son  of  a  San  Domingo  refugee,  a  gentleman  (perhaps  a 
soldier)  of  high  position,  who  came  to  this  country  with  Col- 
onel DeEussy,  who  settled  in  Louisiana.  Mrs.  DeLagnel 
was  of  Petersburg,  Va.  Bradford,  Dyer,  Kingsbury  and 
Laidley  were  men  of  a  high  order  of  ability  and  of  high  stand- 
ing as  professional  soldiers.-  They  were  officers  of  the  Ord- 
nance Department,  which  ranked  next  to  the  Engineer  De- 
partment, and  were  therefore  necessarily  men  who  had  stood 
near  the  head,  if  not  at  the  head  of  their  classes  at  West 

Matthew  P.  Tayloe. 
Fayetteville,  N.  C, 

26  April,  1901. 




Captain  George  'N.  Folk,  after  serving  a  year  as  Captain 
of  Company  D,  Ninth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  resigned  9 
May,  1862.  On  reaching  home  he  immediately  raised  a  bat- 
talion of  six  companies  of  which  he  was  made  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel, and  which  was  ofBcially  styled  the  Seventh  Battalion. 
In  the  fall  of  1862  it  was  sent  to  East  Tennessee  and  was  ac- 
tively engaged  in  the  duties  of  a  cavalry  command  of  that 
much  perturbed  section.  Many  incidents  of  its  career  can  not 
now  be  recalled.  On  20  JSTovember,  it  reported  486  present. 
Vol.  30  (Serial)  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  Ji.12. 
In  December,  1862,  it  was  on  service  in  Carter  County,  Tenn. 
In  July,  18 ()3,  it  was  on  the  raid  into  Kentucky,  Vol.  SJf.,  p. 
830.  The  Spring  of  1863  it  was  moving  about  in  East  Ten- 
nessee and  in  April  was  reported  "on  scouting  and  outpost 
duty"  attached  to  Colonel  John  S.  Scott's  Brigade.  (Serial) 
Vol.  So,  p.  793,  and  in  July  was  in  Pegram's  Brigade,  same 
Vol.,  p.  946.  (!)n  3  August,  1863,  this  battalion  was  com- 
bined with  the  Fifth  Battalion  commanded  by  Major  A.  H. 
Baird.  The  regiment  thus  formed  became  the  Sixty-fifth 
North  Carolina  (Sixth  Cavalry)  of  which  Folk  became  Col- 
onel and  Baird  Lieutenant-Colonel.  The  history  of  that  reg- 
iment is  given  in  Vol.  3  of  this  work.  The  account  of  the 
Fifth  Battalion  up  to  the  date  of  its  consolidation  is  printed 
in  this  volume  and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  some  one  of  the 
command  could  not  do  the  same  for  the  Seventh  Battalion. 

There  was  another  Seventh  Battalion  (Reserves)  com- 
manded by  Major  W.  Foster  French,  which  was  later  merged 
into  the  Seventy-second  North  Carolina.  The  battalion 
numbered  Seventh  in  Moore's  Roster  was  not  so  styled  during 
the  war,  and  was  doubtless  part  of  Mallett's  (or  Hahr's)  Bat- 
talion, herein  styled  Nineteenth  Battalion. 


(nethekcutt's  partisan  rangees.  ) 

By  the  editor. 

This  battalion  began  as  a  company  of  Partisan  Kangers 
under  Captain  Jno.  H.  ISTetliercutt  9  Off.  Bee.  Union  and 
Confed.  Armies,  Jf-73,  but  was  soon  increased  to  a  battalion. 
Its  conunander,  Major  John  H.  ISFethercutt,  was  a  blunt,  but 
brave  and  enterprising  officer,  and  his  command  rendered 
service  principally  in  the  New  Bern  section.  If  all  the 
stirring  incidents  of  its  career  could  be  told  it  would  be  a 
most  interesting  narrative.  On  20  April,  1863,  it  was  in  a 
hot  skirmish  at  Sandy  Kidge,  26  (Serial)  Vol.  255.  On  27 
May  he  had  500  men,  same  Vol.,  1074. 

In  August,  1863,  this  battalion  was  combined  with  the 
Fourth  (Wright's)  Battalion  and  some  independent  compa- 
nies and  form.ed  the  Sixty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment, 
of  which  Major  JSTethercutt  was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel. 
The  regiment  was  assigned  to  Martin's,  afterwards  Kirk- 
land's,  Brigade,  and  its  story,  told  by  Adjutant  George  M. 
Rose,  appears  in  Vol.  3  of  this  work.  On  the  death  of  Colo- 
nel A.  D.  Moore,  in  front  of  Petersburg,  Nethercutt  became 
Colonel  and  15  March,  1865,  was  assigned  to  the  command 
of  the  brigade  of  Junior  Reserves  which  he  held  at  Benton- 
ville  and  up  to  the  siirrender  of  Johnston's  army.  Colonel 
Nethercutt  was  assassinated  at  his  home  in  Jones  County 
after  the  war  while  sitting  at  supper  with  his  family  by  some 
traitor  who  wished  to  avenge  punishment  received  during  the 
war.      He  was  a  most  gallant,  capable  officer. 

There  was  another  Eightli  Battalion  (Reserves)  command- 
ed by  Major  J.  B.  Ellington,  which  in  January,  1865,  was 
merged  into  the  Seventy-second  North  Carolina  (Third  Jun- 
ior Reserves. ) 

The  battalion  given  as  the  Eighth  in  Moore's  Roster  (Vol. 
4,  pp.  359-872)  was  officially  known  during  the  war  as  the 
Tenth  Battalion  and  as  such  its  history  is  herein  given. 

nmih  BATTALIOfi. 

(first  heavy  artillery.) 

By  T.  a.  McNeill,  sergeant  Company  D. 

Shortly  after  the  outbreak  of  the  war  in  1861,  the  Legis- 
lature of  Iv'orth  Carolina,  co-operating  with  the  Confederate 
Government  in  defending  the  entrance  to  the  Cape  Fear  river 
and  the  harbor  of  Wilmington,  passed  an  act  authorizing  the 
formation  of  a  battalion  of  heavy  artillery,  to  be  composed  of 
three  companies,  to  man  the  defences  then  being  and  after- 
wards that  might  be,  constructed  for  the  protection  of  the 
coast  and  shores  close  to  the  Cape  Fear  bar  at  either  the  Fort 
Caswell  or  New  Inlet  entrance. 

One  of  the  companies  was  raised  by  Captain,  afterwards 
Major  Alexander  McRae,  of  Wilmington,  composed  largely 
of  men  from  New  Hanover,  Columbus,  Bladen  and  Robeson 
counties ;  dnd  its  officers,  at  its  organization,  were  Alexander 
McRae,  Captain;  W.  H.  Brown,  — .  — .  Ryan,  A.  S.  Harts- 
field,  and  afterwards  John  A.  Gilchrist,  John  J.  Bright  and 
R.  P.  Allen,  Lieutenants.  This  became  Company  C.  The 
second  company  was  organized  by  Captain  Charles  D,  Ellis, 
and  its  members  were  mainly  from  Brunswick,  Duplin  and 
other  counties  near  New  Hanover.  Its  officers  were  Charles 
D.  Ellis,  Captain,  who  resigned  2  October,  1862,  and  Jacob 
W.  Taylor,  promoted  to  be  Captain  in  the  same  month,  with 
Z.  Ellis,  B.  O.  Bourden  and  Henry  C.  Evans,  Lieutenants, 
and  was  Company  B.  The  other  company  was  raised  by 
Captain  Robert  G.  Rankin,  of  Wilmington,  was  recruited 
mainly  in  New  Hanover,  Duplin,  Cumberland  and  Robeson 

Note. — This  Battalion  was  known  ofBcially  as  the  First  Battalion 
Heavy  Artillery.  It  is  here  numbered  as  the  Ninth  merely  as  a  conven- 
ience. There  was  a  battalion  which  was  officially  known  as  the  Ninth 
(Reserves),  commanded  by  Major  D.  T.  Millard  but  when  the  other  bat- 
talions of  Juniors  were  organized  into  regiments  it  became  the  First 
Battalion  of  Reserves  whose  story  is  told  herein  under  the  head  of 
"Twentieth  Battalion." 

304  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Counties.  On  its  organization  Robert  G.  Eankin,  of  Wil- 
mington, was  Captain,  and  E.  S.  Martin,  G.  W.  Kidder,  Wm. 
Harris,  David  G.  Eobeson  and  A.  J.  Galloway  were  Lieuten- 
ants, and  in  the  battalion  it  was  Company  A. 

The  tliree  companies  were  at  first  attached  to  other  com- 
mands, particularly  the  Thirty-sixth  and  Fortieth  Regiments 
(First  and  Second  Artillery),  from  about  April  or  May, 
1862,  and  served  at  Wilmington  or  its  vicinity,  especially 
Captain  Rankin's  company.  McRae's  company  was  from 
May  or  April,  1863,  at  Fort  Fisher,  and  Captain  Ellis'  com- 
mand was  on  duty  about  Smithville,  and  to  the  south  of  Fort 
Caswell  and  in  that  vicinity  from  the  time  of  its  enrollment 
in  the  spring  of  1S62,  until  som.e  time  in  1863,  being  under 
the  immediate  command  of  Colonel  John  D.  Taylor,  Thirty- 
sixth  JSTorth  Carolina,  at  Fort  Campbell.  Captain  McRae's 
command  while  on  duty  at  Fort  Fisher,  was  attached  tO'  the 
Thirty-sixth  Regiment  imder  Colonel  Lamb,  and  engaged 
there  in  ordinary  garrison  duty,  instructed  in  infantry  tac- 
tics, but  specially  exercised  in  the  heavy  artillery  manual.  It 
often  participated  in  artillery  duels  with  the  blockading 
squadron  lying  off  the  fort,  and  also  often  engaged  in  excit- 
ing combats  with  the  enemy  in  their  efforts  to  intercept  the 
daring  blockade  runners  bringing  in  great  cargoes  of  artillery, 
small  arms,  ammunition,  provisions,  and  all  manner  of  war- 
like stores,  seeking  the  cover  of  the  guns  of  the  fort  to  enter 
the  Cape  Fear  river  through  New  Inlet. 

A  similar  service  was  being  performed  at  the  same  time- 
by  Captain  Ellis'  command  at  Fort  Campbell,  on  the  beach 
below  Fort  Caswell,  commanding  the  entrance  tO'  the  western 
bar.  Captain  McRae's  company  was  on  duty  in  Wilmington 
at  its  organization  ;  afterwards  was  sent  to  Fort  Anderson  and 
remained  in  garrison  there  for  some  time,  being  drilled  and 
carefully  exercised  in  the  artillery  manual.  The  government 
early  saw  the  importance  of  strengthening  to  the  utmost  the 
approaches  to  the  Cape  Fear  river  by  way  of  New  Inlet  and 
the  main  bar  at  Fort  Caswell,  and  in  1862  Colonel  William 
Lamb  was  put  in  command  at  Fort  Fisher.  This  fort  at  that 
time  consisted  of  new  and  hastily  constructed  earth  works, 
unfitted  in  size  and  depth  to  resist  powerful  artillery,  and 

Ninth  Battalion.  305 

this  officer  ordered  Captain  McRae's  command,  along  with 
several  others,  to  Fort  Fisher.  From  that  time  until  De- 
cember, 1863,  under  Lamb's  intelligent  supervision,  the  com- 
pany, with  others,  was  engaged  in  garrison  duty,  drilling; 
mainly  in  the  heavy  artillery  manual,  constructing  maga- 
zines, bomb-proofs,  traverses,  curtains,  casemates  and  in 
every  way  aiding  their  efficient  commander,  until  Fort'  Fisher 
was  almost  entirely  rebuilt.  Powerful  batteries,  traverses, 
palisades,  covered  ways  and  gun  chambers  were  erected,  Inany 
of  these  latter  mounting  rifled  guns  of  English  pattern,  and 
of  great  calibre,  with  Columbiads  from  the  Oonfederate  gun 
works.  1'hese  took  the  place  of  what  a  few  months  before 
were  straggling  redoubts  connected  by  inefficient  curtains,  and 
mounting  guns  of  old  pattern  and  small  calibre,  many  of 
them  mounted  on  ship  carriages.  It  may  be  here  said  that  it 
is  difficult  to  realize  the  full  value  of  the  services  rendered 
the  Confederacy  by  Colonel  William  Lamb  and  the  handful 
of  artillerists  under  his  co'mmand  in  keeping  open,  one  might 
almost  say,  the  last  breathing  hole  of  the  South,  after  the 
fall  of  New  Orleans  and  the  closing  of  the  Southern 
and  Gulf  ports  by  the  rigid  blockade  of  the  United  States 
Navy.  The  amount  of  military  stores,  clothing,  arms,  artil- 
lery, medicines,  and  often  purely  domestic  siipplies,  that  came 
through  New  Inlet  and  over  the  Caswell  bar  into  the  be- 
leaguered Confederacy  was  simply  immense,  and  how  far  this 
aided  the  doubtful  struggle  we  may  not  fully  know,  nor  to 
what  extent  it  helped  the  people  to  clothe  themselves  and  the 
troops,  can  not  be  estimated. 

Under  orders  from  General  Whiting,  then  in  command  of 
the  Cape  Fear  Department,  detachments  from  Rankin's,  Mc- 
Rae^s  and  Taylor's  companies  proceeded  to  Smithville,  N.  C, 
the  men  leaving  the  old  companies  of  their  own  volition,  and 
there  organized  Company  D,  with  James  L.  McCormiek,  Cap- 
tain; H.  C.  Evans,  John  T.  Rankin  and  T.  M.  Argo,  Lieu-- 
tenants.  The  new  company  at  once  went  on  duty  at  Smith- 
ville, detachments  from  it  manning  the  guns  at  Reeve's  Point, 
an  earthwork  on  the  south  side  of  Cape  Fear,  opposite  New 
Inlet,  and  also  swelling  the  garrison  at  Fort  Anderson,  some 
miles  higher  up  on  the  same  side  of  the  river.  Company  B, 

306  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Captain  Brown,  remained  at  Fort  Fisher  until  late  in  1864, 
when  it  was  ordered  to^  Fort  Caswell,  then  under  Colonel 
Jones,  where  Eankin's  company  was  then  also  on  duty. 

In  1863,  the  three  companies  were  organized  into  a  battal- 
ion, with  Alexander  McRae  Major,  the  companies  being 
known  as  Companies  A,  B,  C  and  D,  the  last  one  commanded 
by  James  L.  McCormick,  being  formed  after  McEae  was  ap- 
pointed Major,  and  were  mustered  regularly  into  the  Con- 
federate service,  and  known  thereafter  as  the  "First  Battalion 
of  Heavy  Artillery." 

This,  with  the  Thirty-sixth  and  Fortieth  JSTorth  Carolina 
Regiments,  and  attached  companies,  formed  Hebert's  Bri- 
gade. The  officers  of  the  battalion  were  Alexander  McRae, 
of  Wilmington,  Major;  William  Calder,  Adjutant;  Asa  A. 
Hartsfield,  Quartermaster,  and  R.  B.  Jewett,  Sergeant- 

Company  C,  at  this  time  commanded  by  Captain  John  W. 
Taylor,  was  stationed  at  Fort  Campbell,  being  detached  and 
acting  with  the  Thirty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment  under 
Colonel  John  D.  Taylor,  and  remained  on  garrison  duty 
there  until  the  fall  of  Fort  Fisher  in  January,  1865,  doing  all 
the  while  ordinary  guard  and  picket  duty,  and  engaged  in  fre- 
quent combats  with  the  enemy  off  the  fort. 


On  the  morning  of  24  December,  1864,  the  huge  Federal 
fleet  composed  of  iron-clads,  the  new  Ironsides  and  a  large 
number  of  frigates  and  gun  boats,  accompanied  by  transports, 
was  seen  in  crescenl^shaped  order  of  battle  off  Fort  Fisher, 
and  soon  thereafter  orders  came  directing  Captain  Jas>.  L.  Mc- 
Cormick  to  move  Company  D,  First  Battalion  Heavy  Artil- 
lery, to  Fort  Fisher.  Boarding  the  transport  at  Fort  Cas- 
well wharf  and  taking  on  other  troops  at  Smithville,  the  men 
landed  late  in  tlie  afternoon  of  the  same  day  at  Craig's  Land- 
ing, about  one  mile  above  Fort  Fisher.  There  they  were 
formed  and  marched  towards  the  fort,  then  being  heavily 
bombarded,  till  within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  the  works  and 
under  fire,  the  command  was  ordered  under  cover  of  a  sand 
bank  till  nightfall.     They  then  entered  the  works  and  at  once 

Ninth  Battalion.  307 

were  put  on  guard  and  picket  duty,  mounting  guns  and  re- 
placing carriages  dismounted  or  destroyed  during  the  day. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  25  December,  Bowles'  and  Rol- 
lins' Batteries  on  the  sea  face  of  the  fort  or  curtain  extending 
towards  Battery  Buchanan,  at  the  extreme  point  on  the  river, 
which,  with  the  "Mound  Battery,"  and  others  guarded  the 
entrance  to  New  Inlet  bar,  were  manned  by  Company  D. 
On  the  resumption  of  Poster's  attack  this  day  the  guns  were 
served  well  and  steadily,  with  coolness  and  precision,  by  the 
detachments  under  the  terrific  fire  to  which  they  were  sub- 
jected, the  enemy,  under  the  rain  of  shot  and  shell,  desiring 
to  take  soundings  of  the  bar  and  run  the  batteries  to  gain  the 
river  if  possible.  Late  in  the  evening,  while  the  pieces  were 
being  served,  the  company  was  ordered  to  the  left,  to  repel  an 
attack  of  infantry  advanced  on  the  fort  by  General  Butler,  in 
command  of  the  land  forces,  and  took  position  in  the  pali- 
sading in  the  marsh  to  the  right  of  Shepherd's  Battery,  and 
opened  upon  the  enemy's  sharpshooters  till  they  retired.  Af- 
terwards, with  two  other  companies  under  Major  Reilly,  they- 
marched  to  the  Point  as  infantry  to  resist  a  supposed  landing 
of  the  enemy,  but  no  landing  had  been  made.  The  loss  of 
the  company  was  slight,  only  a  few  of  the  men  being  danger- 
ously wounded  in  this  action,  and  none  killed.  The  men 
were  complimented  by  Colonel  Lamb  for  their  coolness  and 
gallantry  under  fire,  and  Lieutenant  Rankin  was  specially 
mentioned  for  gallantry.  General  Whiting,  who  in  the  midst 
of  the  hottest  fire  passed  the  guns,  spoke  words  of  commenda- 
tion to  the  detachments.  In  a  few  days  the  company  was  or- 
dered into  garrison  at  Fort  Caswell.  Fort  Fisher  was  erected 
to  prevent  the  United  States  navy  from  passing  the  New  In- 
let into  the  river.  It  was  built  on  a  sand  spit,  or  peninsula, 
so  to  speak,  lying  between  the  ocean  beach  on  the  east  side, 
and  Cape  Fear  river  on  the  west,  the  shape  of  the  land  being 
triangular,  and  at  the  inlet  between  Bald  Head  or  Smith's 
Island  and  the  Point,  it  was  narrow.  Battery  Buchanan  being 
located  at  the  extremity.  Some  distance  to>  the  east  was  the 
noted  "Moimd  Battery,"  nearer  the  New  Inlet  bar,  and  above 
this  were  redoubts  and  curtain,  extending  up  to,  and  itself 
forming  a  part  of,  the  main  fort,  and  facing  the  sea.    From 

308  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  Point  to  the  land  face  of  the  fort  was  a  mile  and  a  half, 
and  along  this  curtain  were  placed  the  channel  batteries,  pro- 
tected by  traverses,  with  the  necessary  bomb-proofs,  maga- 
zines, etc.  The  land  face  of  the  work  extended  from  the  ter- 
minus  of  this  sea  face  west  and  across  the  spit  or  peninsula, 
nearly  to  the  river.  A  sallyport  was  located  at  the  west  end 
of  the  land  face,  into  which  from  above,  a  road  led  into  the 
fort,  there  being  a  slough  and  bridge  near  the  entrance.  From 
this  sally-port  to  the  river  was  a  breast  work,  protected  by  a 
palisade,  the  stakes  pierced  for  infantry  fire,  sand  bags  also 
being  used  along  this  extension.  The  main  land  face  and 
angle  at  the  sea  face  and  for  some  distance  towards  Bowles' 
Battery,  was  a  powerful  earthwork,  about  sixty  feet  at  the 
base  and  some  twenty  feet  or  more  wide  at  the  elevation,  with 
chambers  for  guns  at  the  proper  intervals,  protected  by  im- 
mense traverses,  with  magazines  and  bomb-proofs,  the  fort 
and  batteries  having  forty-four  guns,  and  two  mortars,  the 
best  the  Confederacy  could  afford,  some  of  late  English  pat- 
tern. General  Grant,  disappointed  at  the  failure  of  Decem- 
ber, now  sent  General  Terry  with  about  8,500  men,  supported 
by  a  formidable  fleet  with  more  than  600  heavy  guns  undei* 
Admiral  Porter,  to  reduce  this  place  and  both  appeared  near 
Fort  Fisher  about  11  or  12  January,  1865. 

second  attack  on  foet  fishee. 

On  this  being  known  Compaaiy  D,  of  the  first  battalion, 
then  in  garrison  at  Fort  Caswell,  was  ordered  to  Fisher  on  13 
January,  the  bombardment  beginning  on  that  day.  At  once 
boarding  the  transport  it  landed  near  Battery  Buchanan  after 
dark  that  night  and  was  ordered  by  Colonel  Lamb  to  move  at 
once  to  the  land  face  to  meet  an  expected  assault.  It  double- 
quicked  to  its  position  near  the  west  end  of  the  land  face,  but 
the  enemy  did  not  then  approach. 

On  the  14th,  men  of  this  company  under  a  heavy  fire, 
manned  guns  on  the  land  face,  unflinching  amid  the  accurate 
aim  of  the  monitors  and  iron-clads.  The  15-inch  shells 
landed  often  on  the  guns,  knocking  off  trunnions,  breaking 
off  great  pieces  of  the  Columbiad  muzzles,  wrecking  gun  car- 
riages, and  often  bespattering  the  walls  of  the  gun  chambers 

Ninth  Battalion.  309 

with  the  blood  and  brains  of  the  men  of  the  detachments,  yet 
the  gunners  coolly  adjusted  the  degrees.  The  men  obeyed 
every  order  till  in  turn  relieved,  often  mounting  the  parapet 
amid  a  stonn  of  exploding  shells  when  necessary  to  sponge  a 
gun,  the  flannel  bursting  into  flame  as  soon  as  out  of  the  muz- 
zle, and  continuing  in  this  way  the  contest  throughout  the 
day.  At  night  on&-half  of  the  picket  ordered  on  the  beach  on 
the  land  face  was  composed  of  men  of  this  company.  Ad- 
vancing until  the  enemy's  pickets  were  discovered,  they 
fought  by  the  light  of  the  enemy's  guns  on  the  line  until  near 
midnight,  when  they  were  drawn  in  close  to  the  fort. 

On  the  morning  of  15  January,  the  attack  was  renewed 
with  unabated  fury  and  daylight,  as  near  as  the  writer  re^ 
calls,  showed  only  two  guns  on  the  land  face  in  condition  for 
service,  and  one  of  these  was  manned  by  detachments  from 
Company  D,  and  the  other  by  a  detachment  from  the  navy. 
A  line  of  rifle  pits  having  now  been  established  by  the  enemy 
within  range,  the  men  at  the  guns  were  shot  as  they  attempted 
to  serve  them,  but  this  fire  was  returned  from  the  parapets 
with  effect. 

With  the  exception  of  some  detachments  at  the  guns,  which 
participated  gallantly  in  the  repulse  of  the  naval  brigade  in 
the  assault  on  the  land  face.  Company  D  was  stationed  on  this 
day  at  a  sallyport  about  midway  the  land  face  of  the  fort, 
until  between  1  and  2  o'clock  p.  m.,  when  Colonel  Lamb  or- 
dered the  company  to  the  extreme  left,  with  instructions  to 
keep  cover  as  well  as  possible  under  the  fort  until  the  enemy, 
now  apparently  massing  for  an  assault,  should  approach 
within  the  range  of  musketry,  and  then,  rushing  to  the  pali- 
sades, man  them  and  contest  their  nearer  approach.  In- 
stantly the  company  cleared  the  gallery  and  bomb-proof,  the 
fleet  at  this  time  turning  their  whole  fire  on  the  land  face  to 
cover  the  assault  and  drive  the  men  to  shelter.  Captain  Mc- 
Cormick  moving  at  the  base  of  the  works.  All  the  land  face 
now  looked  as  if  wrapped  in  flame  and  smoke — the  screaming, 
exploding  shells  tearing  the  earthwork,  making  holes  in  the 
traverses,  and  in  all  the  history  of  war  it  is  doubtful  if  a  more 
infernal  fire  ever  fell  upon  a  fort.  The  company  reaching 
the  sallyport  at  the  extreme  end  of  the  work  next  the  river, 

310  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

halted  under  cover,  when  in  a  few  minutes  there  was  a  sudden 
cessation  of  the  fire,  and  on  the  instant  the  vidette  reported 
the  advance  of  the  enemy's  column.  The  men  of  this  com- 
pany rushed  to  the  palisades,  and  a  section  of  a  battery  at  the 
sallyport  at  once  opened  fire  on  the  enemy,  ajid  a  destructive 
fire  was  kept  up  by  the  battery  and  Company  D  on  the  enemy 
now  within  a  short  distance  of  the  slough,  and  this  was  kept 
up  until  the  enemy  veered,  or  could  not  be  seen  from  the  pali- 
sades at  all.  In  this  time,  after  a  few  rounds  from  the  bat- 
tery, the  detachments,  two  or  three  in  succession,  were  all 
shot  down  at  their  guns,  apparently  by  sharpshooters,  and  the 
pieces  were  not  after  this  served.  In  a  very  short  time  the 
enemy  again  showed  himself  in  our  front.  This  time  the 
column  advanced  to  the  right  of  this  company's  position,  un- 
der a  heavy  fire  poured  on  it  from  the  palisades  between 
the  sallyport  and  the  river's  edge,  moving  as  if  to-  effect  a 
lodgment  on  the  fort  to  the  right  of  the  position  held  by 
Company  D,  but  to  some  extent  exposed  to  its  fire  now  being 
delivered  in  volleys.  In  the  midst  of  this  fire,  it  was  found 
that  the  enemy  were  inside  the  palisades,  to  the  right  of  Com- 
pany D,  and  then  a  desperate  struggle  snceeeded  almost  hand- 
to-hand,  some  of  Company  D  to  the  left  of  the  sallyport  club- 
bing their  muskets  and  fighting  with  the  width  of  the  palisade 
only  between  ttem  and  the  enemy.  But  to  the  right  of  the 
sallyport  and  on  that  angle  of  the  fort,  the  enemy  in  this  as- 
sault got  possession  of  the  exterior  slope,  a  lodgment  was  ef- 
fected, the  parapet  gained,  and  the  men  were  surrounded.  A 
large  number  of  the  company  were  taken  at  the  palisade,  a 
few  retreated  down  the  lines  of  the  fort,  others  to  slight  en- 
trenchments near  the  river  at  right  angles  to  the  land  face, 
and  there  fought  and  held  possession  until  oveirpowered. 
Those  who  retreated  joined  the  other  commands  in  resisting 
the  enemy  from  the  traverses  to-  the  west  of  the  middle  sally- 
port, the  enemy's  line  now  enveloping  the  land  face  on  both 
sides.  At  length  the  enemy  reached  a  traverse  defended  by 
detachments  of  Company  D,  which  had  been  left  serving  the 
guns  when  the  company  went  to  the  left.  Here  these  men 
made  a  deadly  struggle  with  tlie  foe  fo.r  the  traverses,  the 
enemy  and  they  firing  into  each  other's  faces  at  a  few  paces 

Ninth  Battalion.  311 

distance.  Our  men  yielded  the  traverse  only  when  all  or 
nearly  so,  were  killed  or  disabled.  Some  of  the  men  joined 
Colonel  Lamb,  who  conducted  the  charge  on  the  enemy  shortly 
afterwards,  and  were  close  to  that  gallant  officer  when  he  was 
shot  down,  and  continued  to  resist  until  the  works  were  occu- 

In  the  assault  on  the  palisading  on  the  extreme  left  ex- 
tending from  left  angle  of  the  fort  to  the  river's  edge.  Com- 
pany D,  together  with  the  section  of  a  light  battery,  repelled 
the  enemy,  their  line  on  the  second  rush  apparently  obliquing 
to  the  right  of  this  position,  moving  over  the  Wilming- 
ton road,  and  from  a  redoubt  above  the  fort.  General  Whit- 
ing in  referring  to  the  assault  in  a  dispatch  after  the  battle 
and  while  a  prisoner,  said :  "A  portion  of  the  troops  on  the 
left  had  also  repelled  the  first  rush  to  the  left  of  the  works." 
This  Company  D,  of  the  First  Heavy  Artillery  Battalion, 
carried  into  the  action  seventy  to  seventy-five  men,  and  in  the 
three  days'  fight  lost  forty  men  in  killed  and  wounded,  and 
those  left  were  taken  prisoners.  It  is  not  here  intended  in 
any  way  to  say  that  other  commands  in  this  action  did  not  act 
as  gallantly  in  this  terrible  fight,  but  only  to  state  the  facts  in 
connection  with  the  part  borne  in  it  by  one  of  the  companies 
of  the  First  Battalion.  After  the  fall  of  Fisher  all  the  pris- 
oners were  sent  North,  the  works  at  Bald  Head,  Fort  Cas- 
well and  Fort  Campbell  were  blown  up  or  abandoned,  and 
Companies  A,  B  and  C,  together  with  some  men  from  Com- 
pany D,  who  were  not  captured  because  on  detached  duty  at 
other  points,  were  placed  under  command  of  Colonel  John 
D.  Taylor,  of  the  Thirty-sixth  North  Carolina.  At  Fort 
Anderson,  or  in  that  vicinity,  they  participated  in  the  defence 
of  that  place  and  of  other  places  on  the  west  side  of  the  Cape 
Fear  river,  when  pressed  by  the  enemy,  now  advancing  from 
Smithville.  At  Town  Creek  Lieutenant  John  T.  Rankin,  in 
charge  of  a  light  battery,  greatly  distinguished  himself,  fight- 
ing his  guns  until  shot  down  and  his  section  and  men  sur- 
rounded and  captured  by  the  enemy. 


The  battalion  was  on  d^ity  on  the  retreat  from  Anderson, 
and  after  the  evacuation  of  Wilmington  in  February,  marched 

812  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

with  the  army  to  Kinston,  N.  C,  being  attached  to  Hagood'? 
Brigade  after  tlie  fall  of  Fort  Fisher.  At  the  battle  of 
"Southwest  Creek"  (or  "Wise's  Fork"),  below  Kinston,  8-10 
March,  1S65,  the  battalion  was  engaged  slightly  with  a  por- 
tion of  Schoiield's  Corps,  suffering  some  loss.  It  was  in  the 
retreat  to  Smithfield  and  thence  marched  to  Bentonville.  In 
that  battle  19-21  March,  the  battalion  was  on  the  extreme 
right  of  Hagood's  Brigade,  which  formed  the  left  of  John- 
ston's Army.  In  the  assault  on  the  enemy's  works  Sunday 
evening,  19  March,  the  battalion  captured  the  first  line  of 
the  enemy's  works  in  their  front,  their  supports  getting  to 
the  work  but  falling  back.  The  supports  consisted  of  Ha- 
good's and  Colquitt's  Brigades,  but  the  battalion  held  the 
works  taken  for  about  an  hour.  The  troops  on  the  right  and 
left  falling  back,  the  battalion  then  retired. 

In  this  charge  Colonel  John  T).  Taylor  was  wounded,  Cap- 
tain Rankin  mortally  wounded.  Captain  Taylor  killed,  all 
the  Lieutenants  except  Allen  wounded,  and  the  command  was 
now  brought  off  in  charge  of  Lieutenant  J.  A.  Gilchrist,  him- 
self wounded,  the  command  falling  back  under  fire.  In  this 
last  desperate  charge  in  the  last  battle  of  Johnston's  army,  in 
the  last  battle  on  North  Carolina  soil,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
John  D.  Taylor  carried  the  First  Battalion  in  257  strong, 
and  it  lost  on  the  field  in  killed  and  wounded  162  men,  or  57 
per  cent,  of  its  strength. 



On  the  second  day  after  the  actio'U,  ajid  in  the  night,  the 
position  of  the  battalion  was  flanked,  and  it  was  moved  for- 
ward to  the  left,  and  the  works  held  until  Wednesday  morn- 
ing after  the  battle.  The  battalion  was  then  attached  to 
Whitford's  command  and  ordered  to  TarboTO.  The  com- 
mand remained  there  about  a  week.  From  there  it  was  or- 
dered to  a  point  on  the  railroad  below  Weldon,  checking  an 
advance  of  the  enemy  in  that  quarter.  From  there  it  was 
ordered  to  Elizabethtown,  in  Bladen  County,  for  outpost  duty 
on  the  upper  Cape  Fear,  when  tlie  surrender  of  General  John- 
ston was  reported.  It  was  one  of  the  organizations  that  was 
never  formally  surrendered,  and  upon  the  receipt  of  this  news 

Ninth  Battalion.  313 

the  commanding  officer  disbanded  the  battalion  and  the  men 
were  sent  to  their  homes  with  their  arms.  Major  MoRae  and 
Adjutant  William  Calder  went  to  Wilmington,  and  were 
paroled  in  May,  186.5. 

The  above  is  an  imperfect  narrative  of  this  command.  It 
was  not  on  the  fields  of  carnage  and^  g^orj  in  Virginia,  it  was 
not  at  Gettysburg  nor  at  Chancellorsville,  nor  in  the  deadly 
tangles  of  the  Wilderness;  but  in  garrison  services  which 
stayed  the  Confederacy,  in  coolness  when  it  stood  for  battle, 
in  courage  when  it  met  the  enemy's  onset,  and  in  gallantry 
when  it  stormed  his  works  and  forced  his  lines,  its  members 
may  claim  a  place  well  up  in  the  record  of  North  Carolina 
in  the  "heroic  period,"  as  men  who  equaled  in  valor  their  com- 
rades of  any  other  arm,  in  faithful  service  to  the  State  and  in 
loyal  devotion  to  the  South. 

T.  A.  McNeill. 

LUMBERTON,    N.    C, 

3  May,  1901. 


1.  Woodbury  Whepler,  CaptaiD,  Co.  D. 

2.  H.  M.  Barnes,  Captain,  Co.  B. 

3.  C.  S.  Powell,  Adjutant  and  1st  Lieut. 

4.  F.  C.  Frazier,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 



By  WOODBURY  WHEELER,*  Captain  Company  D. 

This  sketch,  is  written  in  pursuance  of  the  following  letter, 
a  copy  of  which  I  learn  was  seAt  to  all  the  historians,  about 
100  in  number,  selected  for  these  volumes : 

Ealeigh,  IST.  C,  19  November,  1894. 
Captain  Woodbury  Wheeler, 
My  Comrade: 

At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Confederate  Veterans'  Associa- 
tion, I  was  appointed  a  committee  to  secure  one  soldier  from 
each  regiment  and  battalion  to  write  a  brief  histo'ry  of  his 
command  with  a  view  to  publication  by  the  State.  I  have 
selected  you  for  your  command,  and  respectfully,  but  earn- 
estly request  that  you  acept  the  duty  thus  imposed  on  you  at 
the  instance  of  your  surviving  comrades.  The  length  and 
tenor  of  the  sketch  is  left  to  your  judgment;  but  an  average 
of  thirty  pages  for  each  regiment,  will  give  us  four  volumes 
of  750  pages  each  of  very  valuable  matter  which  in  a  few 
years  would  otherwise  be  lost  to  the 'world.  You  are  very 
busy,  and  that  is  one  reason  you  are  selected.  Only  busy 
men  have  the  energy  and  the  talent  to  do  work.  You  have 
doubtless  forgotten  much,  but  you  can  get  access  to  the  Official 
Records  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  published  by  the 
United  States  Government,  and  Moore's  Boster,  printed  by 
our  State.  You  can  also  refresh  your  memory  by  correspond- 
ence with  those  of  your  command  who  are  fortunately  still 
living.     Your  record  as  a  soldier  satisfies  me  you  will  not  de- 

•The  author  of  this  sketch  was  a  son  of  the  late  Jno.  H.  Wheeler,  author 
of  a  history  of  North  Carolina.  His  MSS.  of  Reminiscencies  of  Eminent 
North  Carolinians  were  printed  by  this  son  after  the  death  of  the  author. 
Born  in  Lincoln,  N.  C,  the  writer  of  this  sketch,  at  the  age  of  19,  en- 
tered the  service  of  North  Carolina  and  served  four  years.  He  died  like 
several  others,  who  are  authors  of  sketches  herein,  pending  the  delay  of 
the  Legislature  to  authorize  the  publication  of  these  volumes. — Ed 

316  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

cline  this  post  of  duty.     Send  me  the  manuscript  if  possible 
by  1  March,  next. 

I  respectfully  request  that  you  writ©  the  history  of  the 
JSTorth  Carolina  Battalion  in  which  you  served  in  the  war. 

Please  acknowledge  your  acceptance  of  this  assignment  to 
duty,  the  last  which  the  Confederate  soldiers  can  ask  of  you, 
that  I  may  enter  your  name  on  the  list  to  be  filed  with  the 
Veterans'  Association.  Believe  me  to  be,  with  highest  re- 
gard and  esteem.  Fraternally  yours, 

Waltes  Claek. 

The  above  courteous  request  of  Comrade  Walter  Clark  to 
prepare  this  sketch  would  be  equivalent  to  an  order  from 
headquarters  that  must  be  obeyed.  Moore  in  his  "Roster" 
of  JSTorth  Carolina  troops,  who  served  in  the  armies  of  the 
Confederacy,  calls  this  the  Eighth  Battalion,  (IV,  359)  and 
gave  our  number  to  the  battalion  of  men  detailed  as  artisans 
(395)  ;  how  the  error  occurred  in  the  War  Department  Rec- 
ords, he  does  not  explain.  But  from  the  foundation  of  the 
battalion,  in  May,  1865,  it  was  always  known  and  mustered 
as  the  "Tenth  Battalion  of  North  Carolina  Artillery." 

The  engineer  ofiicers  of  the  Confederate  Army  were  prob- 
ably as  fine  a  body  of  experts  as  ever  existed ;  whenever  they 
projected  lines  of  defence  around  any  important  point  we 
might  rest  assured  that  these  had  been  planned  and  completed 
according  to  the  most  approved  system.  At  the  entrances 
of  the  Cape  Fear  river  and  also  around  the  City  of  Wilming- 
ton, every  point  was  made  as  impregnable  as  possible.  When 
these  entrenchments  were  finished  several  artillery  regiments 
were  formed  for  the  special  garrison  of  the  same;  as  Presi- 
dent Davis  remarked,  he  had  sent  his  most  skillful  officers  to 
the  defence  of  the  place — referring  then  more  especially  to 
that  knightly  soldier.  General  W.  H.  C.  Whiting,  who  died 
21  January,  1865,  from  wounds  received  at  the  second  attack 
upon  Fort  Fisher. 

To  this  necessity  of  creating  a  force  for  the  defence  of 
Wilmington  does  the  Tenth  Battalion  owe  its  formation.  In 
February,  1862,  we  find  the  first  enlistments  were  made  for 
the  battalion,  and  on  13  May  of  that  year,  the  Major  (Wil- 

Tenth  Battalion.  317 

ton  L.  Young,  of  Wake  County),  was  commissioned  to  com- 
mand the  three  companies  then  comprising  the  organization. 
Subsequently,  in  April,  1863,  Company  D  was  formed  and 
Woodbury  Wheeler  made  its  Captain.  Captain  Wheeler  had 
served  during  the  first  six  months  of  the  war  as  Adjutant  of 
the  Sixteenth  Eegiment,  under  General  Eobert  E.  Lee,  in  the 
campaign  around  Cheat  Mountain,  Virginia.  The  men  were 
nearly  all  from  the  Western  counties  of  our  State.  The 
duties  of  this  battalion  at  that  time  were  important,  but  not 
brilliant ;  in  the  summer  season  they  were  ordered  out  of  the 
city  either  to  the  forts  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cape  Fear  or  to 
the  "Sound,"  to  prevent  any  inroads  from  that  direction. 


It  was  whilst  the  battalion  was  stationed  at  Tort  Caswell 
that  a  raid  was  made  by  the  enemy,  from  th'eir  fleet  to  the 
headquarters  of  our  General  at  Smithville,  which  for  daring 
could  hardly  be  surpassed.  Following  the  channel,  which 
was  necessarily  left  open  to  admit  our  English  friends,  in 
their  blockade-running  steamers,  these  raiders,  commanded 
by  the  same  Lieutenant  Wm.  B.  Cushing,  who  afterwards 
destroyed  the  ironclad  "Albemarle,"  with  equal  intrepidity, 
came  within  pistol  shot  of  our  sentries ;  passed  batteries  that 
could  have  hurled  tons  of  shot  and  shell  upon  them,  and  land- 
ing at  the  Smithville  wharf,  went  immediately  to  General 
Heberf  s  quarters.  He  fortunately  was  at  Wilmington  on  that 
night;  but  when  his  chief  of  staff  raised  the  window  to  find 
out  the  cause  of  the  commotion  on  the  porch,  the  front  end  of 
a  revolver  was  thrust  in  his  face  with  a  demand  for  his  sur- 
render. Tbe  result  of  this  raid  was  the  capture  of  that 
officer  only.  The  alarm  was  promptly  given,  all  the  batteries 
opened  fire  on  the  channel-way- — dark  as  Erebus  although  it 
was.  Cushing  fled  to  his  gunboat,  lying  in  as  near  as  she 
could  to  the  fort,  and  then  putting  on  a  full  head  of  steani, 
turned  his  vessel  seaward.  In  his  great  haste  he  ran  into 
another  gunboat,  the  "Peterhoff,"  and  she  sank  in  less  than 
ten  minutes. 

The  next  day  one  of  the  fleet  came  in  near  the  fort  again, 
but  its  white  flag  at  the  peak  was  not  observed.     Our  Whit- 

318  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

worth  gun  was  unlimbered  and  made  ready  for  action;  the 
command  to^  fire  was  on  the  lips  of  the  Lieutenant  in  charge, 
when  the  vessel  stopped  and  turned  her  broadside  towards  the 
fort,  and  not  until  then  was  the  flag  of  truce  at  her  masthead 
spread  out  by  the  breeze  so  we  could  see  it.  A  small  boat 
came  ashore  for  the  captured  ofiicer's  personal  effects  and 
brought  a  note  of  adieu  from  him  to  his  late  comrades.  Wo 
never  saw  him  again. 

Since  the  war  the  writfr  has  bten  told  by  Federal  officers 
who  were  on  the  fleet  that  lay  off  Fort  Caswell,  doing  block- 
ade duty,  that  our  "WhitM'orth"  would  slioot  clear  through 
their  vessels  when  they  came  in  range.  One  of  its  projectiles 
cut  the  thi'oat  of  a  quartermaster  as  clean  as  if  done  by  a 
razor,  the  shot  doing  no  other  damage. 

Tbey  said  Lieutenant  Gushing  frequently  spent  days  in 
ambush  on  the  banks  of  the  Cape  Fear  and  would  often  cap- 
tare  our  army  couriers  passing  from  Wilmington  tO'  Smitli- 
ville ;  he  would  compel  theon  to  exchange  clothes  with  one  of 
his  men,  whom  he  would  send  into  Smithville  after  dark,  on 
horseback,  to  get  the  correspondence  ready  to  be  returned  to 

The  old  line  ofiicers  on  the  fleet  looked  with  contempt  on 
all  such  raids  as  guerrilla  warfare  and  frowned  upon  such  as 
eccentricities  of  Cusbing. 

The  spirit  of  this  brave  young  officer  chafed  under  the  re- 
straints enforced  by  a  retTim  to  peace,  and  he  ended  his  days 
within  the  -avails  of  "St.  Elizabeth,"  the  United  States  hospi- 
tal for  the  insane  of  the  army  and  navy,  near  Washington 
City,  a  raving  maniac.  War's  dread  alarm  alone  had  charms 
for  him. 

The  Whitworth  gun  mentioned  was  a  terror  to  the  enemy ; 
its  range  was  immense,  its  accuracy  that  of  a  sharpshooter. 
The  blockading  fleet  was  by  it  compelled  to  keep  so  far  from 
the  fort  that  the  English  steamers  easily  made  the  port.  Our 
great  war  governor,  Zebulon  B.  Vance,  appreciated  the  im- 
portance and  necessity  of  using  these  English-built  steamers 
to  supply  his  brave  troops  with  the  sinews  of  war,  as  well  as 

Tenth  Battalion.  319 

blockade  eunning. 

It  had  been  the  policy  of  President  Davis  to  put  an  em- 
bargo on  cotton  and  thus  make  the  great  powers  of  Europe 
raise  the  Federal  blockade  to  obtain  a  supply  of  this  great 
product  of  the  South ;  so  the  inland  cities  of  the  South  had 
about  this  time  great  rows  of  cotton  bales,  making  cumber- 
some curb-lines  for  their  streets,  awaiting  this  raising  of  the 
blockade  of  the  enemy.  The  Governor  of  North  Carolina  did 
not  believe  in  this  policy  and  determined  to  supply  his  men 
with  what  they  needed  as  soldiers,  and  by  exchanging  cotton 
for  meat  and  bread  so  help  them  and  their  families.  One 
of  the  largest  vessels  which  ran  the  blockade  at  this  point  was 
purchased  by  our  State,  and  she  was  christened  the  "Ad- 
Vance."  By  her  many  cargoes  of  the  priceless  necessities  of 
life  were  brought  to  Wilmington,  and  the  JSTorth  Carolina 
troops  heaped  blessings  on  their  Governor's  name  for  this  evi- 
dence of  his  care  and  tender  regard. 

The  "Sumter,"  the  great  Admiral  Semmes'  first  ship,  once 
came  into  this  port  and  brought  on  that  trip  two  "Blakeley" 
guns,  of  such  great  size,  that  they  were  stood  on  their  end  in 
the  forward  part  of  the  vessel  and  around  their  muzzles  some 
of  the  larger  ropes  of  the  ship  were  wound.  These  guns  were 
put  on  the  battery  at  Charleston,  an  interior  line,  and  al- 
though costing  many  thousands  of  dollars,  never  had  the  op- 
portunity of  firing  a  shot  at  the  enemy. 

In  the  winter  the  lines  of  entrenchment  around  the  City 
of  Wilmington  Were  picketed  by  this  battalion ;  so  long  were 
these  linfes,  the  duty  was  most  arduous.  During  the  winter 
the  battalion  also  became  the  provost  guard  of  the  city.  Wil- 
mington was  the  last  port  held  by  the  Confederacy,  and  the 
fleet  of  English  blockade  runners  on  the  river  front  became 
very  numerous,  with  them  came  many  JSTorthern  spies.  The 
city  was  patrolled  constantly,  every  "suspect"  was  himted 
down  and  brought  in  with  a  file  of  soldiers  at  his  back,  and 
the  rough  element,  male  and  female,  adventurers  of  every 
class,  were  kept  in  subjection  as  far  as  possible.  The  duties 
of  a  provost-guard  whilst  most  necessary  are  nevertheless  irk- 

320  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

oedebed  south. 

The  battalion,  however,  had  work  enough  from  December 
1864,  to  the  end  of  the  war  to  satisfy  the  most  ambitious  sol- 
dier, and  during  the  next  five  months  there  was  hardly  a  day 
"which  they  could  call  their  own."  Geoaeral  Sherman  had 
"cut  loose"  from  his  base  of  supplies.  The  plan  to  divert  his 
raid  across  Georgia  was  frustrated  by  the  repulse  of  Hood's 
army  at  Franklin,  Tenn.,  and  Federal  forces  moved  across 
the  State  of  Georgia  with  comparatively  little  opposition. 
So  soon  as  Savannah  was  found  to  be  the  "objective  point" 
of  Sherman's  march,  its  defence  was  assigned  to  Lieutenant- 
General  W.  J.  Hardee,  a  most  gallant  officer  of  world-wide 
reputation,  and  this  battalion  was  put  into  the  trenches 
around  that  city.  The  writer  was  in  hospital  suffering  from 
rheumatism,  when  the  command  left  Wilmington.  The 
lines  of  entrenehm.ent  around  Wilmington  which  the  com- 
mand had  picketed  for  so  many  days  and  nights  and  guarded 
so  zealously,  were  to  be  left  by  them  to  other  hands  to  de- 
fend when  assaulted  by  the  enemy.  The  writer  came  with 
the  command  to  Augusta,  Georgia,  and  there  all  soldiers 
who  had  already  seen  service  at  the  front,  but  were  now 
doing  "post  duty,"  once  more  volunteered  to  return  to  the 
field  and  defend  the  State.  The  enthusiasm  was  intense  and 
the  writer,  although  in  hospital,  reported  for  such  duty  as  he 
might  be  able  to  perform. 


The  Tenth  Battalion  went  into  Savannah  just  as  Sherman 
appeared  before  that  city,  and  here  for  nearly  twenty  days  it 
was  almost  continuously  under  fire. 

The  army  commanded  by  General  Sherman  was  well  nigh 
invincible,  rude  and  truculent  though  it  seemed  at  times,  but 
made  up  as  it  was  of  the  brawn  and  muscle  of  the  great  North- 
west, it  became  a  "scourge  of  God,"  a  dire  punishment  to  the 

For  days  and  days  of  that  cold  December  (1864)  Sher- 
man's men  would  form  in  skirmish  line,  on  the  edge  of  the 
woods,  and  move  across  the  "opening"  right  up  to  the  range 
of  our  canister  and  grape  shot  before  they  could  be  driven 

Tenth  Battalion.  321 

back  to  cover.  During  the  weeks  of  siege,  our  General  found 
out  that  the  coil  was  being  tightened  around  his  devoted  com- 
mand. Fighting  for  "home  and  fatherland,"  his  small  force 
was  doing  all  that  could  be  done  to  save  the  lovely  city  en- 
trusted to  them,  and  yet  we  all  began  to  think  that  before  the 
winter  closed  we  would  be  in  prison  at  Fort  Delaware  or  on 
Johnson  Island ;  still  we  stood  to  our  guns  and  did  our  duty. 


Inside  of  these  lines  there  was  an  infantry  battalion  whose 
officers  were  some  of  our  best  young  men,  noble  in  heart  and 
in  spirit,  cadets  of  some  of  the  oldest  families  in  the  Caro- 
Unas,  but  the  rank  and  file  were  made  up  of  men  who  had 
been  captured  by  our  armies  in  various  battles.  These  we 
called  "galvanized  Yankees."  True  they  were  nearly  all 
foreigners,  mostly  Irishmen,  who  cared  for  neither  side  es- 
pecially, but  had  been  first  regularly  enlisted  in  the  Federal 
army.  If  captured,  they  knew  they  would  be  tried  for  de- 
sertion, for  they  now  "wore  the  gray."  Amongst  them  was 
a  young  Sergeant,  a  native  of  Delaware,  he  came  with  the  bat- 
talion, thus  made  up.  They  soon  "took  in  the  situation," 
and  almost  felt  like  the  rope  was  around  their  necks.  Who 
could  blame  them  for  their  desire  to  escape  such  a  fate  ? 

One  night  a  gigantic  Irish  Corporal  in  this  command,  be- 
cause he  had  become  so  devoted  to  one  of  the  Confederate  of- 
ficers over  him,  revealed  a  plot  which  had  been  formed  to 
spike  the  guns  of  our  main  battery,  kill  or  capture  the  officers 
near  by  and  go  over  into  Sherman's  lines.  The  young  Dela- 
ware Sergeant  was  the  originator  of  the  plot.  Several  regi- 
ments from  another  portion  of  our  line  surrounded  this  un- 
happy band  and  their  guns  were  speedily  taken  from  them. 
A  drum-head  court-martial  was  held,  and  in  less  than  an  hour 
our  young  Delaware  Sergeant  and  six  others,  at  the  hour  of 
midnight,  were  duly  executed  by  sentence  of  this  court;  the 
residue  of  the  command  was  passed  through  our  lines  to  the 
rear.  Our  General  was  tried  after  the  war  under  orders  of 
the  War  Department  at  Washington  for  the  execution  of 
these  conspirators,  but  of  course  he  was  acquitted. 
,     21 

322  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 


The  end  of  the  siege  came  at  last ;  one  evening,  long  into 
the  dark,  we  shelled  the  woods  in  front  of  our  batteries,  and 
kept  the  enemy  from  having  any  fires  at  all,-  but  when  our 
headquarter's  band  finally  struck  up  "Dixie,"  they  all  yelled 
at  us,  "Played  out!  Played  out!"  For  some  cause  or  other 
they  did  not  return  our  fire  on  that  night  at  all,  and  it  was 
about  11  o'clock  when  we  silently  marched  down  the  City 
road,  lined  by  the  great  live  oak  trees,  with  their  long  festoons 
of  waving  moss  and  vines  which  swung  backward  and  for- 
Avard,  in  the  pale  moonlight,  and  seemed  to  be  ghosts  of  our 
departed  hopes.  We  passed  through  the  city  and  just  as  the 
clocks  in  the  steeples  struck  "one!"  our  command  had  reached 
the  centre  of  the  dikes  in  the  rice  fields,  which  border  the  Car- 
olina side  of  the  Savannah  river. 

No  pursuit  of  us  was  attempted.  The  enemy  was  perfectly 
willing  to  "play  quits"  aft«r  weeks  of  constant  duelling. 

At  our  first  halt  the  Georgia  troops  being  "Home  Gruards" 
insisted  that  they  should  be  returned  to  their  State.  And  as 
a  legitimate  operation  of  the  doctrine  of  State's  rights,  they 
were  returned.  This  forced  General  Hardee  to  uncover 
Charleston  and  that  great  citadel  fell. 

Then  came  the  campaign  of  the  Carolinas,  under  the  com- 
mand of  General  Jos.  E.  Johnston.  It  was  on  19-21  March, 
1865,  that  there  occun'ed  the  three  days'  contest  at  Benton- 
ville,  which  for  fierceness  and  vigor  might  be  well  honored 
with  the  title  of  one  of  the  greatest  battles  of  the  war.  It 
was  the  last  fought  in  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Confederacy. 

General  Johnston  finding  that  the  wings  of  Sherman's 
army  were  widely  separated,  precipitated  his  whole  command 
on  the  Federal  corps  commanded  by  General  Slocum  at  Aver- 
asboTo  16  March,  and  gave  that  distinguished  ofiicer  a  pretty 
thorough  scare;  with  about  14,000  men,  he  captured  three 
guns,  many  prisoners  and  drove  the  enemy  back  several  miles. 
He  certainly  taught  the  commander  of  tliat  wing  that  our  shot 
and  shell  were  not  yet  all  gone;  but  the  other  portion  of  Sher- 
man's army  coming  up,  we  fell  back  to  Bentonville  where  for 
three  days  with  less  than  20,000  men,  we  held  at  bay  Sher- 
man's united  command  of  near  70,000  men. 

Tenth  Battalion.  323 

the  eeteeat. 

The  retreat  across  our  own  native  State  next  followed. 
The  only  hope  we  had  was  to  make  a  junction  with  General 
Lee's  army  and  make  a  combined  assault  on  either  one  of  the 
armies  of  the  enemy.  That  hope  was  not  realized,  and  so  on 
1  May,  1865,  at  Greensboro,  IST.  C,  the  writer  was  duly 
paroled  with  the  battalion  and  became  once  more  a  civilian, 
"in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  Military  Convention, 
entered  into  on  26  April,  1865,  between  General  Joseph  E. 
Johnston,  commanding  the  Confederate  army,  and  Major- 
General  W.  T.  Sherman,  commanding  the  United  States 
Army  in  IsTorth  Carolina,  and  he  was  permitted  to  return  to 
his  home,  not  to  be  disturbed  by  the  United  States  authorities 
so  long  as  he  observed  this  obligation  and  obeyed  the  laws  in 
force  where  he  may  reside."  This  parole  is  signed  by  T.  B. 
Koy,  A.  A.  General,  C.  S.  A.,  Commissioner,  and  Wm.  Hart- 
suff,  Brev.  Brigadier-General  and  A.  I.  G.,  U.  S.  A.,  Special 

Washington,  D.  C, 

26  April,  1898. 


By  F.  C.  FEAZIEE,  First  Lieutenant  Company  A. 

The  Tenth  Battalion,  after  its  organization,  was  encamped 
some  three  months  at  Salisbury  in  the  early  part  of  1862. 
Company  A  was  mostly  from  Kandolph  County.  The  writer 
of  this  sketch,  was  first  a  member  of  Company  I,  Tenth  JSTorth 
Carolina  (First  Artillery),  and  was  in  the  battles  around 
Kinston  and  GoldsBoroi,  at  the  time  of  General  Foster's  raid 
on  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Kailroad  in  1862.  The  North 
Carolina  troops  at  that  juncture  had  nearly  all  been  sent  to  aid 
General  Lee  in  Virginia,  who  was  hourly  expecting  an  attack 
by  Burnsideat  Fredericksburg.  The  same  time  was  selected 
by  General  Foster  to  make  his  attack  in  the  eastern  part  of 
the  State  that  Burnside  made  his  assault  on  Lee's  forces. 
His  force  numbered  some  20,000  men  and  36  pieces  of  artil- 
lery. All  day  the  12  December  Colonel  Pool,  commanding 
six  companies  of  the  Sixty-first  Regiment,  Bunting's  Battery, 
and  Starr's,  fought  and  held  them  in  check  between  Southwest 
creek  and  the  Kinston  bridge  across  the  ITeuse  river,  assisted 
late  in  the  evening  by  a  part  of  General  Evans'  Brigade.  On 
15  December,  General  Evans'  Brigade,  with  Mallett's  Battal- 
ion and  the  troops  engaged  the  day  before,  formed  a  semi-cir- 
cle around  the  bridge  on  the  south  side  of  the  ISTeuse  and  held 
them  back  until  1  p.  m.,  when  a  great  part  of  the  ammunition 
being  exhausted  and  no  prospect  of  any  more  reinforcements, 
our  forces  attempted  to  reoross  the  bridge  and  bum  it,  partial 
arrangements  having  been  made  for  that  purpose,  but  the  en- 
emy got  near  the  bridge  before  our  troops  could  get  over.  Only 
a  part  being  over  when  it  was  set  on  fire,  some  men  ran 
through  the  fire,  some  fell  in  the  river  and  some  six  hundred 
were  captured.  Two  guns  of  our  battery  were  lost  at  the 
bridge.  Our  forces  fell  back  to  the  rear  of  town,  to  Washing- 
ton's Hill.  The  Federals  next  morning  recrossed  the  river 
and  marched  up  the  river  on  the  south  side.     The  15th  they 

326  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

fought  the  Eleventh  Regiment  at  White  Hall  across  the  river, 
the  bridge  being  burned  down.  The  16th  they  fought  our 
forces,  on  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Eailroad  south  of  Golds- 
boro  and  south  of  the  ISTeuse  river,  burning  the  railroad 
bridge.  At  the  same  time  a  part  of  their  forces  fought  Bunt- 
ing's Battery  and  the  Forty-fourth  Regiment,  Major  Sted- 
man  commanding,  across  the  river  at  Spring  Banli.  Bunt- 
ing's Battery  in  the  three  days'  lighting,  lost  nineteen  men 
killed  and  wounded;  at  the  writer's  gun,  of  six  cannoneers, 
one  was  killed  and  two'  badly  wounded ;  three  horses  out  of 
four  at  the  gun  shot — no  men  captured.  General  Foster 
paroled  all  his  prisoners.  He  was  formerly  Superintendent- 
of  the  Fentress  copper  mine  in  Guilford  County,  ~N.  C. 

In  February,  1863,  the  writer  was  transferred  to  the  En- 
gineer Corps  with  rank  of  Lieutenant,  soon  thereafter  v/as 
elected  Lieutenant  in  Company  A,  Tenth  Battalion  (Second 
Heavy  Artillery),  and  reported  for  duty  in  April,  1863,  at 

Malarial  fever  prevailed  around  the  city;  yellow  fever  in 
1862.  Company  A  buried  twenty-nine  of  her  men  at  and 
near  Wilmington.  When  a  cavalry  regiment  of  Federals 
'from  ISTew  Bern  made  a  raid  on  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon 
Eailroad,  burning  the  depot  at  Burgaw,.  the  Tenth  Battalion 
pursued  down  below  Richlands — ^heavy  artillery  pursuing 
cavalry — the  cavalry  came  in  on  the  "home  stretch"  by  all 
odds  ahead. 

The  battalion  was  at  Fort  Caswell  some  months  in  1863. 
While  there  the  "Ad-Vance,"  State  blockade  runner, 
grounded  on  the  bar,  off  the  fort  one  and  a  half  miles.  The 
writer,  Sergeant  Harris  and  fifteen  men  were  sent  aboard 
to  keep  the  Federal  g-un  boats  off;  a  storm  coming  up 
we  were  not  relieved  for  three  days.  The  steamer  was 
loaded  down  with  stores  for  our  ISTorth  Carolina  soldiers ;  we 
did  not  know  for  some  time  whether  we  were  going  to  Hart's 
Island  or  "Davy  Jones'  locker."  While  out  there  a  blockade 
runner  passed  by  and  entered  the  Cape  Fear  at  ]  0  a.  m.  Gov- 
ernor Vance  presented  the  writer  with  a  suit  of  English  grey, 
a  small  fortune  at  that  time. 

There  being  yellow  fever  in  Bermuda,  in  the  fall  of  1864, 

Tenth  Battalion.  327 

Company  A  was  detailed  to  do  quarantine  duty  at  Fort  An- 
derson ;  all  blockade  runners  having  yellow  fever  on  them 
were  unloaded  there;  the  officers  had  to  go  aboard  and  ex- 
amine their  manifest.  ISTo  soldier  was  allowed  to  leave  the 
fort  on  furlough  during  this  time. 

In  November,  1864,  the  battalion,  with  half  of  the  Fortieth 
Regiment  (Third  Artillery),  was  ordered  to  Augusta,  Ga., 
which  Sherman  was  then  threatening  on  his  march  from  At- 
lanta to  Savannah.  We  remained  only  a  few  days ;  he  did 
not  come  nearer  than  Millen.  The  Confederate  powder  mill 
was  being  torn  up  and  moved  to  Columbia,  S.  C.  The  writer 
was  placed  in  command  of  Battery  ISTo.  i,  near  the  mill. 
Then  the  battalion  was  moved  to  Charleston,  thence  to  Sav.iii- 
nah  and  up  the  Central  Railroad  forty-five  miles  towards 
Macon,  was  engaged  with  Sherman's  advance  at  Jenks' 
bridge,  had  a  few  men  wounded  and  the  writer  and  twenty- 
four  men  captured ;  part  of  Company  A  was  placed  two  miles 
out  to  watch  the  Ogeechee  river,  fearing  the  Federals  would 
cross  on  pontoons  to  our  rear,  and  were  not  ordered  in  until 
the  rest  of  the  command  had  gotten  on  the  train  and  moved 
back  to  Savannah ;  was  at  Fort  McAlister  soon  after  it  fell. 

There  mines  had  been  made  and  powder  placed  which  did 
execution  when  the  fort  was  charged.  Was  then  sent  with 
other  prisoners  to  Hilton  Head,  there  was  confined  two 
months  with  160  Confederate  officers  on  "retaliation" — one 
pint  of  corn  meal  a  day  and  some  pickles,  no  meat,  no  fire  in 
the  buildings,  meal  old  and  bitter,  bran  and  bugs  in  it.  One- 
third  of  the  officers  could  not  walk  when  moved  north  to  Fort 

Little  has  been  said  about  that  "retaliation,"  but  it  will 
never  be  forgotten  by  those  who  suffered  at  Hilton  Head. 

This  battalion  kept  to  the  rear  for  two  years,  faithfiiUy 
obeyed  all  orders,  guarded  millions  of  dollars  worth  of  stores 
for  the  army  at  the  front,  and  with  sleepless  vigilance  watched 
and  -kept  the  enemy  back  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cape  Fear 
(when  for  a  long  time  it  was  the  only  port  a  blockade  runner 
could  enter)  so  rations  and  munitions  of  war  could  be  brought 
in  for  Lee's  brave  men.  No  better  guards  were  in  our  army ; 
nothing  was  taken  or  lost,  though  often  short  of  rations  and 

328  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

clothes  themselves,  and  when  placed  in  front  of  Sherman's 
victorious  army  in  Georgia,  they  fought  and  moved  back  stub- 
bornly at  Jenks'  bridge,  Savannah,  through  South  Carolina  to 
middle  North  Carolina,  doing  their  whole  duty,  and  when  the 
whole  army  could  see  the  cause  was  lost,  ready  tO'  do  their 
duty  as  well-drilled  soldiers,  regardless  of  results,  they  went 
intO'  the  last  battle,  19-21  March,  1865,  at  Bentonville,  with 
the  same  dash  and  rebel  yell  as  Stonewall  Jackson's  and  Jeb 
Stuart's  men,  flushed  with  victory,  did  in  1862.  Company  A 
was  iDaroled  at  Bush  Hill,  N.  C,  2  May,  1865,  each  man  and 
each  officer  being  paid  $1.25  in  silver  for  faithful  service  for 
three  years. 

F.  C.  Feaziee. 

Trinity,  N.   C. 

26  April,   1901. 



By  C.  S.  POWELL,  Adjutant. 

The  Tenth  JSTorth  Carolina  Battalion  was  known  as  Heavy 
Artillery,  and  were  drilled  and  skilled  in  the  use  of  both 
artillery  and  small  arms.  The  officers,  non-commissioned 
officers,  and  many  privates,  could  name  the  nomenclature  of 
a  Columbiad  or  Whitworth  from  knob  to  tompion,  could  cut 
fuses  for  blank  or  point  blank  range,  understood  the  uses  of 
the  quadrant  and  sextant,  and  drilled  with  muskets  until  the 
index  finger  of  the  right  hand  crooked  like  a  hawk  claw  while 
the  barbette  carriages  on  the  parapets,  and  the  mounted  field 
pieces  were  as  play  things  for  them  to  handle.  While  they 
did  not  see  so  much  carnage  and  bloodshed  as  many  others  in 
the  main  armies,  their  services  were  nevertheless  dangerous, 
arduous,  necessary  and  important  and  helped  to  make  the 
record  of  the  grandest  army  that  ever  mustered  on  this  earth. 

This  battalion  was  organized  some  time  in  1862  at  Wil- 
mington, N.  0.,  and  consisted  of  four  companies.  A,  B,  C  and 
D,  and  was  commanded  by  Major  Wilton  L.  Young,  of  Wake 
County,  with  T.  W.  Bickett,  of  Union  County,  Adjutant; 
Simpson  Russ,  of  ISTew  Orleans,  La.,  Surgeon ;  W.  Gr.  Toomer, 
Mobile',  Ala.,  Quartermaster;  B.  S.  Traywick,  of  Union 
County,  Sergeant-Ma j or;  T.  G.  Cureton,  of  Union  Co'imty, 
Ordnance  Sergeant. 

Company  A  was  commanded  by  Captain  H.  J.  Harriss,  of 
Randolph  Coimty ;  S.  A.  Young  of  Wake  County,  F.  C.  Fra- 
zier  (the  best  gunner  in  the  army),  and  'S.  L.  McCoin,  of 
Randolph  County,  being  the  Lieutenants. 

Company  B  by  Captain  H.  M.  Barnes,  of  Harnett  County ; 
W.  L.  Hockaday  of  Harnett,  Y.  J.  Lawhorn  and  C.  S.  Pow- 
ell of  Johnston,  Lieutenants. 

Note. — This  battalion  was  officially  known  always  as  the  Tenth  Battal- 
ion. It  is  erroneously  given  in  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  pp.  359-372  as 
the  Eighth  Battalion.— Ed. 

330  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Company  C  by  Captain  C.  M.  T.  McCauley,  of  Union 
County;  J.  A.  Grady,  T.  W.  Bickett  and  S.  S.  McCauley,  of 
Union  County,  Lieutenants. 

Company  t)  by  Captain  Woodbury  A^Tieeler,  of  Lincoln; 
E.  B.  Goelet,  of  Wayne  County ;  J.  M.  Terrell  and  Calvin 
Dickinson  (county  not  known)   Lieutenants. 

There  were  over  one  hundred  men  in  each  company,  and 
about  all  the  mechanics,  carpenters  and  skilled  workmen  in 
these  companies  were  almost  continually  on  detailed,  de- 
tached extra  work  without  extra  pay. 

This  was  substantially  the  formation  of  the  battalion  when 
I  joined  it  in  1863.  There  were  subsequent  changes,  among 
which  was  the  promotion  of  Adjutant  Bickett  to  Assistant 
Surgeon  in  some  North  Carolina  Kegiment;  C.  S.  Powell  to 
Adjutant;  B.  S.  Traywick  to  Assistant  Surgeon;  D.  A. 
Young  tO'  Sergeant-Major,  and  many  minor  changes  among 
the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates'.  This  battalion 
operated  mostly  in  and  around  the  city  of  Wilmington,  at  the 
forts  below,  and  on  the  Cape  Fear  river  at  the  inlets. 


A  semi-circle  of  three  or  more  miles  around  the  city  was 
entrenched  and  protected  by  skilfully  erected  dams  across 
water  courses,  entrenchments  and  traverses  in  the  intervals 
and  high  places,  surmounted  by  heavy  ordnance.  In  the  city 
itself,  on  the  bluffs  on  the  river,  were  batteries  of  ten-inch 
Columbiads  and  magazines  stored  with  ordnance  supplies. 
Along  the  river  front  were  immense  sheds  with  government 
supplies  stored  for  shipment  to  the  various  armies  in  the  field. 
These  guns,  magazines,  dams,  government  stores  and  line  of 
entrenchments  were  constantly  guarded,  day  and  night,  with 
a  new  guard  every  day,  commanded  by  a  mounted  commis- 
sioned ofiicer  of  the  day  whose  duty  was  to  inspect  every  point 
twice  in  twenty-four  ho'Urs  and  make  written  report  of  the 
same  to  headquarters  on  being  relieved.  This  arduous  duty 
coupled  with  the  exposure  to  the  malarial  sAvamps  of  the 
ponds  made  by  the  dams,  and  marshy  borders  of  the  river, 
the  yellow  fever,  the  smallpox  scourge  of  1862-'63,  the 
sand  flies,  mosquitoes  and  bad  water  was  about  as  serious  and 

Tenth  Battalion.  331 

mortal  as  shrieking  shells  and  the  inquisitive  minie  balls. 
This  duty  lasted  two  long  years  and  many  noble  men  went 
down  to  rise  no  more  till  resurrection  day.  We  had  one  little 
picnic  excursion  up  to  Kenansville,  Duplin  County,  to  inter- 
cept a  Yankee  raid  from  somewhere  on  the  coast.  They  did 
not  come,  and  the  boys  got  fat  on  good  country  grub  sent  to 
camp  by  the  blessed  ladies  of  the  town  and  country.  I  turned 
a  plumb  fool  aboiit  then  and  went  back  there  after  the  war 
and  fooled  one  of  them  off  home  with  me  and  she  is  sitting  in 
eight  feet  of  me  now. 

Ten  days  ended  our  picnic  and  our  same  beat  was  filled 
again  until  one  other  little  outing  of  a  coiiple  of  weeks  to  the 
sound,  eight  miles  off,  to  protect  some  salt  works  that  was 
being  annoyed  by  the  Yanliee  gunboats.  A  few  shots  from  a 
Whitworth  gun  stood  thena  off  and  they  gave  no  more  trouble. 
The  fall  of  1864  we  were  sent  tO'  the  forts  on  the  river  below 
Wilmington.  A  short  time  at  Fort  Anderson,  which  was 
mostly  a  quarantine  station  for  incoming  vessels,  and  then  to 
Fort  Caswell  and  later  to  Campbell. 

It  may  be  of  interest  to  some  to  say  that  Wilmington  is  on 
the  Cape  Fear  river,  thirty  miles  from  its  entrance  into  the 
ocean,  which  was  then  through  two  outlets  or  channels.  Fort 
Fisher  guarded  one  and  Caswell  the  other,  with  Campbell 
two  miles  down  the  beach  on  the  right  flank.  These  forts 
were  manned  by  heavy  gvms  and  commanded  the  inlets,  and 
were  the  principal  defences  for  the  city. 

The  inlets  were  besieged  by  a  niimber  of  Yankee  gun  boats 
forming  a  semi-circle  four  or  five  miles  out  at  sea.  Their 
object  was  to  prevent  vessels  passing  in  or  out,  but  many, 
called  blockade  runners  (not  the  moonshine,  hillside  fellows), 
did  do  so,  bringing  valuable  stores  of  clothing,  rations,  muni- 
tions of  war  and  medical  supplies  as  well  as  an  occasional 
calico  dress  for  the  ladies  Sunday  wear,  etc.,  and  so  on,  on 
their  return  carrying  out  cotton  which  was  sold  at  fabulous 
prices.  The  ships  could  pass  only  on  dark  nights,  and  signal 
lights  at  the  forts,  to  point  out  the  bar,  were  kept  constantly 

Our  great  and  noble  Govcimor  Vance  caused  one  of  these 
vessels,  the  Ad- Vance,  to  be  boug'ht  and  operated  by  the 

332  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

State.  She  made  many  successful  and  valuable  trips  for  Con- 
federate and  ISTorth  Carolina  soldiers,  but  was  finally  cap- 
tured. A  well  equipped  Whitworth  gun  of  tremendous  range 
and  great  accuracy  of  shot,  patrolled  the  beach  from  Campbell 
to  Lockwood's  Folly,  some  twenty  miles  below,  and  was  a  ter- 
ror to  the  gun  boats  if  they  ventured  too  near.  Its  sudden 
appearance  from  behind  a  sand  hill  would  instantly  make 
them  show  their  heels.  This  gun  was  operated  with  as  much 
promptness  and  speed  as  our  modem  city  fire  engines. 


One  of  these  blockade  runners,  the  steamship  Spunkie,  in 
coming  in,  got  among  the  gunboats  and  her  officers  got  so  rat- 
tled that  they  ran  her  ashore  right  under  fort  Campbell,  after 
the  danger  had  all  been  passed.  The  Captain  and  every  man 
deserted  the  ship  and  came  ashore.  Instantly  Lieutenants 
Dickinson,  Goelet,  Terrell  and  Powell  took  a  boat  and  boarded 
her  through  the  rough  waves  several  feet  high,  green  as  we 
were,  but  young  and  vigorous  with  a  desire  for  excitement  and 
adventure  and  without  orders  or  any  particular  object  in 
view.  We  found  everything  good  to  eat  and  drink — rum, 
brandy,  champagne,  canned  goods,  cheese,  "shore  'nuff  cof- 
fee," tropical  fruits,  cigars  and  many  more  good  things.  We 
had  a  royal  time  for  three  hours,  then  Colonel  Jones,  com- 
mander of  the  post,  had  his  say  next.  But  we  cared  little. 
The  vessel  soon  went  to  pieces  and  the  cargo  was  greatly  dam- 
aged. Many  wrecks  were  long  after  to  be  seen  on  the  coast 
from  the  same  cause. 

While  at  Fort  Campbell  a  detail  of  five  men,  with  a  row 
boat  was  sent  out  to  supply  the  post  with  oysters  that 
abounded  in  the  sound  near  by.  This  crew  deserted  and 
rowed  out  to  the  gun  boats  and  the  next  night  a  squad  of  Yan- 
kees came  through  the  channel  in  a  row  boat  and  went  to 
Smithville  (now  Southport),  two  miles  in  rear  of  Fort  Cas- 
well, evidently  piloted  by  one  of  the  deserters,  to  the  General's 
headquarters  and  quietly  took  the  Adjutant-General  out  of 
bed  to  the  gun  boats.  A  flag  of  truce  next  day  explained  all. 
The  General  happened  to  be  o&. 

Tenth  Battalion.  333 

a  nice  fike-dog. 

This  boat  crew  used  a  42-po'Uiid  shell  for  an  anchor  while 
gathering  oysters,  and  left  it  at  their  boat  landing.  Think- 
ing it  would  make  a  nice  fire-dog  (it  being  apparently  empty) 
I  put  it  in  my  fireplace  and  in  about  six  hours  she  went  to 
pieces.  It  knocked  the  chimney  down,  turned  a  six-foot  table 
legs  upwards,  opened  what  windows  were  shut  and  closed 
those  already  open,  see-saAved  the  doors  until  they  would 
neither  open  or  shut,  knocked  brick  dust  into  Reuben  Stu- 
art's, my  Orderly's  hand,  and  turned  me  heels  upward  flat  of 
my  back  in  the  sand  in  a  dazed  condition.  The  long  roll  was 
sounded,  the  parapets  were  instantly  manned  and  when  called 
upon  to  explain,  I  felt  like  the  boy  that  fell  out  of  the  hind 
part  of  the  cart.     That  thing  had  the  right  name. 


In  K'ovember,  1864,  news  reached  that  region  that  some- 
thing had  "broke  loose  in  Georgia."  We  bid  those  old  Bar- 
bette carriages  and  Columbiads,  so  grimly  pointing  at  those 
old  black  hulks  on  the  ocean,  good-bye.  Same  at  dear  old 
Wilmington.  We  did  not  have  a  band,  but  the  boys  sang  as 
they  boarded  the  train  "The  Girl  I  Left  Behind  Me,"  and 
in  due  time  we  landed  at  Augusta,  Ga.,  and  at  once  com- 
menced entrenching  on  the  western  suburbs,  but  were  soon  or- 
dered to  Savannah  as  Sherman  and  his  bummers  were  steer- 
ing, stealing  and  burning  on  a  line  for  that  city.  We  went 
via  Charleston,  S.  0.,  and  somewhere  between  there  and  Sa- 
vannah, either  at  Coosawhatchie,  Salkehatohie,  Pocotaligo, 
Honey  Hill  (or  some  other  hill),  we  were  taken  off  the  train 
and  in  about  twenty  minutes  beat  the  stufiing  out  of  a  small 
force  of  Yankees  (negroes,  I  think),  that  had  landed  and  were 
approaching  the  railroad.  They  re-embarked  and  were  soon  in 
the  dim  distance.  Our  casualties  were  s.light  and  theirs  un- 
known. They  were  surprised  and  awfully  frightened.  This 
being  our  first  cartridge  biting,  I  saw  a  few  "Goo-Goo"  eyes 
among  our  boys. 

On  our  arrival  at  Savannah  we  were  sent  up  the  Central 
Railroad  to  the  45-mile  post,  and  there  deployed  as  skirmish- 
ers across  the  railroad  and  the  county  road  leading  to  the 

334  North  Carolina  Troops.  1861-65. 

Ogeecliee  river  bridge,  made  temporary  rifle  pits  and  in  two 
days,  the  dark,  blue  lines  showed  np  and  the  business  pro- 
ceeded. We  were  soon  brushed  away  by  a  line  of  battle,  not, 
however,  until  that  said  crooked  finger  got  in  some  work. 
What  their  loss  was  we  never  knew.  We  lost  several,  among 
them  Sergeant-Ma j or  Daniel  Young,  a  brother  of  the  Major. 
Captain  McCauley  was  in  command  of  the  skirmishers  and 
afterwards  remarked  that  according  to  tactics  he  took  posi- 
tion eighty  paces  in  rear  and  got  behind  a  big  stump  (as  the 
tactics  said  cover  when  convenient),  when  the  firing  com- 
menced he  looked  out  on  one  side  and  zip !  came  a  ball ;  pretty 
soon  he  looked  on  the  other  side  and  zip !  came  anothea-,  as 
the  firing  increased  he  thought  he  would  look  over  and  see 
what  the  boys  were  doing  and  he  thinks  there  came  three  or 
four  baskets  full  of  bullets  all  around  and  over  him.  About 
tbat  time  he  saw  the  boys  coming  back  right  lively  and  not 
desiring  to  go  contrary  to  tlie  tactics,  maintained  his  distance 
pretty  well.  Tbe  Yanks  did  not  push  fast,  but  just  came 
gradually  and  moved  us  a  little  every  day  clear  back  to  near 
Savannah,  which  was  nicely  entrenched  on  an  old  canal. 
Here  commenced  a  siege  which  was  kept  up  for  several  days, 
and  a  head  could  not  show  above  the  works  without  danger. 
Tbe  boys  soon  got  used  to  it  and  were  soon  old  veterans.  We 
were  here  brigaded  with  the  Fiftieth  North  Carolina  Eegi- 
ment,  a  part  of  the  Thirty-sixth  or  Fortieth  (tliey  also  were 
heavy  artillery  from  Wilmington),  some  Georgia  Reserves 
and  the  Seventh  Regiment  North  Carolina  Senior  Reserves 
(or  Seventy -seventh  North  Carolina),  and  commanded  by 
Colonel  Wash.  Hardy,  of  the  Sixtieth  North  Carolina,  who 
had  been  (I  think)  captured  in  some  of  the  up  Georgia  battles 
and  exchanged.  We  all  learned  to  love  him  for  his  bravery 
and  kind-heartedness.  He  always  called  us  his  "people."  He 
appointed  on  his  staff  Lieutenants  W.  H.  Borden  and  J.  W. 
Edmonson,  of  the  Fiftieth  Regiment,  and  occasionally  I  had 
the  honor  of  so  serving.  I  do  not  think  he  knew  what  fear 

This  organization  was  maintained,  practically,  to  the  sur- 
render at  Greensboro.     Some  changes  were  made  at  the  re- 

Tenth  Battalion.  335 

organization  of  the  army  by  Johnston,  at  or  near  Smithfield, 
J^.  C. 


About  22  December,  1864,  Savannah  was,  in  the  night  time, 
quietly  evacuated  undisturbed.  We  crossed  Savannah  river 
on  a  long,  shaJjy  pontoon  bridge  that  felt  dangerous,  and  I 
think  some  unnily  horses  and  cannon  went  overboard.  The 
next  morning  found  us  among  the  great  rice  fields  of  South 
Carolina  on  our  retreat,  to  be  followed  by  the  withering  and 
devastating  tramp  of  Sherman  and  his  bummers  and  robbing 
camp  followers.  The  courses  of  his  three  corps  could  be  dis- 
tinguished by  the  columns  of  dark  smoke  from  burning  dwell- 
ings and  other  property  by  day  and  weird  lights  from  the 
same  by  night.  The  glorious  Palmetto  State  was  in  the  coils 
of  the  Python.  Her  citizens  Avere  insulted  and  outraged  and 
their  homes  destroyed.  Her  beautiful  capital,  Columbia,  the 
pride  of  the  State,  was  laid  in  ashes  and  its  charred  remains 
and  silent  chimneys  left  to  mark  the  destroyer's  vengeance. 
This  is  war,  and  Sherman  said  war  was  hell  and  it  was  such, 
with  him.  There  was  little  fighting  on  this  mighty  retreat. 
When  Johnston  made  a  stand,  Sherman  just  came  up,  sat 
down  with  part  of  his  army  and  just  simply  outstretched  us 
on  one  side  or  the  other  and  we  had  to  fall  back  or  be  sur- 

At  Salkehatchie  bridge  3  February,  1865,  we  were  so 
closely  pressed  that  we  failed  to  set  fire  to  the  kindling  to  burn 
it.  A  hot  fire  was  kept  up  by  the  Yankees  and  General  Mc- 
Laws  asked  for  two  volunteers  from  the  Tenth  Battalion  to 
bum  the  bridge.  Sergeant  J.  E.  Harriss,  of  Company  A,  and 
Private  H.  M.  Underwood,  of  Company  D,  promptly  stepped 
out  and  said  "Here  we  are."  The  General  gave  them  orders, 
and  at  the  same  time  ordered  a  battery  to  "shell  the  woods." 
These  men  walked  as  straight  to  that  bridge  and  fired  it,  a^ 
they  would  to  a  dinner  table.  On  their  return  they  were 
cheered  and  General  McLaws  complimented  them  and  pre^ 
sented  them  with  a  thirty  days'  furlough  with  transportation 
attached,  on  the  spot.  They  went  home  and  returned  in  time 
for  the  battle  of  Bentonville  where  both  were  wounded  in  my 

336  North  Cakolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

presence.  This  retreat  was  through  a  swampy  region  and 
our  thinly  clad  and  almost  barefooted  men  suffered  untold 
misery  from  wading  and  cold.  We  slowly  retreated  across 
the  State  of  South  Carolina  and  not  until  we  reached  Averas- 
boro,  'N.  C,  did  we  have  much  skirmishing  and  no  pitched 
battle.  At  many  plantations  on  the  route  peanuts  by  the  cot- 
ton basketful  were  placed  for  us  along  by  the  side  of  the  road 
by  order  of  the  ladies  up  at  the  "big  house." 


At  Averasboro  16  March,  1865,  the  fight  was  short  and  hot. 
We  did  not  fool  with  them  long  and  they  did  not  try  to  keep 
us  from  going  on.  At  Bentonville  in  the  three  days'  fight, 
19-21  March,  we  got  pretty  badly  mixed.  We  got  after  the 
Yankees  and  they  just  fired  and  fell  back ;  we  chased  them  on 
Sunday  evening  until  after  dark.  I  think  we  went  in  twenty 
feet  of  one  of  their  lines,  when  they  suddenly  fired  a  volley, 
broke  and  ran.  If  the  fire  had  been  well  directed  not  a  man 
of  us  could  have  escaped.  The  sheet  of  fire  was  blinding. 
Many  were  wounded  and  a  few  killed  on  our  side.  There 
was  a  mighty  rattling  of  canteens  and  tin  cups  in  those  woods 
when  the  enemy  fell  back  in  haste.  This  battalion  had 
thirty-eight  men  killed  and  wounded,  every  officer  in  the  bat- 
talion was  wounded  save  Captain  Barnes  and  myself.  I  car- 
ried a  spade  in  this  fight  and  held  it  right  in  front  of  my 
"cracker  box."  After  two  days  in  the  trenches  amidst  con- 
stant picket  firing  and  occasionally  a  shelling  frolic,  we  again, 
unmolested,  evacuated,  falling  back  in  the  direction  of  Smith- 
field  and  Sherman  going  to  Goldsboro,  neither  troubling  the 
other,  one  going  up  l^euse  river,  the  other  down.  After  two 
weeks'  rest  at  or  near  Smithfield  and  a  reorganization  of  the 
army,  we  were  again  in  trim  for  lighting  or  retreating,  which 
last  we  did  up  to  near  Greensboro,  when  on  26  April,  the  end 
came.  We  were  paroled  2  May,  1865,  each  man  being  paid 
$1.25  in  silver. 

I  have  met  many  of  these  old  comrades  at  our  annual  re- 
unions since,  and  some  times  I  think  we  get  our  war  stories  a 
little  mixed  and  rather  shaky.  Now  in  conclusion,  I  desire 
to  say  to  the  survivors  of  this  battalion,  that  this  imperfect 

Tenth  Battalion.  337 

sketch  has  been  written  by  request  and  on  short  notice.  I 
know  it  is  not  a  complete  record,  but  I  have  had  only  my  own 
personal  recollections  and  "Moore's  Roster  of  ISTorth  Carolina 
Troops"  to  draw  from.  Not  a  single  member  of  the  battal- 
ion has  been  consulted  since  I  undertook  this  task,  but  I  have 
given  it  my  best  consideration  after  a  lapse  of  thirty-six  years 
or  an  ordinary  life  time.  I  may  and  most  likely  have,  left 
out  much  that  should  appear,  but  nothing  has  been  over- 

If  I  have  failed  to  give  due  credit  in  any  sihape  to  any  mem- 
ber, it  was  an  unintentional  oversight.  Every  member  was 
my  friend  and  I  had  naught  but  the  highest  regard  for  them 
all,  those  we  buried  by  the  wayside  as  well  as  those  living  to- 

0.  S.  Powell. 

Smithfield,  N.  C, 

26  April,  1901. 



(whitford's  battalion.) 

By  the  editor. 

The  origin  of  this  battalion  was  a  company  of  Heavy  Ar- 
tillery raised  for  the  defence  of  Xew  Bern.  After  its  fall, 
this  comjjany  and  three  others  (Mayo's,  Leecraft's  and  Her- 
ring's) in  like  predicament,  were  organized  into  a  tempor- 
ary battalion  under  Captain  John  X.  Whitford  17  March, 
1862,  9  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  Jf-Jf-S.  He  soon 
raised  a  permanent  battalion  and  General  Pettigrew  17 
March,  1863,  complimented  the  men  and  especially  their 
commander  as  "a  gallant  and  efficient  officer."  Vol.  26,  p. 
194.  In  May,  1863,  he  was  at  Coward's  Bridge  with  400 
men,  same  Vol.,  p.  1074.  The  battalion  was  conim.anded  by 
him  as  Major,  and  did  efficient  and  daring  service  in  scouting 
and  in  driving  back  predatory  expeditions  of  the  enemy.  In 
45  (Serial)  Vol.  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  Gen- 
eral Peck  reports  that  on  25  jSTovember,  1863,  his  men  had 
surprised  two  of  Whitford's  companies,  capturing  52  men 
(killing  some)  and  100  horse  and  arms,  etc.,  but  we  do  not 
know  how  true  this  was,  but  in  VoL  49,  at  p.  856,  it  is  re- 
ported Confederate  authority  as  a  loss  of  "twenty  men  cap- 
tured at  Haddock's  Mills,  near  Greenville."  In  1863  the 
battalion  was  recruited  to  six  companies,  of  which  Major 
Whitford  became  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  was  at  Kinston 
December,  1863,  with  627  present,  49  (Serial)  Vol.  of  same 
work,  p.  906.  On  18  January,  1864,  it  was  raised  to  a  full 
regiment,  the  Sixty-seventh,  of  which  he  was  made  Colonel 
and  whose  history  has  already  been  told  in  VoL  3  of  this 




By  the  editor. 

This  battalion  is  giv^en  in  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  pp.  241- 
247,  as  the  Fourth  Battalion,  but  it  was  always  styled  offici- 
ally the  Twelfth  Battalion.  It  consisted  of  three  companies 
of  cavalry,  two  from  J^orthampton  and  one  from  Bertie  and 
Hertford.  It  was  raised  for  duty  in  the  peninsula  between 
the  Roanoke  and  the  Chowaii  and  its  service  consisted  mostly 
of  picketing  on  the  Chowan.  All  three  companies  had  been 
raised  in  18(52  and  had  been  serving  as  independent  compa- 

On  3  May,  1803,  they  were  organized  into  a  battalion  by 

Saivluet,  .T.  "\7jjioeij5I4^  Major. 

WiLiJAM  A.  PuGH  was  appointed  Adjutant. 

OoMi-'ANY  A — Northampton — Captain,  H.  E.  Hoggard; 
First  Lieutenant,  -Tames  V.  Sauls ;  Second  Lieutenants,  G. 
W.  Joyner  and  William  Vann. 

Company  B — Bertie  and  Hertford — Captains,  Joseph  O. 
Cherry,  Geo.  I").  Ward  ;  First  Lieutenant,  Geo.  D.  Ward ; 
Second  Lieutenants,  David  C.  Arthur  and  C.  C.  Lovejoy. 
The  latter  of  Wake  County. 

Company  C — Northampton — Captain,  E.  A.  Martin; 
First  Lieutenant,  J.  B.  Boon;  Second  Lieutenants,  Jesse  T. 
Britton  and  James  D.  Odom. 

The  battalion  come  in  collision  with  the  enemy  2  July, 
j.863,  on  their  advance  to  Boon's  Mills  and  they  report  some 
captures  from  the  battalion,  J^.l^  (Serial  YoL)  0^.  Rec.  Union 
and  Confed.  Armies,  89Z.  It  was  sent  to  Kinston,  but  was 
ordered  to  Garysburg  early  in  January,  1864,  60  {Serial) 
Vol.  Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  1083.  It  con- 
tinued the  duty  of  picketing  the  Chowan  with  occasional  skir- 

340  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

mishes  with  the  enemy  until  11  July,  1864,  at  which  date  by 
orders  from  Richmond  Companies  A  and  B  were  transferred 
to  the  Fifty-ninth  North  Carolina  (Fourth  Cavalry),  and 
Company  C  to  the  Sixteenth  North  Carolina  Battalion  which 
was  afterwards  the  Seventy-fifth  North  Carolina  Regiment. 
82  (Serial  Vol.) Off.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  763, 
thus  terminating  the  existence  of  the  TweKth  Battalion. 


1.    J.  B.  Starr,  Lieut.-Colonel.  4.    Halcott  P.  Jones,  1st  Lieut..  Co  E 

•i.    LewisH.  Webb,  Captain,  Co.  A.  .s.    T.  C.  Fuller,  1st  Lieut ,  Co.  B. 

3.    J.  D.  Cumming,  Captain,  Co.  C.  6.    John  Henry  Curtis,  Sergeant,  Co  E 

7.    A.  B  Stronach,  Private,  Co.  B. 


(stahr's  battalion  of  artillebt.  ) 

By  J.  H.  MYROVEE,  First  Lieutenant  Company  B. 

The  2'hirtcent'h  Battalion  was  organized  1  December,  1863. 
It  was  composed  of  six  batteries  of  light  artillery,  i.  e. : 

Company  A — Gu^aberland,  Richmond  and  Perquimans — 
Captain,  Lewis  H.  Webb. 

Company  B — Cumberland — Captain,  Joseph  B.  Starr. 

Company  C — New  Hanover — Captain,  Jas.  D.  Cumming. 

Company  D — Beaufort — Captain,  Z.  T.  Adams. 

Company  E — Orange — Captain,  Wm.  Cameron. 

Company  F — Craven,  Beaufort,  Wake — Captain,  Alex. 
C.  Latham. 

Joseph  B.  Stakr^  of  Company  B,  was  elected  Lieutenant- 
Colonel.  He  had  been  Captain  of  Company  F,  "Bethel" 
Regiment,  and  in  September,  1861,  had  been  promoted  to  be 
its  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Captain  Columbus  L.  Chestnutt^  of  Sampson,  was  ap- 
pointed A.  Q.  M. 

Jno.  C.  Mor.i.EY,  Surgeon. 

G.  A.  NicoLLAssoN^  Assistant  Surgeon. 

The  companies  composing  the  battalion  had  each  been 
raised  nearly  two  years  before,  serving  in  different  assign- 
ments to  duty,  and  in  fact  the  battalion,  as  a  whole,  at  no 
time  served  together.  In  Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  pp.  248- 
268,  this  command  is  styled  the  Fifth  Battalion,  but  that  was 
(as  the  note  thereto  states)  merely  for  convenience,  for  it  was 
always  known,  and  styled  officially,  the  Thirteenth  Battalion. 

Owing  to  the  detached  services  of  the  several  companies, 
I  am  able  to  give  details  of  Company  B  only. 
company  b. 

This  battery  was  formed  on  Company  F  (the  LaFayette 
Light  Infantry)  of  the  First  ISTorth  Carolina  Volunteers  (the 
Bethel  Reffimentl   as  a  nucleus,  which  had  returned  to  its 

342  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

home  in  Fayetteville  after  six  months  service  on  the  Penin- 
sula at  Yorktown.  The  work  of  enlistment  began  almost  im- 
mediately, and  it  was  made  up  of  members  of  that  company 
with  the  addition  of  sturdy  farmers  from  Eobeson,  Cumber- 
land and  Harnett. 

In  January,  1862,  the  following  officers  were  chosen:  Jos. 
B.  Starr,  Captain;  Thomas  C.  Fuller,  First  Lieutenant; 
John  Whitmore,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Benjamin  Eush, 
Junior  Second  Lieiitenant.  The  roll  of  non-commissioned 
officers  and  privates  will  be  found  in  Vol.  4,  Moore's  Roster, 
pp.  252,  255. 

On  account  of  the  difficulty  experienced  by  the  Confeder- 
ate aiithorities  at  Richmond  in  fitting  out  the  companies  of 
light  artillery  with  field  pieces,  Starr's  Artillery  was  ordered 
to  Fort  Fisher  for  its  first  service,  and  on  21  January,  1862, 
took  the  steamer  for  Wilmington.  There  the  men  were 
equipped  in  uniforms  and  other  furnishings  for  camp  life, 
arriving  at  Fort  Fisher  on  the  day  following,  where  Captain 
Starr  reported  for  diity  to  Major  John  J.  Hedrick,  command- 
ing the  post. 

At  this  post,  afterwards  so  celebrated  in  the  stirring  events 
of  the  Civil  War,  Starr's  Battery  faithfully  performed  the 
duties  devolving  upon  it  in  manning  the  heavy  guns  of  the 
fort,  guarding  the  shore  batteries,  moamting  guard,  etc., 
through  the  remainder  of  the  winter,  the  spring  and  part  of 
summer.  It  was  Avhile  here  that  T.  E.  Wardell,  then  acting 
as  Sergeant-Major  of  the  post,  mysterioiisly  disappeared  one 
night  during  a  very  heavy  storm.  The  if  act  that  Wardell 
was  a  ]Srorthern  man  by  birth,  and  that  he  had  been  for  some 
time  despondent  of  the  success  of  the  Southern  cause,  availed 
to  give  circulation  to  the  report  that  he  had  deserted,  and 
found  means  to  reach  the  blockading  vessels  of  the  Federal 
fleet  lying  off  the  coast.  But  no  credence  was  given  to  this 
nefarious  rumor  by  his  comrades  in  arms;  and  information 
from  his  family  after  the  war  disproved  this  theory,  and  the 
mystery  of  his  fate  remains  unsolved. 

In  those  days  there  was  little  to  enliven  the  monotony  of 
camp  life  at  Fort  Fisher  save  the  lazy  turn  of  some  leviathian 
Union  gun-boat  forming  the.  blockading  squadron,  and  then  a 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  343 

puff  of  smoke,  with  a  hurtling,  shrieking  shell  over  the  case- 
mates. This  would  call  the  men  to  the  guns,  and  the  fire 
woiild  be  returned.  But  this  was  heavy  artillery  play  of  a 
harmless  kind,  which  caused  not  a  head  to  "duck"  or  a  pulse 
to  take  an  extra  beat. 

An  event  later  on  pu.t  it  into  the  power  of  a  part  of  Starr's 
Battery  to  show  their  mettle  as  soldiers  and  their  skill  as 
marksmen.  "The  Modern  Greece"  (whose  skeleton  hulk, 
inbedded  in  the  sands,  can  still  be  seen  to-day)  a  blockader, 
superbly  furnished  in  stores  of  a  varied  and  extensive  kind, 
making  iip  a  costly  cargo  of  medicines,  fine  liquors,  shoes, 
clothing,  etc.,  finding  herself  hard  run  by  her  Yankee  foes, 
while  attempting  to  make  the  port  of  Wilmington,  was 
beached  under  shelter  of  the  guns  of  Fort  Fisher,  and  the 
greater  part  of  her  valuable  freight  was  landed  by  boats. 

In  the  "Modern  Greece"  was  a  battery  of  Whitworth  guns, 
superb  breech-loading,  rifled  steel  pieces,  carrying  a  long  con- 
ical ball,  and  endowed  with  a  reach  and  precision  of  fire  in 
action  little  short  of  marvelous.  Two  of  these  guns  were  as- 
signed to  Starr's  Battery,  were  mounted,  and  sent,  under 
charge  of  a  Sergeant,  to  Fort  Caswell  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river — a  little  bunch  of  fosse,  rampart  and  casemate,  badly 
served  with  old  time  siege  pieces,  which  the  Federal  block- 
ading cordon  daily  insulted  with  its  superior  armament. 

During  the  night  masked  batteries  were  skilfully  prepared, 
and  by  sunrise  the  detachments  were  ready  for  work  with 
their  Whitworth  guns.  All  that  day  and  the  next  there  was 
an  intensely  exciting  duel  between  the  sea  and  land  forces, 
the  latter  spitting  forth  its  terrible  volley  of  conical  projec- 
tiles from  two  clumps  of  bushes.  Again  and  again  the  block- 
aders  shifted  their  position — only  to  find  it  apparently  impos- 
sible to  get  beyond  that  deadly  range.  ISTorthern  papers, 
coming  into  the  hands  of  the  men  a  few  days  afterwards,  gave 
them  a  gratifying  triumph  in  the  information  that  the  Whit- 
worth guns  had  wrought  havoc — the  Miantanomah  having 
been  so  badly  crippled  as  to  reqiiire  towing  out  of  the  line  of 
fire,  while  another  gun-boat  was  struck  no  less  than  three 

The  next  most  exciting  incident  in  the  few  months  of  ser- 

344  North  Carolina  Troops,  186l-'65. 

vice  at  Fort  Fisher,  was  the  animated  chase  of  a  Confeder- 
ate blockade-runner  by  the  ever  vigilant  ships  of  the  enemy. 
The  vessel,  commanded  by  the  late  Captain  John  N.  Maf- 
fitt,  was  saved  only  by  the  skill  and  bravery  of  this  famous 
commander,  and  a  detail  from  Starr's  Battery  was  sent  off  in 
boats  to  aid  in  talking  oft'  part  of  the  cargo,  that  Captain  Maf- 
fitt  might  proceed  up  the  river. 

About  this  time  Colonel  Wm.  Lamb,  now  of  Norfolk,  suc- 
ceeded Lieutenant-Colonel  John  J.  Hedrick  in  the  command 
of  Fort  Fisher,  and  a  short  time  afterwards  Starr's  company 
went  into  camp  outside  the  walls  of  Fort  Fisher,  a  short  dis- 
tance tip  the  beach. 

Throughout  the  whole  of  the  late  summer  and  early  fall 
of  1863,  the  yellow  fever  raged  with  unabated  violence  in  the 
city  of  Wilmington;  so  that  when,  in  September,  orders  were 
received  by  Captain  Starr  to  report  immediately  with  his 
command  to  the  commanding  officer  at  Kinston,  N.  C,  it  was 
necessary  to  make  a  detour  of  the  plague-stricken  city,  and 
to  march  overland  to  North  East,  a  station  on  the  Wilming- 
ton &  Weldon  Railroad,  to  take  the  train  for  Kinston. 

But  the  men  made  the  long  march  through  oppressive  heat 
and  heavy  sands  with  cheerfulness,  nay,  alacrity.  They  were 
going  into  active  light  artillery  service  for  which  they  had 
enlisted,  and  their  zeal  was  intense.  And  here  the  historian 
deems  it  but  just  to  say  that  while  Starr's  Light  Artillery  was 
condemned  to  service  throughout  the  war  to  the  eastern  part 
of  North  Carolina,  it  over  and  over  asked  to  be  transferred 
to  the  sphere  of  action  in  Virginia.  It  rests  content  with 
having  done  its  duty  where  its  country  called  for  the  exercise 
of  its  self-denial  and  patriotism. 

At  Kinston  the  company  found  a  battery  of  six-pounders, 
with  a  full  complement  of  excellent  horses,  and  went  into 
camp,  taking  quarters  in  what  was  known  as  "The  Old  Cas- 
tle," a  huge  ruinous,  half  dismantled  building  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  town. 

On  lY  Decemlier,  1SG2,  took  place  the  battle  of  Neuse 
river  bridge,  a  short  distance  below  Goldsboro,  General  G.  W. 
Smitli  commanding  the  Confederate  forces.  About  sunrise 
the  enemy  were  reported  by  scouts  to  be  advancing  in  heavv 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  345 

force  from  the  direction  of  Kinston  on  the  county  road,  and 
Colonel  Marshall,  of  the  Fifty-second  Regiment,  North  Car- 
olina Infantry,  was  ordered  by  General  Clingman  to  proceed 
with  his  command  to  the  railroad  bridge,  and  hold  it  at  all 
hazards.  Immediately  on  taking  position  this  regiment  was 
attacked  by  the  enemy  in  such  heavy  force,  by  two  simul- 
taneously approaching  columns,  that  our  left  was  hurled 
back  and  doubled  ujj  on  itself,  while  the  Federal  infantry 
rushed  on,  and  applied  the  torch  to  the  railroad  bridge.  The 
Fifty-second  Regiment  was  then  moved  rapidly  up  the  bank 
of  the  river  in  the  direction  of  the  coimty  bridge,  half  a  mile 
above,  where  Starr's  Battery  was  in  line  a  short  distance  from 
the  county  road.  Jnst  before  reaching  this  point  the  gallant 
Fifty-second,  which  had  fought  so  bravely,  was  fired  into  by  a 
company  of  the  Fifty-first  North  Carolina  Infantry,  who 
mistook  their  comrades  for  the  enemy. 

The  Union  troops,  having  effected  the  destruction  of  the 
railroad  bridge,  fell  back  to  a  position  on  a  commanding  hill 
on  the  east  side  of  the  railroad,  about  600  yards  above  the 
(bridge.  This  position,  during  the  afternoon,  was  assailed 
by  General  Clingman  with  a  column  of  the  Fifty-first  and 
Fifty-second  Regiments,  under  the  immediate  command  of 
Colonel  Marshall,  while  those  in  reserve  in  the  skirt  of  woods 
were  subjected  to  a  galling  artillery  fire  from  a  Federal  bat- 
tery of  four  guns. 

At  about  4  o'clock  General  Clingman  ordered  two  pieces  of 
Starr's  Battery  to  proceed  on  the  right,  supported  by  Colonel 
Shaw's  Eighth  Regiment,  down  the  county  road,  and  attack 
the  enemy  in  flank,  while  Colonel  Marshall  was  instructed  to 
advance  at  a  charge  on  the  enemy's  right  as  soon  as  Starr's 
artillery  should  open  firg.  In  the  meantime,  the  enemy's  ar- 
tillery on  the  hill  had  been  reinforced  by  four  other  guns, 
making  in  all  eight  pieces,  which  raked  the  road  along  which 
our  section  of  the  battery  was  advancing,  making  the  fire  so 
heavy  that  the  gun  under  the  immediate  command  of  Lieu- 
tenant Rush  did  not  advance,  that  ofiicer  halting  it  some  dis- 
tance from  the  scene  of  action. 

In  the  meantime,  General  .Evans,  of  South  Carolina,  had 
ridden  up  on  the  left  of  our  line;  and,  seeing  that  part  of 

346  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

Clingman's  Brigade  which  had  been  halted  in  the  skirts  of 
the  woods,  resting  on  their  arms,  ordered  an  immediate 
charge,  notwithstanding  the  explanation  given  to  him  of  Gen- 
eral Clingman's  plan  of  attack ;  and,  as  he  was  the  ranking  of- 
ficer, the  command  was  obeyed  with  disastrous  results  to  the 
6rigade.  While  the  infantry  was  attacking  on  the  left  Lieu- 
tenant Thos.  C.  Fuller  brought  one  piece  of  Starr's  Battery 
into  position  just  where  the  county  road  crosses  the  Wil- 
mington &  Weldon  Railroad,  and  went  into  action  under 
the  heavy  fire  of  the  enemy's  eight  gims.  The  fight  at  this 
point  was  short  but  bloody.  Andrew  Weir  was  killed  at  the 
piece  by  a  ball  through  the  head,  and  his  comrade,  Linebery, 
stepped  over  his  dead  body  and  took  his  place.  Sergeant 
Myrover  received  ^  scalp  wound  from  a  piece  of  shell.  Cor- 
poral McLean,  and  Privates  IX  J.  Harrell,  W.  H.  Pearce  and 
McLauchlin  were  woimded ;  indeed,  so  great  were  the  casu- 
alties in  this  engagement  to  the  small  detachment  about  this 
one  devoted  piece  of  artillery,  that  Liexi tenant  Fuller  himself 
served  the  gun,  bringing  ammunition,  cutting  fuse,  etc. 

At  sunset  the  fight  was  over,  the  enemy's  fire  slackened,  and 
finally  ceased,  but  Colonel  Shaw's  Eighth  Regiment  and 
Lieutenant  Fuller's  piece  of  artillery  held  the  position  until 
a  late  hrur  in  the  night,  when  orders  were  given  to  fall  back 
to  the  county  bridge.  During  this  time  General  Thos.  L. 
Clingman  passed  down  the  line,  and  warmly  complimented 
Lieiitenant  Fuller  and  his  men  for  the  excellent  work  which 
they  had  performed,  in  sustaining  a  fight  against  odds  so 
tremeudotis.  On  the  approach  of  Lieutenant  Push,  who 
had  by  this  time  come  up — the  reception  accorded  to  him  by 
the  General  was  very  different. 

GUi[    SWAMP. 

In  May,  1863,  couriers  brought  the  news  to  Kinston  that 
a  large  force  of  the  enemy  was  approaching  by  the  road  at 
Wise's  Fork,  and  the  Confederates,  under  General  D.  H. 
Hill,  with  General  Robert  Ransom  second  in  command,  took 
a  position  on  the  borders  of  Gum  Swamp,  eleven  miles  below 
Kinston.  A  piece  of  Starr's  Battery,  with  a  detachment, 
commanded  by  Lieutenant  Whitmore,  was  placed  in  position 
on  the  right  center  of  the  line,  supported  by  a  part  of  the  Fif- 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  347 

ty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment  of  infantry  and  other 

During  the  previous  night  either  through  the  treachery  of 
disaffected  citizens  living  in  the  neighborhood,  or  through  the 
vigilance  of  the  scouts  in  making  the  discovery,  the  enemy 
found  a  way  through  a  part  of  the  swamp,  up  to  that  time 
deemed  impassable,  and  a  volley  of  musketry  poured  into 
their  ranks  gave  to  the  Confederates  the  first  startling  intima- 
tion that  they  were  siirrounded — trapped  in  a  veritable  cul 
dp.  sac. 

This  unfortunate  affair,  which  may  charitably  be  placed 
among  the  accidents  of  the  war,  cost  the  life,  among  others, 
of  the  gallant  Jarvis  B.  Lutterloh,  of  the  Fifty-sixth,  and  the 
capture,  together  with  a  part  of  the  infantry,  of  Lieutenant 
^Vhitmore  and  the  artillery  detachment  under  his  command. 
The  men  were  exchanged  in  a  few  days,  but  the  officer  never 
returned.  It  must  be  remembered  that  Lieutenant  Whitmore 
was  a  non-commissioned  officer  of  the  Union  forces  which 
surrendered  with  the  arsenal  at  Fayetteville  iii  April,  1861, 
under  Major  Bradford  and  Lieutenant  D'Lagriel;  that,  con- 
cealing himself  in  the  suburbs  of  the  city,  he  failed  to  depart 
with  his  command,  and  enlisted  in  the  Confederate  Army. 
He  was  of  course,  recognized  immediately  after  his  capture  at 
Gum  Swamp,  and  he  stood  before  his  captors  guilty  of  a  most 
serious  offence.  He  could  doubtless  make  peace,  and  save 
himself  from  grave  punishment,  only  by  recantation,  and  the 
historian  must  deal  leniently  with  him,  in  consideration  of 
the  critical  peril  in  which  he  stood.  He  was  a  man  of  lim- 
ited intelligence,  but  a  superb  drill  master,  a  machine  who 
knew  n  alight  biit  obedience  to  the  orders  of  a  superior  of- 
ficer— a  Dugald  Dalgetty  on  a  reduced  scale. 

Lieutenant  Whitmore's  military  apostacy — when  some 
time  made  it  certain  that  it  could  be  considered  naught 
else — left  a  vacancy  among  the  commissioned  officers  which 
was  filled  by  the  election  of  Sergeant  G.  B.  Atkins  to  the  po- 
sition of  Second  Lieutenant,  whose  merits  were  to  make 
themselves  felt  with  his  contimiance  in  office. 

The  election  of  Lieutenant  Thos.  C.  Fuller  to  the  Confed- 
erate Congress  in  1863  was  followed  by  the  appointment  of 

348  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Orderly  Sergeant  J.  H.  Myrover  to  the  position  of  Second 
Lieutenant.  Mr.  Fuller  qiiit  the  service  and  the  field  to 
enter  upon  that  public  career  which  his  matchless  abilities 
rendered  a  succession  of  brilliant  triumphs  nearly  up  to  the 
close  of  his  life  a  few  days  ago,  as  judge  of  the  Court  of 
Claims.  He  was  a  good  private  soldier  and  a  still  better  of- 
ficer. He  loved  danger  for  danger's  sake ;  he  was  the  friend 
and  confidant  of  his  men,  while  he  enforced  discipline ;  and, 
though  the  soldiers  crowded  about  the  ballot  box  to  vote  his 
political  preferment  eagerly,  they  bade  him  farewell  from 
the  mess  table  and  the  tent  with  sorrow. 

The  company  bore  an  honorable  and  conspicuous  part  in 
the  several  engagements  around  Kinston,  up  to  the  final  aban- 
donment of  that  position  by  our  forces.  In  the  second  fight 
at  that  place,  where  the  battery  held  the  left  of  the  line,  and 
aided  in  successfully  repelling  repeated  charges  of  the  enemy, 
two  Parrott  guns  had  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  com- 
pany, which  so  badly  crushed  the  shells  that  many  of  our  own 
men,  in  their  advance  upon  the  enemy,  were  wounded  by  the 
broken  pieces  of  the  flying  missiles.  In  this  battle  the  Napo- 
leon field  piece  served  by  Sergeant  Hall  and  his  detachment 
wrought  fearful  execution  on  the  enemy,  as  was  admitted  in. 
their  subsequent  reports. 

For  some  time  in  the  summer  of  1863  the  battery  was  sta- 
tioned at  Fort  Hamilton,  in  Martin  County.  It  will  thus 
be  seen  that  its  field  of  duty  extended  from  Goldsboro  east- 
ward of  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroad,  and  embraced 
a  large  area  of  territory.  In  truth,  though  the  sorely  pressed 
Confederate  government  coiild  spare  bxit  a  handful  of  men 
for  Fastern  North  Carolina,  its  retention  was  of  prime  im- 
portance to  us,  for  it  was  one  of  the  granaries  whence  were 
drawn  the  supplies  for  the  Southern  armies.  Quartermas- 
ters J.  B.  Smith,  John  McEae  and  Charles  R.  Arey  pene- 
trated away  into  Hyde  and  other  extreme  eastern  counties 
with  their  wagons,  bringing  away  great  quantities  of  corn  and 
forage,  and  on  every  expedition  they  were  imminently  ex- 
posed to  incursions  of  the  enemy  as  well  as  to  the  treachery  of 
the  "Buffaloes."  On  2Y  November  the  battery  reported  137 
present,  }^9  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  851. 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  349 

On  1  December,  1863,  Captain  Joseph  B.  Starr  was  pro- 
moted to  the  Lieutenant-Colonelcy  of  the  Thirteenth  Bat- 
talion, North  Carolina  Troops  (Light  Artillery),  and  the 
command  of  the  company  devolved  on  Lieutenant  Benj.  Rush 
as  the  senior  commissioned  officer.  The  affection  of  the  men 
led  them  to  feel  no  little  gratification  at  the  well-merited 
honor  tendered  to  Captain  Starr,  but  this  feeling  filled  their 
hearts,  also,  with  genuine  grief  at  his  departure  as  their  com- 
manding officer.  Generous  in  heart,  devoted  to  the  welfare 
of  those  who  had  so  long  served  with  him,  concealing  under 
an  occasionally  brusqvie  manner  warm  sympathies,  endowed 
with  unflinching  courage  and  inflexible  flrmness,  his  soldiers 
trusted  him  implicitly  and  loved  him  cordially. 

The  vacancy  on  the  commissioned  staff  of  the  battery  was 
flUed  by  the  election  of  Sergeant  J.  D.  McLean  to  the  Second 
Lieutenancy,  a  gallant  soldier  of  irreproachable  standing 
among  his  comrades,  ever  faithful  to  his  duties  both  in  the 
camp  and  on  the  field. 

At  Greenville,  in  the  winter  of  1863,  Colonel  Roger  Moore, 
commanding  the  post  with  a  small  force  of  cavalry  and  Starr's 
Battery,  was  informed  that  the  enemy,  consisting  of  a  squad- 
ron of  cavalry,  had  made  a  reconnoissance  from  Washington. 
At  7  o'clock  at  night  30  December,  he  sent  one  company  of 
cavalry  and  a  piece  of  artillery  from  Starr's  Battery,  under 
command  of  Lieutenant  Myrover,  down  the  Washington  road 
to  find  the  enemy — which  they  did,  marching  into  a  cleverly 
planned  ambuscade  where  the  road  led  through  a  swamp,  and 
was  fringed  by  dense  undergrowth.  The  surprise  was  com- 
plete, a  heavy  volley  from  the  cavalry  carbines  of  the  enemy 
apprising  us  of  the  trap  into  which  we  had  walked.  The  Con- 
federates, utterly  bewildered,  ignorant  of  the  size  of  the  force 
pouring  its  fire  into  them,  retreated,  and  the  gun — though 
Private  John  LI.  Dobbin  even  then  made  great  efforts  to  fire 
it — fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  together  with  a  great 
part  of  the  detachment,  among  whom  were  Cannoneers  Dou- 
glass Sandford,  J.  A.  Brown,  Garvin  Wightman,  James  and 
Isaac  Dodd,  the  brave  Southern  soldier  now  in  the  Home  at 
Raleigh.  The  Federal  account  of  this  event  will  be  found  in 
J^8  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  4.9S. 

350  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Starr's  Battery  took  part  in  the  investment  of  Washington, 
N.  C,  under  command  of  General  D.  H.  Hill,  and,  after  the 
evacuation  of  that  place  by  the  Federals,  formed  part  of  its 
garrison,  with  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  C.  Vanhook,  of  the 
Fiftieth  Regiment,  commanding  the  post.  During  that  time 
a  disastrous  fire,  which  broke  out  about  midday,  destroyed 
nearly  one- half  of  the  beautiftil  town. 

For  the  last  year  of  its  service  Starr's  Battery  (Company 
B)  was  under  the  admirable  command  of  Captain  G.  B.  At- 
kins— for  })art  of  the  time  before  he  received  his  captain's 
commission,  Captain  Benj.  Rush  was  suspended  of  his  com- 
mand, kept  under  arrest  in  camp,  and  finally  deprived  of  his 
commission.  The  vacancy  thus  caused  in  the  commissioned 
staff  Avas  filled  by  the  promotion  of  Sergeant  Isaac  Jessup  to 
the  Second  Lieutenancy.  In  September,  1864,  the  battery 
was  at  Wilmington.  88  Off.  Eec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies, 

At  the  last  battle  of  Kinston,  8  March,  1865,  one  part  of 
the  battery  was  stationed  on  the  banks  of  the  Neuse  river  be- 
low the  town,  while  the  other  held  a  position  southwest  of  the 
place,  across  the  river,  on  the  brow  of  the  hill,  where  the  brunt 
of  the  Federal  attack  was  made  in  overwhelming  force.  Here 
Private  George  Gee  was  killed,  and  his  body  was  borne  from 
the  field,  on  the  ammunition  chest  of  the  gun,  in  the  arms  of 
Sergeant  Jessup.     Gee  was  one  of  "the  bravest  of  the  brave." 

The  Federals  poured  into  Kinston  on  the  very  heels  of  the 
retreating  Confederates,  and  in  a  few  moments  fires  were 
burning  in  the  streets  in  the  destruction  of  cotton  and  other 
government  stores.  The  forces  holding  the  left  of  our  line, 
including  part  of  Starr's  Battery,  iinder  command  of  Colonel 
Stephen  D.  Pool,  retreated  to  Goldsboro,  destroying  the 
bridges  behind  them  as  they  advanced. 


On  lY  March,  1865,  the  battery  reached  Smithfield,  IST.  C, 
as  part  of  Hoke's  Division,  and  on  the  18th  that  command 
formed  a  junction  with  that  part  of  General  Joseph  E.  John- 
ston's armv  under  General  Hardee,  which  was  marchins: 
from  Fayetteville.     Sherman  was  moving  from  the  latter 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  351 

place  towards  Goldsboro  in  two  sections  of  his  numerous  and 
finely  appointed  army,  the  columns  about  a  day's  march  apart, 
and  General  Johnston's  plan  was  to  attack  Sherman's  left 
wing,  separated  from  the  right.  On  the  19th  Hoke's  Divis- 
ion reached  Bentonville,  Johnston  County,  and  took  position 
on  the  left  of  a  large  and  deserted  old  plantation,  heavily 
wooded  on  each  side,  through  which  one  main  road  ran,  and 
along  which  the  division  was  stationed,  with  a  part  of  Lieu- 
tenant-General  Hardee's  Cor])s.  Starr's  Light  Artillery, 
after  remaining  in  column  in  the  road  for  some  time — during 
which  the  gallant  John  Murphy  was  struck  down  by  one  of 
the  enemy's  shells,  and  one  arm  torn  to  pieces,  he  afterwards 
dying  in  hospital — took  the  right  center  of  the  line  on  the 
edge  of  the  field,  supported  on  the  right  by  Colonel  John  W. 
Hinsdale's  Junior  Reserves,  the  whole  Junior  Brigade  being 
under  command  of  Colonel  J.  H.  ISTethercutt.  The  battery 
was  commanded  by  Captain  George  B.  Atkins,  as  brave  a  sol- 
dier as  ever  entered  the  Confederate  service,  who,  although 
in  fearfully  bad  health  and  always  racked  by  physical  suf- 
fering, was  ever  at  his  post  of  duty.  This  officer,  finding  a 
wooden  house  in  front  of  a  North  Carolina  Regiment 
serving  as  a  shelter  for  this  enemy's  sharpshooters,  dislodged 
them  by  a  few  well-directed  shots  from  two  Napoleons,  and 
they  were  seen  hurrying  out  from  the  building,  amid  the 
cheers  of  the  Confederates.  Diiring  the  afternoon  of  the 
19th  the  enemy  repeatedly  charged  our  line,  where  it  was  held 
by  Hoke's  TJivision,  but  was  as  often  repulsed,  though  the 
never  ceasing  artillery  fire  was  ca\ising  many  casualties  in 
our  ranks. 

On  the  morning  of  the  20th,  couriers  broiight  the  news  that 
the  two  wings  of  the  Federal  army  had  been  united,  and  that 
the  left,  once  driven  back,  was  coming  up  heavily  reinforced, 
on  Hoke's  Division.  This  necessitated  a  change  of  position, 
and  that  officer  reformed  his  line,  parallel  to  the  county  road, 
to  wliich  he  had  before  been  aligned  at  right  angles.  From 
11:30  to  4  :00  o'clock  the  whole  united  columns  of  Sherman 
made  attack  after  attack  upon  this  part  of  the  line,  composed 
of  6,200  men,  v/ith  only  such  intrenchments  as  could  be 
thrown  up  with  the  bayonet,  but  were  driven  back  with  seri- 

352  North  Carolina  Troops.  1861-'65. 

ous  loss.  Throughout  the  21st  the  skirmishing  was  very 
heavy,  and  late  in  the  afternoon  a  large  force  of  the  Federal 
Seventeenth  Army  Corps,  by  a  superhuman  effort,  broke 
throuffh  our  line  on  the  extreme  left,  and  hurled  it  back  in 
dire  confusion.  The  moment  was  critical;  the  loss  of  the 
bridge  (jver  the  creek  in  our  rear  would  deprive  Johnston's 
army  of  its  only  line  of  retreat.  A  section  of  Starr's  Battery, 
under  command  of  Lieutenant  J.  D.  McLean,  was  rushed 
from  the  right  of  the  line  to  the  scene  of  the  contest,  and,  sup- 
ported by  General  Wade  Hampton  with  the  force  of  cavalry 
and  infantry  massed  to  strengthen  the  threatened  point,  gal- 
loped to  a  position  on  the  field.  The  enemy's  stubborn  effort 
was  foiled,  and  one  division  of  the  Seventeenth  Union  Corps 
especially  suffered  heavily. 

In  the  battle  of  Bentonville  the  Confederate  losses  were 
nearly  2,400,  while  those  of  the  enemy  could  not  have  been 
less  than  5,000.  General  Wade  Hampton  has  said  of  this  en- 
gagement that,  as  it  was  almost  the  last,  it  was  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  of  the  Civil  War,  and  that  its  conception  and 
conduct  by  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  was  a  masterly  stroke 
of  military  genius — where  less  than  15,000  men  under  three 
commands  successfully  held  the  field  against  60,000  of  the 
finest  equipped  troops  in  the  world. 

Prom  the  22d  of  March  Starr's  Battery  remained  in  camp 
near  Smithfield  for  some  days,  dtiring  which  there  was  a 
general  review  of  the  troops,  and  a  notable  event  of  camp  life 
was  a  visit,  6  April,  from  Governor  Vance,  with  one  of  his 
wonderful  speeches  to  the  veteran  soldiers. 

Starr's  Battery  marched  from  Bentonville,  via  Baleigh,  in 
the  hospital  of  which  John  Murphy  died,  arrived  at  Haw 
River  on  18  April,  and  thence  proceeded  to  a  point  near  old 
Centre  Meeting  House  in  Randolph  County.  While  in  camp 
Lieutenant-General  Hardee's  Quartermaster-General  divided 
equally  among  the  Confederate  soldiers  there  assembled  a 
quantity  of  silver  sent  from  Greensboro,  which  gave  to  each 
one,  officers  and  men  alike,  $1.25.  At  that  time  the  battery 
was  attached  to  Hoke's  Division  in  a  temporary  battalion 
commanded  by  Major  Basil  C.  Manly.  100  Off.  Rec.  Union 
and  Confed.  Armies,  7SS. 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  353 

On  26  April,  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  formally  sur- 
rendered to  Sherman  and  on  the  29th  the  officers  arid  men  of 
Starr's  Battery,  mournfully  leaving  guns  and  caissons  in 
park,  betook  themselves  to  their  desolated  and  impoverished 
homes,  most  of  them  taking  the  route  over  the  old  Western 
Plank  Road  to  Fayetteville,  and  carrying  with  them  many  an 
old  war-horse,  afterwards  condemned  to  ignoble  toil  at  the 
plough  in  the  corn  and  cotton  fields  of  Cumberland  and  Robe- 
son coimties. 


Was  raised  originally  in  Beaufort  County  by  Rev.  Charles 
P.  Jones,  who  became  Captain.  After  a  few  months  service 
the  battery  was  reorganized  21  April.  1862,  by  electing  Z.  T. 
Adams,  Captain;  C.  H.  Latham  and  Samuel  H.  Forbes, 
First  liieutenants ;  Jos.  B.  Bryan  and  Geo.  W.  Bryan,  Sec- 
ond Lieutenants. 

The  battery  was  at  Tarboro  in  March,  1862,  and  thencefor- 
ward served  in  Eastern  North  Carolina,  taking  part  in  the 
various  expeditions  against  Washington  and  JSTew  Bern  and 
aiding  to  repel  the  raids  made  by  the  enemy  in  return.  In 
July,  1863,  it  was  ordered  to  Wilmington  and  served  in  that 
vicinity.  On  26  June,  1864,  it  was  permanently  assigned  to 
Starr's  Battalion  and  in  September,  1864,  it  was  at  Kinston. 
88  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  822Jf. 

The  company  was  at  Batteries  Purdie  and  BoUes 
near  Fort  Fisher  in  the  first  attack  24  and  25  December, 

1864.  In  the  second  attack  by  General  Terry  15  January, 

1865,  most  of  the  company  and  all  their  guns  and  horses 
were  captured  at  the  fall  of  Fisher.  The  few  men  left  were 
attached  to  Hagood's  Brigade  and  fought  as  artillerymen 
at  Bentonville  and  surrendered  with  Johnston's  army. 


This  company  was  raised  in  Orange  Coimty,  in  the  early 
Spring  of  1862.     William  Cameron  was  Captain;  James  F. 
Cain  and  Alex.  M.  Kirkland,  First  Lieutenants ;  Henry  Dick- 

354  North  Cakolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

son  and  John  Malone,  Second  Lieutenants.  The  battery- 
was  ordered  to  Eastern  North  Carolina  and  for  a  while  garri- 
soned Fort  Branch  near  Hamilton.  In  April,  1863,  the  bat- 
tery reorganized  with  Henry  Dickson,  Captain;  Halcott  P. 
Jones  and  John  C.  Webb,  First  Lieutenants,  and  F.  L.  Dam- 
eron.  Second  Lieutenant.  On  27  November,  1863,  it  re- 
ported 126  present  for  duty,  being  then  at  Kinston.  It  ren- 
dered service  continuously  in  Eastern  North  Carolina  and 
Christmas  day,  1864,  aided  at  Poplar  Point  to  drive  back 
the  enemy's  fleet,  who  were  endeavoring  to  ascend  the  Roanoke 
river.  The  battery  was  supported,  in  that  fight,  by  the  Sev- 
entieth North  Carolina  Regiment  (First  Junior  Reserves). 


Was  raised  in  1862  principally  in  Craven  and  Wake  with 
some  men  from  Beaufort  and  other  coimties.  Its  Captains 
were  successively  Alexander  C.  Latham,  of  Craven,  1  Sep- 
tember, 1862 ;  John  R.  Potts,  of  Beaufort,  promoted  from 
First  Lieutenant  16  September,  1863,  and  Henry  G.  Plan- 
ner, of  New  Hanover,  originally  Second  Lieutenant. 

The  First  Lieutenants  were  successively  Jno.  R.  Potts 
(promoted  to  Ca]itain)  and  John  M.  Perry,  of  Beaufort 
County;  Henry  G.  Planner,  of  New  Hanover,  and  Geo.  W. 
Bryan,  of  Craven.  The  Second  Lieutenants  were  in  succes- 
sion Henry  G.  Planner,  Martin  L.  Stephenson,  of  Lenoir 
County ;  Bennett  Planner,  of  Richmond  County,  and  James 
A.  Collins.  A  section  under  the  last  named  officer  served  in 
the  winter  of  1863-'64,  and  spring  of  1864,  attached  to  Mac- 
Rae's  (Eighteenth)  Battalion  in  Western  North  Carolina. 

This  battery  was  ordered  to  Virginia  in  1862,  and  served 
continuously,  with  above  exception,  in  Lee's  Army.  In  Oc- 
tober, 1864,  it  was  in  Haskell's  temporary  battalion  of  artil- 
lery attached  to  the  First  Corps  and  served  on  the  lines 
around  Petersburg  with  great  credit  and  was  surrendered  at 
Appomattox  9  April,  1865. 

J.  H.  Mteovee. 
Fayettevillb,  N.  C, 

26  April,  1901. 


By  captain  LEWIS  H.   WEBB. 

This  company  was  raised  in  Richmond  County  and  was 
organized  in  April,  1862,  by  the  election  of  Lewis  H.  Webb, 
Captain ;  Malcolm  D.  McNeill  and  Thomas  W.  Moody,  First 
Lieutenants,  and  H.  R.  Home,  of  Cumberland,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, who  later  became  Junior  First  Lieutenant. 

The  State  being  unable  to  equip  a  battery  of  Light  Artil- 
lery, the  company  was  ordered  to  Richmond  for  equipment 
and  left  7  Ma_y,  1862,  with  83  men  and  4  officers.  It  reached 
that  city  11  May,  such  being  the  slowness  of  communication 
in  those  days  for  Rockingham  was  not  then  on  a  railroad. 

On  15  May  a  Battalion  was  formed  of  four  artillery  com- 
panies, ours  being  Company  D,  and  though  nearly  one-half 
of  the  personnel  was  from  this  State,  it  was  styled  the 
TAvelfth  Virginia  Battalion  and  Francis  J.  Boggs,  of  that 
State  was  made  Major.  Geo.  H.  Gregory,  of  Martin  County, 
and  Thos.  G.  Skinner,  of  Hertford,  were  Lieutenants  in  one 
of  the  other  companies,  and  some  forty  of  the  men  in  that 
company  alone  were  from  ISTorth  Carolina. 

On  25  May  we  were  moved  to  Battery  No.  7  near  Mechan- 
icsville,  and  assigned  to  duty  at  the  siege  guns  already 
mounted  and  were  put  to  work  mounting  others.  Here  we 
were  during  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines  in  hearing  and  almost 
in  sight  of  the  firing.  Measles  soon  after  broke  out  from 
•^vliich  we  had  40  men  down  at  one  time  and  lost  13  by  death. 
We  were  without  any  medical  officer  or  any  medicine  except 
that  bought  with  our  own  means,  and  but  for  the  skill  and  at- 
tention of  Lieutenant  H.  R.  Home,  the  sick  men  would  have 
fared  badly  indeed. 

Soon  an  order  came  to  disband  ours,  together  with  several 
other  artillery  companies  and  transfer  the  men  to  infantry. 
The  officers  of  our  company  went  to  the  Secretary  of  War  to 

356  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

protest  against  this  breach  of  faith,  but  found  our  men  had 
been  before  us,  whose  pleading  was  so,  effective  that  eventu- 
ally the  order  was  rescinded.  When  Stonewall  Jackson, 
coining  down  from  the  Valley,  struck  the  enemy  on  the  flank, 
the  Captain  and  Lieutenant  Home  were  ordered  to  report, 
with  part  of  the  company,  at  Crenshaw's  battery,  on  Charles 
City  road  and  by  a  rapid  march  of  twenty  miles  reached  it 
about  sunset.  The  next  morning  we  marched  with  that  bat- 
tery in  rear  of  the  attacking  column  towards  Malvern  Hill, 
though  not  in  the  fight,  and  the  next  day  were  in  pursuit  of 
the  enemy  to  Harrison's  Landing,  where  McClellan  took 
refuge  under  the  guns  of  his  fleet. 

In  the  Spring  of  1861,  when  Governor  Ellis  took  posses- 
sion, by  means  of  the  Ciimberland  militia,  of  the  Fayette- 
ville  arsenal,  he  found  there  a  complete  field  battery  of  12- 
pound  howitzers.  These  were  given  to  Company  A,  Tenth 
North  Carolina  Regiment  (First  Artillery),  commanded  by 
Captain  Stephen  D.  Ramseur,  and  on  his  promotion  by  Cap- 
tain Basil  C.  Manly.  After  the  "Seven  Days"  battles  that 
company  having  received  one  of  the  many  batteries  captured, 
their  old  guns  which  had  been  turned  in  to  the  Ordnance  de- 
partment were  given  to  us  and  we  were  at  last  equipped  on 
20  September  and  furnished  with  horses.  We  were  soon 
after  transferred  to  the  Twentieth  Virginia  Battalion  of 
Heavy  Artillery  and  an  order  was  later  procured  changing  us 
into  infantry  to  be  attached  to  a  regiment  being  raised  for  an 
aspiring  young  Virginian  who  wished  to  be  made  Colonel.  An 
energetic  protest  by  Captain  Webb  caiised  him  to  be  placed 
in  arrest,  and  the  other  officers  of  the  company  were  forbid- 
den to  communicate  any  complaints  to  the  War  Department, 
bxit  a  note  sent  by  a  negro  servant  to  Hon.  Thomas  S.  Ashe^ 
member  of  Congress  from  our  district,  brought  that  gentle- 
man and  some  of  his  colleagues  to  our  camp  to  investigate 
with  the  result  that  Captain  Webb  was  promptly  released 
from  arrest  and  the  battery  ordered  to  report  to  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Chas.  E.  Lightfoot,  commanding  Field  Artillery  at 
Seven  Pines,  below  Richmond. 

Major  Boggs  returned  and  assumed  command  of  our  com- 
pany and  one  other  and  early  in  November  we  were  ordered 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  357 

to  report  to  General  Pettigrew  near  Petersburg,  later  the 
company  went  to  Ivor  Station,  on  the  Blackwater,  with  the 
Forty-second  North  Carolina,  thence  to  South  Quay,  re- 
porting to  Colonel  P.  P.  Paison,  of  the  Pifty-sixth  North 
Carolina.  Here  we  remained  six  months  on  outpost  duty, 
guarding  the  several  crossings  of  the  river  against  raiding 
and  foraging  parties  which  were  frequently  sent  oiit  from 
Suffolk  and  accompanying  expeditions  from  our  side  sent  out 
by  General  Eoger  A.  Pryor,  who  commanded  that  line,  for 
purposes  of  reconnoitering  and  procuring  supplies.  In  one 
of  these  a  section  of  the  battery  under  Lieutenant  Home  was 
engaged  for  several  hours  at  Kelly's  Farm.  We  were  with 
General  Longstreet  in  his  siege  of  Suffolk. 

In  June,  1863,  we  were  ordered  back  to  Petersburg  and 
saw  arduous  service  under  General  D.  H.  Hill,  commanding 
defences  of  Richmond  during  the  Gettysburg  campaign, 
marching  back  and  forth  to  Hanover  Junction,  and  the  Chick- 
ahominy  and  up  and  down  the  Pamunkey,  York  and  James 
rivers,  being  continually  on  the  move  to  meet  threatened  at- 
tacks of  the  enemy.  On  3  October  at  Fort  Clifton,  near  the 
mouth  of  Appomattox  river  our  horses  were  taken  from  us 
and  turned  over  to  the  artillery  of  General  Longstreet,  who 
was  on  the  move  to  Chattanooga. 

Soon  after  we  were  supplied  with  horses  that  had  endured 
much  service,  but  which  we  grazed  and  restored.  The  North 
Carolinians  in  the  other  company  in  the  battalion  procured 
in  November,  1863  a  transfer  to  our  battery,  39  men  from  the 
Albemarle  country  thus  coming  to  us,  among  them  Lieuten- 
ant Thomas  G.  Skinner,  who  resigned  his  commission  and 
came  to  us  as  a  private  that  he  might  stay  with  his  men. 
Soon  after  the  Thirteenth  North  Carolina  Battalion  was  or- 
ganized, of  which  this  battery  was  made  Company  A. 

On  1  January,  1864,  we  were  ordered  to  Weldon  and 
thence  in  a  few  days  to  Fort  Fisher,  and  were  assigned  to  Bat- 
teries Gatling  and  Anderson  6  or  8  miles  from  the  fort.  Here 
we  remained  on  coast  guard  duty  and  protecting  blockade 
runners  till  12  May,  when  we  were  sent  to  Masonboro,  where 
the  enemy  was  threatening  a  second  destruction  of  the  State 
salt  works.     On  15  May  having  taken  our  position  before 

358  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

day  and  being  hidden  by  the  low  growing  coast  vegetation  we 
opened  fire  at  daylight  with  two  3-inch  rifled  guns  upon  one 
of  the  blockaders  lying  as  near  in  as  it  was  safe,  disabling 
her  so  she  signalled  for  a  consort  some  miles  away  who  com- 
ing in  towed  her  out  of  range.  A  week  later  the  same  vessel 
was  fired  on  from  Fort  Fisher  and  sunk. 

On  23  May,  ordered  to  ISTortheast  (railroad)  bridge.  Leav- 
ing Lieutenant  McISTeill  with  one  section  there,  Captain  Webb 
with  the  other,  proceeded  next  day  to  Bannerman's  bridge  and 
thence  on  the  Holly  Shelter  road  where,  being  joined  by  a 
company  of  cavalry,  we  advanced  to  a  position  at  a  bridge 
over  Shaking  Creek  to  repel  a  threatened  raid  from  New 
Bern.  In  a  few  days  were  ordered  (5  June)  to  Weldon,  men 
and  guns  going  by  rail  and  horses  under  Lieutenant  Home  by 
country  roads,  reaching  Weldon  12  June.  Here  we  were 
kept  on  outpost  to  protect  the  extreme  right  of  Lee's  army 
for  ten  months,  our  own  line  being  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Roanoke  from  Gaston  to  Halifax. 

On  31  January,  1865,  Colonel  John  H.  Anderson,  with 
the  Seventy-first  North  Carolina  (Second  Junior  Reserves), 
and  Millard's  Battalion  of  Juniors,  a  squadron  of  cavalry 
from  the  Nineteenth  North  Carolina  (Second  Cavalry),,  and 
our  battery  were  ordered  to  Coleraine  on  the  Chowan  to  drive 
back  a  force  which  the  enemy  had  landed,  but  on  oar  arrival 
after  a  rapid  march  found  the  enemy  had  re-embarked  and 
gone  down  the  river. 

We  returned  to  Weldon,  thence  the  battery  went  to  Golds- 
boro,  only  to  be  speedily  sent  back  to  the  Blackwater,  thence 
in  a  few  days  back  to  Weldon. 

On  4  March  ordered  to  march  by  countr}'^  road  to  Golds- 
boro,  but  had  only  gotten  twelve  miles  when  an  order  brought 
by  courier  caused  us  to  return  to  Weldon,  thence  by  rail  to 
the  Blackwater,  thence  back  to  Weldon. 

On  31  March  one  section  was  sent  to  Tarboro,  Captain 
Webb  being  in  command  of  post  at  Weldon,  and  on  2  April 
that  section  returned  and  without  disembarking  went  down 
the  Seaboard  Railroad  with  the  Sixty-seventh  North  Caro- 
lina. The  enemy  retired  again  and  Colonel  Jno.  N.  Whit- 
ford  on  the  return  of  our  troops  was  himself  riding  in  the 

Thirteenth  Battalion.  859 

cab  of  the  locomotive,  when  just  after  passing  Seaboard  he 
discovered  several  hundred  men  up  the  track.  He  had  hardly- 
time  to  stop  the  train  when  he  found  the  track  was  being  torn 
up  by  a  party  of  the  enemy's  cavalry. 

Hastily  disembarking  the  infantry,  among  whom  half  our 
men  took  their  places  armed  with  Enfield  rifles,  he  ordered 
the  train  back  to  Seaboard  to  disembark  the  artillery,  guns 
and  horses,  the  infantry  at  once  attacking  the  enemy  who 
after  a  few  moments'  hot  firing,  mounted  their  horses  and 
sought  safety  in  fiight.  The  artillery  now  coming  up,  we 
pursued  the  enemy  to  Jackson,  where  we  found  that  they  had 
distanced  us  going  in  the  direction  of  Murfreesboro.  Colo- 
nel Whitford  then  took  position  near  Jackson,  covering  both 
Halifax  and  Weldon. 

But  tlie  end  was  now  rapidly  approaching.  Fort  Fisher 
had  fallen  in  January  and  the  enemy  occupied  Wilmington, 
closing  our  only  outlet  to  the  world.  Johnston  was  now  about 
to  commence  his  last  retreat  and  on  7  April  directed  the  troops 
withdrawn  from  the  north  side  of  the  Roanoke.  On  night  of 
13  April,  General  L.  S.  Baker  evacuated  Weldon,  destroying 
the  bridges  there  and  at  Gaston  and  we  started  over  the  coun- 
try roads  to  join  General  Johnston  at  Raleigh.  At  Ridge- 
way  we  found  the  tr^ck  filled  with  cars  which  had  been  with- 
drawn from  both  ends  of  the  road,  including  those  with  our 
own  stores  of  provisions  and  ammunition  and  here  first 
learned  of  the  evacuation  of  Petersburg  and  the  surrender  of 
General  Lee,  and  also  of  the  battle  of  Bentonville,  in  which 
two  batteries  of  our  battalion  had  been  engaged,  that  Sher- 
man had  occupied  Raleigh  while  Johnston  had  fallen  back  to- 
wards Greensboro,  and  that  a  large  cavalry  force  from  Grant's 
army  was  moving  on  our  right,  threatening  to  get  in  the  rear 
of  Johnston. 

Being  thus  surrounded  on  all  sides.  General  Baker  called  a 
council  of  war  of  all  the  officers,  and  in  view  of  th"e  impossi- 
bility of  our  reaching  Johnston  it  was  decided  to  disband,  but 
a  small  force  of  volunteers,  mounted  on  cavalry,  wagon  and  ar- 
tillery horses,  would  try  to  pass  around  Sherman's  left  and 
reach  Johnston.  On  the  call  for  volunteers  more  stepped 
forward  than  we  could  supply  with  horses,  but  finally  seventy- 

360  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

five  were  selected  who  were  transforined.  into  cavalry.  Dis- 
mounting and  spiking  onr  guns  and  taking  three  days'  ra- 
tions, we  started  under  General  Baker's  lead.  Twenty  of 
these  men  were  from  our  company.  For  two  days  we  wan- 
dered up  and  down  Neuse  river  seeking  a  passage,  all  fords 
being  guarded  by  Sherman's  cavalry  pickets. 

On  the  evening  of  the  second  day  being  then  in  14  miles 
of  Raleigh,  we  found  our  supplies  exhausted,  and  there  being 
no  chance  to  get  through  to  Johnston  who,  besides,  we  were 
reliably  told  had  surrendered,  after  a  council  of  war  we  sent 
in  a  flag  of  truce  and  our  surrender  was  formally  accepted, 
General  Baker  being  directed  by  General  Sherman  to  surren- 
der our  arms  and  parole  the  men  and  officers. 

General  Baker  issued  a  commendatory  address  to  the  bat- 
tery, which  together  with  the  names  of  those  of  the  battery 
then  present  are  printed  (from  data  furnished  by  the  writer) 
in  the  article  in  this  volume,  "The  Last  Fifteen  Days  of 
Baker's  Command,"  by  James  M.  Mullen,  who  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  battery  and  hence  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

Lewis  H.  Webb. 
Franklin,  Va., 

20  April,  1901. 


By  captain  JAMES  D.  GUMMING. 

This  company  was  organized  in  February,  1861,  with  John 
J.  Hedrick  Captain,  James  M.  Stevenson  and  Dugald  La- 
mont  as  First  Lieutenants,  James  D.  Gumming  and  James 
B.  Huggins  Second  Lieutenants.  When  Governor  Ellis,  in 
1861,  ordered  the  militia  to  seize  the  forts  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Cape  Fear  river,  this  company,  under  orders  of  Colonel 
Cantwell,  occupied  Fort  Johnston,  at  Smithville,  N.  C,  thus 
being  among  the  first  troops  to  place  hostile  foot  on  the  United 
States  possessions  in  North  Carolina.  After  serving  at 
Forts  Johnson  and  Caswell  until  December,  1861,  the  com- 
pany was  ordered  to  Federal  Point  and  assisted  in  the  con- 
struction of  Fort  Fisher,  jST.  C.  Remained  in  the  fort  until 
April,  1862.  The  company  then  reorganized  and  re-enlisted 
for  the  war  with  James  I).  Cumming  as  Captain,  John  W. 
Galloway  and  J.  M.  Rowe  First  Lieutenants,  and  S.  H.  Ev- 
eritt  and  later  A.  D.  Brown  Sexjond  Lieutenants.  A  battery 
of  field  artillery  was  assigned  to  it  and  the  company  was 
equipped  for  field  service.  After  remaining  in  the  camp  of 
instruction  until  November,  1862,  it  was  ordered  to  Eastern 
North  Carolina  where  it  remained  until  the  Spring  of  1863. 
During  this  time  the  battery  had  varied  service,  participating 
in  the  several  raids  and  movements  against  New  Bern  and 
Washington,  N.  C,  under  Generals  Hoke,  D.  H.  Hill  and 
Pettigrew.  Was  in  the  engagement  at  Bloimt's  Creek  and 
-  the  battery  was  mentioned  by  General  Pettigrew  in  General 
Orders.  When  the  assault  on  New  Bern  was  arranged  this 
battery  was  selected  to  lead  the  artillery. 


In  May,  1864,  a  section  of  the  battery  was  ordered  to  Pe- 
tersburg, Va.,  and  assigned  to  Moseley's  Battalion  of  Artillery, 
joining  the  forces  that  bottled  up  Butler  at  Bermuda  Hun- 

362  North  Carolina  Troops,  l861-'65. 

dreds ;  was  in  the  engagements  at  Ware  Bottom  Church  and 
Clay's  Farm.  Here  under  a  heavy  fire  a  32-pound  shell  fell 
among  a  detachment  of  the  men  at  one  of  our  guns.  Private 
Jas.  P.  Pierce,  with  great  presence  of  mind,  picked  up  the 
shell  with  its  biirning  fuse  and  threw  it  over  the  entrench- 
ment. The  next  day  General  Beauregard  in  G-eneral  Orders, 
complimented  "Private  Jas.  P.  Pierce,  of  Cumming's  Bat- 
tery, for  his  bravery  and  coolness,"  commending  his  example 
to  the  army.  When  Grant  crossed  the  James  river  the  com- 
mand was  ordered  to  Petersburg,  Va.,  and  was  actively  en- 
gaged 16,  1-7  and  18  June  on  the  Jerusalem  Plank  E.oad;  was 
then  moved  to  the  trenches  around  Petersburg,  occupying  the 
salient  on  the  Norfolk  Railroad,  and  supported  by  General 
Gracie,  of  Alabama.  The  battery  was  daily  and  nightly  un- 
der heavy  fire  by  artillery  and  mortars  and  was  actively  en- 
gaged in  the  battle  of  the  Crater  30  July,  1864.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1864,  the  company  was  ordered  to  the  north  side  of  the 
Appomattox,  enfilading  the  enemy's  line  up  to  the  Hare 
house  and  was  under  heavj'  fire  about  every  day  and  night. 
The  battery  continued  in  service  until  the  evacuation  of  Pe- 
tersburg, sharing  in  the  privations  and  fighting  from  Dea- 
tonsville  and  Sailor's  Creek  to  Appomattox  Court  House; 
was  not  engaged  at  the  surrender  of  Lee  for  want  of  ammuni- 
tion.    At  that  time  it  formed  a  part  of  Blount's  Battalion. 


The  second  section  of  the  battery  under  Lieutenant  Kowe, 
continued  in  North  Carolina  where  it  was  engaged  in  the  bat- 
tle below  Kinston,  8  March,  1865.  Lieutenant  Eowe  was 
killed;  was  also  engaged  at  the  battle  of  Bentonville,  N.  C, 
19-21  March,  in  Starr's  Battalion.  This  section  was  in  John- 
ston's retreat,  surrendering  at  Greensboro,  N.  C. 

The  battery  was  thus  in  constant  service  from  April,  1861, 
to  the  surrender  at  Appomattox  Court  House,  losing  a  num- 
ber of  men  in  battle  and  by  disease,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
men  having  enlisted  in  the  entire  company. 

Jas.  D.  Cumming. 
New  Yokk  City, 

26  April,  1901. 


(hbnky's  battalion.) 

By  S.  V.  PICKENS,  Adjutant. 

This  battalion  which  grew  out  of  Woodfin's  Battalion,  was 
itself  tventnally  increased  and  merged  into  the  Seventy- 
ninth  JSTorth  Carolina  Regiment  (Eighth  Cavalry.)  The 
history  of  both  these  battalions  has  been  given  in  the  history 
of  that  regiment  ante  and  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

S.   V.   PlCKEWS. 

Hendkbsonville,  N.  C, 

30  May,  1901. 



1.  J.  M.  Wynns,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

2.  Baldy  Ashburn  Capehart,  Captain,  A.  Q.  M. 



By  JAMES  M.  WYNNS,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

This  battalion  of  cavalry  was  organized  in  July,  1863.  It 
was  originally  intended  to  comprise  six  companies,  but  from 
the  pressing  needs  of  that  section  two  companies  at  Wilming- 
ton never  joined  us.  After  the  lapse  of  so  many  years  I 
can  only  give  a  partial  list  of  the  officers,  as  follows : 

J.  M.  WyititSj  Lieutenant-Colonel,  commissioned  22  July, 
1863;  formerly  Captain  Company  C,  Second  North  Caro- 
lina Cavalry. 

Lieutenant  J.  W.  Pebry^  Adjutant. 

Captain  B.  A.  Capeiiakt,  A.  Q.  M. 

Staeky  Shaep,  S'urgeon. 

Captains — J.  G.  HoUiday,  M.  M.  Wise,  J.  T.  Beaman, 
— .  — .  Evans,  — .  — .  Taylor. 

Lieutenants — J.  F.  Branch,  H.  J.  Jenkins,  A.  J.  Cobb, 
J.  A.  Allen. 

This  battalion  and  the  Sixty-eighth  Regiment  of  infantry 
were  organized  for  the  purpose  of  protecting  Eastern  North 
Carolina,  and  first  went  into  camp  of  instruction  at  Murfrees- 
boro,  thence  to  Weldon,  where  it  remained  in  active  service 
during  the  fall  and  winter  of  1863,  taking  part  in  the  raids 
made  by  troops  under  General  M.  W.  Ransom  on  South  Mills 
and  other  points  in  Eastern  North  Carolina  in  the  territory 
held  by  the  enemy,  bringing  out  much  needed  provisions,  and 
inflicting  more  or  less  injury  on  the  enemy.  On  one  of  our 
raids  we  pursued  the  enemy  to  very  near  Deep  Creek,  on  the 
Dismal  Swamp  canal,  in  a  most  exciting  chase  of  six  miles. 
Our  horses  being  jaded,  the  enemy  outstripped  us,  and  we 
only  made  a  few  prisoners  We  killed  and  wounded  quite  a 
number,  most  of  whom  were  left  in  the  swamp.  Our  casual- 
ties were  small,  and  the  commissary  stores  brought  out  on 

366  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

that  occasion  amply  compensated  for  the  trouble  and  expo- 

Owing  to  the  pressing  demand  for  troops  in  Virginia,  the 
command  was  transferred  to  the  Blackwater  line  with  head- 
qiiarters  near  Franklin.  Extracts  from  a  letter  received 
from  Captain  B.  A  Capehart,  A.  Q.  M.,  will  be  of  interest 
and.  at  the  same  time  give  a  vivid  account  of  the  operations 
of  the  command  and  its  arduous  duties. 

"I  have  no  dates.  The  operations  of  the  command  after 
being  ordered  to  Virginia,  were  confined  to  the  Blackwater 
line.  I  well  remember  the  sharply  contested  engagements 
and  the  uniform  courage  and  determined  spirit  with  which 
our  officers  and  men  disputed  the  enemy's  advance  in  force. 
I  think  it  was  Dodge's  JSTew  York  cavalry,  supported  by  sev- 
eral pieces  of  artillery,  which  gave  us  such  a  tussle  when  you, 
with  a  handful  of  men  held  them  in  check  from  11  a.  m.  till 
about  nightfall — the  moon  giving  full  light.  So  determined 
were  they,  that  dividing  their  forces,  a  part  (and  I  dare  say 
the  best)  went  up  through  the  pocosin  and  constructed  a  raft 
upon  which  they  crossed;  again  divided,  part  following  the 
water  line  to  the  left  of  our  trenches,  our  men  pouring  it  into 
them.  When  to  our  surprise  the  other  division  charged  down 
on  our  rear,  nothing  was  left  us  to  do  but  get  to  our  horses  as 
best  we  could  and  fall  back,  they  in  hot  pursuit,  after  which 
they  got  possession  of  the  ferry  boat  over  which  we  had  such 
a  tug  in  the  first  of  the  engagement.  After  getting  their 
horses  across  the  Blackwater,  we  were  pressed  to  the  ISTotto- 
way  Bridge  on  the  Seaboard  &  Roanoke  Railroad,  where  we 
succeeded  in  checking  them.  That  kind  of  warfare  was  car- 
ried on  during  the  fall  and  winter  of  1864-'65,  our  duty  being 
tO'  hold  the  enemy  in  check  and  prevent  their  crossing  the 
Blackwater,  and  protect  those  bringing  provisions  from  the 
territory  across  the  river  within  the  enemy's  lines. 

On  the  morning  the  enemy  made  their  last  attack  upon  us 
at  South  Quay,  I  was  ordered  to  Raleigh  on  business  for  the 
command,  and  from  my  friend,  Colonel  W.  F.  Martin,  of  the 
Seventeenth  JSTorth  Carolina,  then  in  command  at  Weldon, 
obtained  permission  to  stop  at  my  home  for  a  day  with  my 
family,  which  I  did,  reaching  there  the  next  morning,   2 

Fifteenth  Battalion.  367 

April,  1865,  about  half  an  hour  before  my  oldest  son  was 
bom,  and  by  the  way  about  the  very  hour  President  Davis 
was  summoned  to  retire  from  the  church  at  which  he  was  wor- 
shipping that  day  in  Richmond. 


There  was  one  transaction  with  which  we  were  connected, 
and  which  was  most  humiliating  to  me,  and  to  which  I  have 
yet  scarcely  felt  reconciled.  You  remember  receiving  orders 
from  General  R.  E.  Lee  to  allow  a  steamer  giving  certain  sig- 
nals to  pass  the  pickets  and  proceed  up  the  river  unmolested 
and  by  the  way  you  had  a  similar  experience  early  in  the  war 
on  the  coast  between  'Re\v  Bern  and  Wilmington,  when  in 
command  of  a  squadron  of  the  Second  ISTorth  Carolina  Cavalry. 
I  refer  to  the  landing  of  the  Yankee  steamer  about  400  yards 
below  Nottoway  Bridge,  on  the  Seaboard  &  Roanoke  Railroad 
with  a  cargo  of  hospital  supplies  for  which  she  was  to  receive 
in  return  cotton.  Being  the  Quartermaster,  it  devolved  on 
me  to  discharge  and  reload  the  craft,  my  first  duty  on  board- 
ing the  steamer  was  to  look  after  the  credentials,  and  I  was 
shown  by  the  Captain  papers  of  agreement  signed  by  Gen- 
eral Lee's  Adjutant-General,  Walter  H.  Taylor,  and  General 
Benjamin  F.  Butler.  This  is  a  bit  of  war  history,  but  little 
known.  I  dare  say  most  or  all  of  it  is  fresh  in  your  memory. 
One  circumstance  connected  with  it  I  remember.  I  had 
charged  the  Captain  not  to  give  liquor  to  the  guard  I  had 
placed  there  to  protect  the  steamer,  Avhich  he  promised,  but 
did  not  fulfill,  for  during  my  absence  he  filled  their  canteens 
and  giving  the  men  a  barrel  of  shell  oysters  to  eat,  they  were 
soon  in  an  irresponsible  condition,  and  quarrelled.  One  man, 
Joe  Askew  by  name,  struck  another  man(  Davis)  with  his 
canteen,  whereupon  Davis  caught  up  Askew's  own  carbine  and 
fired,  shooting  him  through  the  body,  the  ball  going  through 
another  trooper's  arm  above  the  elbow,  White.  In  conse- 
quence of  this,  Davis  ran  away.  Askew  died  and  White  was 
disabled,  a  loss  to  us  out  of  our  command  of  three  of  its  best 
men.  It  was  dreadful  in  the  extreme  to  be  reduced  to  the 
condition  of  want  in  everything  but  courage  and  valor,  but 
to  feel  that  we  had  to  look  to  and  traffic  with  our  enemy  to 

368  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

relieve  our  poor  suffering  troops  in  hospitals  as  well  as  their 
own  men  (our  prisoners)  caused  a  feeling  generally  expressed 
that  being  reduced  to  this  extreme,  it  was  time  the  war  should 

The  services  of  the  battalion  were  hardly  appreciated,  ex- 
cept perhaps  by  General  Lee,  who  would  not  allow  it  to  be 
moved,  knowing  the  important  work  it  was  accomplishing  in 
protecting,  as  it  did,  the  many  passes,  particularly  South 
Quay,  thereby  enabling  our  people  to  bring  out  from  our 
eastern  counties  such  supplies  as  could  be  spared  from  our 
non-combatants  within  the  enemy's  lines. 

In  our  engagements  we  lost  but  few  comparatively,  having 
breastworks  to  protect  us  most  of  the  time,  but  we  never  failed 
to  punish  our  opponents  with  some  severity.  Their  casual- 
ties woulc^be  reported  to  us  by  citizens  living  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  Blackwater.  No  braver  or  better  officers  were  in 
our  array  than  Adjutant  J.  W.  Perry,  Captain  J.  G.  Hol- 
liday.  Lieutenant  Branch,  to  say  nothing  of  yourself  and 
other  officers,  commissioned  and  non-commissioned. 

The  operatio'us  of  the  other  part  of  the  command  were  con- 
fined to  that  territory  east  of  us,  the  Meherrin  river  and  down 
the  Chowan  as  far  as  Colerain  and  even  farther.  I  was  with 
them  less  of  the  time,  but  always  found  them  on  the  alert  and 
prompt  to  communicate  any  advance  of  the  enemy  by  land  or 

As  before  stated,  I  was  on  my  way  to  Raleigh  on  the  morn- 
ing of  1  April,  1865,  and  learned  the  enemy  had  advanced 
and  were  making  a  determined  attempt  to  cross  at  South 
Quay,  and  it  was  at  that  time  and  place  as  brave  and  gallant 
a  soldier  as  ever  wielded  saber  (Joe  Watford)  fell  on  the 
banks  of  the  Blackwater,  his  comrades,  pressed  as  they  were, 
endeavored  to  place  him  in  the  saddle,  but  "Wo,"  he  said,  "T 
am  done  for ;  save  yourselves" — then  died. 

Do  you  remember  young  Wood,  as  daring  and  handsome  a 
boy  as  ever  wore  the  gray,  how  he  dropped  back  to  be  the  last 
to  cross  Lenow's  Bridge,  when  we,  so  pressed  by  the  enemy, 
tore  it  up,  and  wheeling  in  his  saddle  as  the  enemy  reached  it, 
being  thereby  checked  for  the  time,  he  took  deliberate  aim  and 
unseated  his  man.     In  fact,  the  battalion  was  a  gallant  set  of 

Fifteenth  Battalion.  369 

men  and  deserve  more  than  a  mere  mention.  I  hope  you 
■will  bestir  yourself  and  writ©  what  you  know,  and  if  these 
paragraphs  serve  to  refresh  your  memory,  I  shall  have  dis- 
charged a  pleasant  duty. 

There  is  one  fact,  that  from  the  fall  of  1864  till  General 
Lee  surrendered,  the  enemy  never  got  nearer  Weldon  than  to 
press  us  to  Nottoway  Bridge  and  fall  back  the  same  day,  nor 
did  they  get  into  the  country  west  of  the  Chowan  until  the 
struggle  between  the  armies  of  the  States  was  in  its  last 
throes.  You  know  we  never  surrendered,  but  were  pressing 
on  to  join  Johnston.  After  hearing  of  General  Lee^s  surren- 
der, then  learning  of  the  surrender  of  the  latter  when  at 
Ridgeway,  we  sadly  wended  our  way  through  the  desolate  re- 
gion to  our  homes. 

B.  A.  Oape^bt." 

To  what  has  been  tbus  said  by  Captain  Capehart,  I  can 
add  but  little.  The  battalion  was  raised  tO'  protect  North 
Eastern  North  Carolina  from  the  enemy's  raids  and  as  he 
has  stated,  we  did  it — toi  the  very  best.  When  the  end  came 
we  took  no  parole,  but  went  home  and  took  our  guns  and 
horses  with  us. 

James  M.  Wynns. 
muefeebsboeo,  n.  c, 

30  May,  1901. 




By  JOHN  T.  KENNEDY,  Colonbl. 

This  battalion  was  formed  in  1864  of  the  five  North  Caro- 
lina companies  which  till  then  had  served  in  the  Seventh 
Confederate  (Cavalry)  Eegiment.  By  General  Orders  from 
Eichmond  11  July,  1864,  there  was  added  to  this  battalion 
the  three  companies  from  this  State  in  the  Sixty-second 
Oeorgia  and  Company  C  from  the  Twelfth  JSTorth  Carolina 
Battalion^  and  the  command  was  therein  styled  the  Sixteenth 
Batalion,  the  writer  being  its  Lieutenant-Colonel  command- 
ing. It  tiirned  out,  however,  that  the  authorities  had  over- 
looked the  fact  that  the  North  Carolina  company  which  had 
been  carried  by  the  writer  into  the  Sixty-second  Georgia  had 
been  recruited  largely  and  had  been  made  into  two  companies 
commanded  by  J.  A.  Richardson  and  Geo.  Dees.  Adding 
this  additional  company  the  Sixteenth  Battalion  was  really 
a  regiment,  which  was  soon  recognized  as  the  Seventy-fifth 
Worth  Carolina  Eegiment,  the  writer  was  made  its  Colonel, 
Jno.  B.  Edelin  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  F.  G.  Pitts,  Major. 
In  the  pressure  and  hurry  of  events  it  was,  however,  stili  car- 
ried in  the  ofiicial  reports  up  to  the  surrender  as  the  Sixteenth 
Battalion.  But  under  its  proper  title  of  the  Seventy-fifth. 
North  Carolina  Regiment  (Seventh  Cavalry)  its  story  has 
been  already  told  ante  and  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

J.  T.  Kbnnedt. 

GOLDSBOKO,    N.    0., 

9  April,  1901. 



(aveey's  battalion.) 

By  A.  C.  AVERY,  Major. 

When  Longstreet's  Corps  moved  JSTorth,  and  reunited  with 
Lee's  Army  in  the  midst  of  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness,  the 
whole  of  East  Tecanessee  was  immediately  occupied  by  the 
Federal  army,  and  JSTorth  Carolina  would  have  been  invaded 
by  a  separate  army,  had  our  Western  railroad  been  built,  and 
possibly,  if  the  high  mountains  on  our  Western  border  had 
been  traversed  by  such  turnpikes  as  had  then  been  constructed 
across  the  mountains  in- Virginia.  After  Longstreet  went 
North,  most  of  the  troops  that  were  left  to  guard  the  frontier 
of  the  State  were  posted  from  a  point  almost  due  west  from 
Asheville  tO'  the  southwestern  border  of  the  State.  The  coun- 
try north  of  Madison  County  was  patrolled  at  most  by  a  com- 
pany of  cavalry,  and  picketed  by  small  squads  of  that  com- 
pany. Major  Harvey  Bingham  had  two  full  companies  in 
camp  in  Watauga  and  Captain  Price,  who  had  been  dis- 
charged from  the  First  Cavalry,  commanded  a  small,  but  ac- 
tive company  in  Ashe  County.  These  troops  rendered  effi- 
cient service  by  driving  back  small  predatory  bands,  who 
were  continually  coming  into  the  State  from  upper  East  Ten- 
nessee. The  approaches  covered  by  the  borders  of  Mitchell 
and  Yancey  were  comparatively  unguarded. 

General  R.  B.  Vance  had  been  in  command  of  the  district 
composing  Western  lirorth  Carolina;  but  had  been  captured 
while  making  a  raid  into  Cocke  County,  Tennessee.  Colonel 
J.  B.  Palmer,  who  had  been  detached  from  his  regiment,  the 
Fifty-eighth  l^orth  Carolina,  then  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee, 
at  his  own  request,  for  the  purpose,  succeeded  General  Vance 
as  commander  of  the  district. 

Colonel  George  W.  Kirk,  who,  afterwards  acquired  an  un- 
enviable celebrity  by  his  connection  with  the  Holden-Kirk 

Note. — This  Battalion  consisted  of  two  companies  of  Infantry  (A.  and 
C.)  and  one  of  Cavalry  Co.  B,  Captain  Miller.— Ed. 

372  North  Cabolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

war,  and  who  had  been  allowed  by  the  Federal  Government 
to  organize  a  regiment,  composed  for  the  most  part  of  North 
Carolina  deserters,  in  Jime,  1864,  led  an  incursion  across  this 
unguarded  portion  of  our  frontier  and  surrounded  a  conscript 
camp  at  Berry's  Mill  Pond,  six  miles  below  Morganton,  just 
above  what  was  then  the  terminus  of  the  Western  North  Car- 
olina Eailroad.  He  surprised  and  captured  at  that  place 
dver  one  hundred  of  the  Junior  Keserves,  who  had  been  gath- 
ered there  to  be  organized  into  a  battalion.  While  the  militia 
and  citizens  who  did  not  belong  to  the  Home  Guards  were 
gathering  on  the  day  of  the  capture  at  Morganton,  28  June, 
one  of  Kirk's  scouts  was  shot  but  a  half  mile  from  Morganton 
by  R  C.  Pearson,  a  leading  citizen  of  the  town.  On  the  second 
day  thereafter  a  small  squad  of  mounted  men  fired  into  the 
van  of  Kirk's  command  at  the  foot  of  the  Brown  Mountain, 
but  he  eluded  them  and  reached  the  Winding  Stairs,  a  nar- 
row path  near  the  top  of  Jonas  Eidge,  where  he  posted  a 
strong  detachment,  while  his  prisoners  were  being  moved  on 
into  East  Tennessee.  Here  he  was  attacked  by  a  body  of 
men,  composed  of  a  few  regular  soldiers  on  furloug:h  and  sev- 
eral hundred  militia,  hurriedly  gathered  together  from  the 
counties  of  Burke,  Caldwell,  Catawba  and  Kowan,  the  whole 
body  being  under  the  command  of  Colonel  H.  A.  Brown,  of 
the  First  North  Carolina  Regiment,  who  had  just  recovered 
from  a  wound  and  turned  out  of  his  way  to  his  command  at 
Salisbury  to  help  his  neighbors.  In  the  attempt  to  take  this 
narrow  path,  Hon.  W.  W.  Avery  was  mortally  wounded  and 
Calvin  Houk  and  a  number  of  others  were  seriously  injured. 
The  excitement  caused  by  this  invasion  induced  the  War 
Department  at  Richmond  to  order  General  Martin  to  estab- 
lish headquarters  at  Morganton  and  assume  command  of  the 
District  of  Western  North  Carolina,  The  writer,  who  was 
serving  on  the  staff  of  Lieutenant'General  Hood  at  the  Chat' 
tahoochee  river,  first  secured  a  leave  of  absence  by  the  kind- 
ness of  General  Hood,  and  was  then  transferred  to  the  De- 
partment of  North  Carolina  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  all 
of  his  older  brothers  and  the  desperate  illness  of  Ids  father, 
and  ordered  to  report  to  General  Martin  as  Adjutant-General 
of  the  district.     In  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  when  the  writer 

Seventeenth  Battalion.  373 

was  about  to  resign,  and  General  Martin  was  contemplating 
the  removal  of  his  headquarters  to  Asheville,  the  General  in- 
sisted that  a  number  of  local  companies  then  formed  and 
being  formed,  should  be  organized  first  into  a  battalion  and 
then  into  a  regiment,  and  obtained  authority  from  the  War 
Department  for  the  writer  to  organize  a  regiment  of  moun- 
taineers to  protect  the  northwestern  frontier  of  the  State. 

Major  Gordon,  in  his  history  of  the  organization  of  troops 
(North  Carolina  Eegiments,  Vol.  1,  page  22),  accounts  for 
the  organization  of  the  battalion  and  the  proposition  to  en- 
large it  into  a  regiment  as  follows : 

"The  War  Department,  at  the  suggestion  of  General  Mar- 
tin, who  commanded  this  district  at  the  close  of  the  war,  sus- 
pended the  conscript  law,  and  there  were  no  more  runaways. 
Major  A.  C.  Avery  was  also  authorized  to  raise  a  regiment  for 
local  service.  Some  progress  was  made  in  recruiting  several 
companies  for  this  regiment,  but  the  Major  was  captured  dur- 
ing Stoneman's  raid.  The  regiment  was  never  organized, 
and,  as  far  as  known,  the  Major  did  not  get  his  Colonel's  com- 
mission. This  was  the  last  effort  made  to  raise  troops  in  the 
State  before  the  war  closed." 

x\ccordingly,  in  February,  1865,  Captain  John  Carson's 
company  (Company  A,  of  Avery's  Battalion) ;  Captain  Nel- 
son A.  Miller's  company  (Company  B),  of  Caldwell  Coun- 
ty, and  Captain  W.  L.  Twitty's  company  (Company  C), 
from  Rutherford,  were  ordered  to  assemble  at  Morganton, 
where  they  were  furnished  with  arms,  ammunition  and  equip- 
ments, which  Governor  Vance  had  shipped  at  the  request  of 
the  writer  from  the  State  arsenal  at  Raleigh.  At  the  same 
time  the  Governor  had  forwarded  a  sufficient  number  of  im- 
proved arms  to  supply  the  companies  of  Major  Bingham  in 
Watauga,  and  a  few  weeks  later,  the  battalion  composed  of 
these  three  companies  was  ordered  to  go  to  Watauga  County 
and  provide  Bingham's  companies  with  the  arms  and  muni- 
tions shipped  for  them.  It  was  a  part  of  the  plan  to  organize 
Price's  company,  another  company  in  Mitchell,  still  another 
in  Madison,  and  a  second  company  in  Rutherford  County,  out 
of  the  body  of  young  men  just  reaching  the  age  for  service 
and  those  persons  exempt  from  service,  some  of  them  having 

374  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

been  discharged  on  account  of  wounds  and  others  not  being 
liable  because  they  were  State  officers,  but  all  of  whom  were 
willing  to  do  duty  in  defense  of  their  State  and  their  own  im- 
mediate homes. 

In  fact  many  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  battalion  had  ren- 
dered efficient  service  in  the  armies  in  the  field  and  had  re- 
signed or  been  discharged  because  of  disability  caused  by 
wounds.  Captain  John  Carson  had  been  a  First  Lieutenant 
in  Company  D,  of  the  Sixth  Regiment,  and  was  lamed  by  a 
wound  received  at  Sharpsburg.  He  had  partially  recovered 
and  had  become  anxious  to  serve  the  cause  again  somewhere 
and  in  some  capacity.  He  was  but  a  type  of  the  older  men 
who  belonged  to  these  companies.  The  boys,  who  had  passed 
beyond  parental  control  because  of  their  liability  under  the 
17  year  conscript  act,  were  the  very  best  material  for  making 
good  soldiers.  Had  the  war  lasted  another  year  they  would 
have  been  better  known. 

While  Avery's  Battalion  was  en  route  for  Watauga,  and 
before  it  reached  there,  a  detachment  from  Franklin's  Divis- 
ion of  the  Federal  army,  which  had  been  sent  from  upper 
East  Tennessee,  had  surprised  Bingham's  camp  and  captured 
all  of  his  men,  who  did  not  at  the  time  happen  to  be  at  their 
homes.  While  the  battalion  was  camped  in  Watauga,  infor- 
mation was  received  of  a  proposed  incursion  from  Tennessee 
into  the  upper  part  of  Burke  County,  and  after  sending  a  de- 
tachment direct  to  Mitchell  County,  the  battalion  was  moved 
through  the  upper  part  of  Burke  and  went  to  that  county. 
The  invaders  were  a  small  predatory  band,  some  of  who-m 
were  overtaken  by  the  men  sent  in  pursuit  and  a  portion  of 
their  booty  was  recaptured.  About  this  time  Franklin's 
whole  Corps  moved  up  to  Bristol  and  Major-General  Stone- 
man,  with  a  Division  of  splendidly  equipped  cavalry,  passed 
up  the  Watauga  river  near  Valle  Crueis,  along  the  turnpike 
by  Blowing  Rock,  burned  the  cotton  mill  at  Patterson,  passed 
down  through  Taylorsville  and  then  moved  north  towards 
Virginia.  Meantime  Kirk  with  two  regiments  of  deserters 
had  established  an  outpost  of  Franklin's  command  on  the 
turnpike  at  Blowing  Rock.  Avery's  battalion  was  moved 
back  across  the  mountains.     It  had  from  its  organization  up 

Seventeenth  Battalion.  375 

to  that  time  been  able  to  protect  the  upper  mountain  counties 
from  constant  robberies  and  had  driven  out  of  the  State  and 
into  the  Federal  Army  some  organized  bands  of  raiders.  But 
in  the  face  of  a  division  of  Federal  soldiers,  with  outposts  oc- 
cupied by  regiments,  the  battalion  was  withdrawn  to  the  foot 
of  the  mountains.  Kirk  sent  out  but  one  raiding  party  from 
Blowing  Rock.  That  party  had  gone  but  a  short  distance 
below  the  head  of  Johns  river  when  they  found  that  a  squad 
(Miller's  Cavalry)  of  Avery's  Battalion  could  beat  them  at 
their  own  game  of  bushwhacking. 

Meantime,  after  receiving  information  as  to  the  number 
and  disposition  of  Kirk's  men  at  Blowing  Rock,  and  after 
reading  a  dispatch  from  General  Lee  to  General  Martin,  in 
which  the  former  expressed  the  opinion  that  Stoneman's  raid- 
ers woixld  return  to  upper  East  Tennessee  by  way  of  the  lead 
mines,  in  Smith  County,  Virginia,  the  writer  boarded  the 
train  for  Salisbury  with  the  purpose  of  pressing  an  applica- 
tion previously  made  to  have  a  battalion  detached  from  the 
garrison  at  Salisbury  and  moved  up  on  the  train  at  night  to 
aid  his  battalion  in  a  proposed  night  attack  upon  Kirk's  camp 
at  Blowing  Rock.  When  he  reached  Salisbury,  he  found  that 
General  Bradley  Johnson  had  gone  to  Greensboro,  and  Gen- 
eral Gardner,  in  command  there,  was  preparing  to  meet  an 
attack  from  Stoneman's  Division,  which  had  crossed,  the 
Yadkin  at  the  Shallow  Ford  and  was  then  moving  on  Salis- 
bury. The  result  was  that  the  writer  was  captured  with 
Colonel  Stone  of  the  Second  Mississippi  (since  three  times 
Governor  of  his  State)  and  seven  or  eight  hundred  other  of- 
ficers and  men,  and  was  marched  by  Taylorsville,  Lenoir  and 
Blowing  Rock  under  guard. 

Meantime,  upon  the  return  of  Stoneman's  Division,  Mil- 
ler's company,  a  portion  of  whom  were  mounted  men,  met  the 
vanguard  of  the  division  near  the  Caldwell  line  and  skir- 
mished with  them  till  they  reached  the  town  of  Lenoir.  They 
narrowly  escaped  capture  in  the  town  itself  by  riding  up  to 
the  top  of  Hibriten.  A  portion  of  Stoneman's  command 
was  sent  across  the  mountain  to  deliver  the  prisoners  to  Col- 
onel Kirk,  but  most  of  his  division  moved  to  the  west  in  two 
bodies,  one  by  way  of  Beattie's  Ford  and  Lincolnton  to  Ruth- 

376  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

erfordton,  and  thence  across  the  Blue  Eidge ;  the  other  by  way 
of  Lenoir  and  ]\iorganton  to  Swanannoa  Gap. 

Major-General  McGowan,  of  the  Confederate  Army,  hap- 
pened to  be  at  Morganton  about  this  time.  The  citizens  had 
obtained,  through  Governor  Vance,  a  small  field  piece  and 
had  erected  some  breastworks  and  placed  this  piece  so  as  to 
command  the  crossing  of  the  river  at  the  Rocky  Ford,  on  the 
road  from  Lenoir  to  Morganton.  Lieutenant  George  West, 
previously  Aide-de-Camp  on  the  staff  of  General  D.  H.  Hill, 
had  hurriedly  organized  and  drilled  a  squad  of  young  men 
who  had  charge  of  this  gun.  Captain  Twitty's  company  of 
Avery's  Battalion,  removed  from  the  western  part  of  Burke 
County,  when  Stoneman's  command  approached  Morganton 
and  occupied  some  rifle  pits  along  the  bank  of  the  river  near 
Rocky  Ford.  The  home  guard,  under  Colonel  T.  George 
Walton,  were  posted  higher  up  the  hill,  and  were  supporting 
the  field  piece.  This  field  piece,  with  the  help  of  the  in- 
fantry under  General  McGowan,  chiefly  that  of  Twitty's 
sharpshooters,  prevented  Stoneman's  men  from  crossing  at 
that  point  for  several  hours.  Captain  Twitty  finding  that 
the  Federals  were  going  up  the  river,  took  a  squad  and  went 
up  to  Fleming's  Ford.  When  information  was  received  that 
Stoneman  had  sent  men  tO'  a  ford  still  farther  tip,  all  of  the 
soldiers  on  the  river  retreated  and  evaded  capture.  Twitty's 
men  fought  with  the  coolness  and  courage  of  veterans  in  this, 
their  only  skirmish,  with  trained  troops.  A  portion  of  Car- 
son's company  watched  from  the  hills  and  mountains  the  ad- 
vance of  Stoneman  to  Swanannoa  Gap,  and  pounced  down 
upon  detached  squads  of  Federals,  where  they  saw  that  they 
would  not  be  outnumbered. 

In  May,  1865,  the  whole  mountain  and  Piedmont  country 
was  infested  with  robbers  claiming  tO'  have  been  enlisted  in 
the  Federal  army  and  it  became  absolutely  necessary  for  the 
boldest  among  the  returned  soldiers  of  the  Confederate  Army 
to  organize  and  strike  terror  into  these  bands  of  marauders.  A 
party  of  desperate  robbers  were  pursued  by  a  number  of  Ex- 
Confederate  soldiers,  and  took  refuge  in  a  sort  of  block  house 
in  Wilkes  County,  which  was  called  Fort  Hamby.  In  a 
charge  upon  this  house,  when  it  was  captured  Second  Lieu- 

Seventeenth  Battalion.  377 

tenant  Henly,  of  Milleor's  company,  was  killed.  There 
was  not  a  more  daring  man  in  any  army.  The  storming  of 
Fort  Hamby  14  May,  1865,  is  the  subject  of  an  interesting 
article  by  Hon.  R.  Z.  Linney  in  this  volume.  The  men  who 
fought  and  fell  there  imperiled  their  lives  for  the  protection 
of  their  friends  and  families  and  moreover  incurred  the  risk 
of  being  punished  by  the  Yankees,  at  the  instance  of  their 
irregular  soldiers,  who  were  in  sympathy  with  such  robbers. 

A.    0.   AVEET. 
MOKGANTON,    N.    C, 

30  May,  1901. 


( Macrae's  battalion.) 

By  major  J.  0.  MACRAE. 

In  the  summer  and  fall  of  1863,  the  condition  of  affairs  in 
the  mountains  of  Western  E"orth  Carolina  became  so  disor- 
dered by  reason  of  the  withdrawal  of  most  of  the  men  who 
were  loyal  to  the  Confederacy  for  service  in  the  two  great 
armies  of  Northern  Virginia  and  of  the  West,  that  it  was  nec- 
essary for  the  government  to  organize  the  military  district  of 
Western  North  Carolina,  under  Brigadier-General  E.  B. 
Vance,  and  to  send  General  Hoke  with  several  of  his  regi- 
ments to  Wilkes  and  adjoining  counties. 

The  troops  at  the  disposal  of  General  Vance,  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Kidge,  being  insufficient  to  protect  the  people  in 
that  section,  in  November,  1863,  this  battalion,  composed  of 
picked  men  and  experienced  officers,  then  known  as  Mac- 
Rae's  Battalion,  was  mustered  in  for  temporary  service  by 
General  Hoke  at  Morganton. 

It  was  composed  of  three  companies  of  infantry,  one  com- 
manded by  Captain  Thomas  IT.  Haughton,  then  of  Chatham ; 
another  by  Captain  John  W.  Mallett,  then  of  Cumberland, 
and  the  third  by  Captain  Alex.  McMillan,  of  Ashe.  To  this 
command  was  attached  a  section  of  artillery  under  Lieutenant 
Collins,  Company  F,  Starr's  Battalion  and  two  companies 
of  cavalry,  one  commanded  by  Captain  A.  B.  Hill,  of  Hali- 
fax, who  soon  resigned  and  was  succeeded  by  Captain  John 
S.  Plines,  of  Raleigh ;  and  the  other  by  Captain  Hugh  L. 
Cole,  of  New  Bern.  Having  no  access  to  the  rolls,  I  am  un- 
able to  give  the  names  of  the  other  officers  of  these  companies, 
except  Lieutenants  Robb,  of  Iredell ;  Hal.  Fetter,  of  Orange, 
and  John  Hanks,  of  Chatham,  of  the  infantry.  Captain 
Albert  M.  Noble,  of  New  Bern,  was  Commissary  and  Quar- 

Being  apprised  of  a  threatened  attack  upon  Asheville  by  a 

380  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

notorious  bushwhacker  and  partisan  leader  named  George  W. 
Kirk,  who  afterwards  became  more  notoriovis  as  Colonel  of 
Governor  Holden's  First  North  Carolina  Eegiment  in  the 
Klu-Klnx  campaign,  this  command  proceeded  by  a  forced 
march  to  Asheville  and  reported  for  duty  to  General  Vance, 
and  the  threatened  attack  upon  Asheville  being  averted, 
went  on  down  the  French  Broad  to  Marshall  and  Paint  Rock, 
where  it  remained  in  bivouac  for  some  time  patrolling  that 
section  and  making  occasional  excursions  into  East  Tennessee 
for  the  protection  of  the  people. 

Later  in  the  winter,  headquarters  were  established  at  Ashe- 
ville, from  which  point  the  different  companies,  or  detach- 
ments of  them,  were  sent  to  such  points  from  Yancey  to  Clay, 
as  required  their  service. 

No  general  engagement  between  the  whole  force  and  the 
enemy  ever  occurred,  but  there  were  frequent  encounters  be- 
tween detached  companies  and  parties  of  bushwhackers  who 
infested  the  mountains,  the  largest  organized  body  of  them 
being  Kirk's  command. 

General  Vance  made  a  brilliant  movement  with  a  portion 
of  this  battalion  and  other  troops,  crossed  the  Great  Smoky 
and  dropped  down  into  Tennessee  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Dandridge  capturing  a  large  wagon  train  which  belonged 
to  the  I'ederal  army  operating  near  Knoxville — ^but  unfortu- 
nately, before  he  could  get  out  of  the  country  with  the  train, 
he  was  set  upon  by  a  large  force  of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  and 
was  himself  captured  with  most  of  his  command. 

Colonel  John  B.  Palmer,  of  the  Fifty-eighth  North  Car- 
olina, and  Palmer's  Legion,  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the 
district,  the  troops  under  him  consisting  of  parts  of  the  Sixty- 
second  and  Sixty-fourth  North  Carolina,  a  battery  of  artil- 
lery from  Charleston,  S.  C,  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  L.  Henry's 
Cavalry  (Fourteenth)  Battalion  and  several  companies  of 
Thomas'  Legion  of  Cherokee  Indians. 

From  the  nature  of  the  service  these  commands  were  placed 
at  all  important  points  in  that  section^  and  moved  from  place 
to  place  as  occasion  might  require. 

Captain  Haughton  was  for  a  time  at  Indian  Grave  Gap,  in 
the  I7neka  Mountains. 

Eighteenth  Battalion.  381 

The  whole  battalion  with  a  part  of  the  Sixty-second,  com- 
manded by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Clayton,  operated  on  Big 
Laurel  and  Shelton  Laurel  in  Madison  County,  to  the  top  of 
the  Bald  and  back  to  Warm  Springs  and  Marshall. 

Once,  some  companies  of  this  battalion  relieved  a  company 
of  the  Sixty-fourth  which  was  on  the  island  in  the  French 
Broad  near  Marshall,  surrounded  by  sharpshooting  bush- 
whackers, and  drove  off  the  bushwhackers. 

Captain  Mallett  operated  for  a  time  in  Henderson  and 
Polk,  and  Captain  Cole  and  afterwards  Captain  Hines  were, 
stationed  on  the  French  Broad  above  Brevard  near  what 
is  now  Toxaway  and  the  beautiful  Sapphire  country ;  and  by 
the  way,  when  Captain  Hines  was  withdrawn  from  Transyl- 
vania, many  of  the  loyal  people  left  their  homes,  where  they 
were  no  longer  safe  from  ravage  and  murder. 

The  whole  command  passed  through  Haywood,  Jackson 
and  Macon  to  Franklin,  and  Captain  Hines'  Company,  find- 
ing the  road  blocked  by  great  stones,  near  Monday's,  crossed 
the  "Chunky  Gal"  Mountains  by  a  trail  and  went  into  Clay 
County,  that  now  peaceful  Utopia,  and  spent  some  time  on 
Shooting  Creek,  whose  name  was  not  an  inappropriate  one 

The  service,  while  it  afforded  no  field  for  glorious  achieve- 
ment, was  arduous  and  important,  requiring  constant  watch- 
fulness, quickness  of  movement  and  energy;  and  while  the 
danger  was  not  great  it  was  of  that  hidden  kind  which  ad- 
mitted of  no  direct  and  vigorous  attack  upon  an  embodied  en- 
emy, the  bullet  of  the  bushwhacker  not  unfrequently  laying 
low  some  gallant  fellow  who  was  worthy  to  have  died  upon  the 
field  of  battle. 

There  were  many  stirring  adventures  and  brave  and  ven- 
turesome acts  by  these  men,  whose  history  ought  to  have  been 
better  preserved,  but  the  memorj^,  from  which  I  write  en- 
tirely, of  the  details  of  that  winter  spent  upon  the  Blue  Eidge 
and  along  the  slopes  of  the  Great  Smokies,  across  the  Balsam, 
over  the  CuUowhee  and  the  ISTantahala  has  passed  away  like 
the  other  dreams  of  the  young  Confederate  soldier. 

This  battalion  was  enabled  to  do  good  service  in  protecting 
the  people  who  were  true  to  the  Confederacy  from  marauding 

382  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

attacks  of  bushwhackers  and  deserters  from  both  Confederate 
and  Federal  armies  who  then  found  hiding  places  in  the 
mountains,  but  some  of  whose  names  may  not  now  be  un- 
known to  the  pension  rolls  of  the  United  States. 

But  the  overpowering  necessities  of  the  Army  of  iN'orthern 
"Virginia  in  the  Spring  of  1864  recalled  all  who  could  be 
spared  and  many  more,  from  the  defence  of  the  homes  of 
these  western  counties.  This  battalion  was  called  to  Ral- 
eigh and  disbanded,  its  officers  and  men  were  sent  to  Virginia 
and  absorbed  into  its  fighting,  struggling,  suffering,  but 
never  despairing  army,  and  shared  its  sad,  but  glorious,  fate. 

I  was  assigned  to  duty  on  the  staff  of  General  L.  S.  Baker, 
and  followed  him  in  Georgia  and  South  Carolina  and  in  the 
eastern  district  of  North  Carolina  and  Southern  Virginia  to 
the  end  of  the  war. 

Scarcely  had  this  battalion  reached  Raleigh  before  Colonel 
Kirk  swept  through  the  passes  which  they  had  guarded  and 
fell  upon  the  conscript  camp  at  Morganton,  commanded  by 
Major  Jesse  E.  McLean,  capturing  28  June,  1864,  over  one 
hundred  Junior  Reserves  and  carrying  those  who  were  not 
killed  on  the  way  to  the  prison  in  Ohio. 

It  was  in  the  hasty  piirstiit  of  Kirk  by  the  citizens  of  Burke 
and  the  attempt  to  rescue  the  prisoners  that  the  lamented 
Waighstill  W.  Avery  lost  his  life. 

It  very  soon  became  necessary  at  all  hazards  to  replace  this 
command  with  other  troops  for  the  protection  of  the  lives  and 
property  of  the  good  people  of  Western  N'orth  Carolina. 

Jas.  0.  MacRae. 
Chapel  Hill,  N.  C, 

13  October,  1901. 


(mallett's  or  hahe's  battalion.) 

By  the  editor. 

This  was  a  battalion  of  "Light  Duty"  men,  five  companies, 
commanded  by  Major  F.  J.  Hahr,  a  gallant  Swede  who  had 
been  disabled  by  wounds.  L.  L.  Prather  was  Adjutant.  It 
was  originally  styled  Mallett's  Battalion.  The  rolls  of  the 
command  have  been  lost,  or  if  in  existence,  are  among  the 
other  captured  Confederate  rolls  in  the  Record  and  Pension 
Bureau  at  Washington  and  not  accessible  until  an  act  of  Con- 
gress is  passed  for  their  publication.  It  is  probable  (but  not 
certain)  that  the  rolls  of  the  five  companies  published  in 
Moore's  Roster,  Vol.  4,  pp.  284-292,  are  those  of  Hahr's  Bat- 
talion. Mallett's  Battalion  was  reported  present  in  the  Kin- 
ston-Mosely  Hall  engagements  13-17  December,  1862,  under 
General  IST.  Gr.  Evans,  207  strong,  26  (Serial)  Vol.  Off.  Bee. 
Union  aad  Confed.  Armies,  IIS,  807. 

They  were  used  at  first  as  a  camp  and  provost  guard  at 
Raleigh,  but  on  1  June,  1864,  they  were  at  Weldon  and  re- 
ported 349  present.  108  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed. 
Armies,  988. 

On  28  October,  Hahr's  Battalion  was  sent  to  Wilmington 
and  remained  there  or  in  that  vicinity  till  after  both  attacks 
on  Tort  Fisher  (2^  December,  1864,  and  15  January,  1865.) 
On  31  January  it  was  still  in  Wilmington  brigaded  with  the 
Seventy-eighth  North  Carolina  under  Colonel  George  Jack- 
son, 96  Off.  Bee.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  1187.  What 
was  left  of  these  t'W'o  commands  were  at  Bentonville  where 
they  fought  as  "'Jackson's  Brigade"  and  the  remnant  surren- 
dered with  Johnston's  army. 



1.    D.  T.  Millard,  Major.  2.    E.  R.  Hampton,  Hospital  Steward. 



By  E.  R.  Hampton,  hospital  Steward. 

One  who  writes  history  ought  to  be  familiar  with  all  the 
facts  necessary  to^  give  a  complete  narration  of  such  events,  in 
their  varioiis  details,  so  that  by  methodical  arrangement  one 
harmonious  and  consistent  whole  may  result.  In  attempting 
to  write  a  sketch  of  the  First  Battalion  of  North  Carolina' 
Junior  Ecserven*  and  the  part  it  took  in  the  Civil  War,  I  am 
forced  to  admit,  in  the  beginning  that  I  am  not  thus  fully 
equipped  for  the  undertaking.  But  in  the  absence  of  some 
one  better  qualiiied  to  do  justice  tO'  the  memory  of  the  brave 
young  men  that  composed  it,  I  have  consented  to  undertake 
this  patriotic  and,  1  may  say  sacred  duty.  In  an  humble  way 
I  hope  to  contribute  something  to  rescue  and  preserve  from 
obscurity  and  oblivion  the  memory  of  my  comrades.  I  shall 
give  the  organization  of  our  battalion,  and  recite,  as  far  as 
in  my  power  lies,  the  part  it  took  in  the  great  struggle  be- 
tween the  States  of  the  North  and  the  South,  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  conflict.  I  will  narrate  such  facts  as  I  can  from  my 
own  knowledge  and  from  whatever  other  information  I  have 
been  able  to  collect. 

Major  John  W.  Moore,  in  compiling  his  "Roster  of  North 
Carolina  Troops  in  the  War  Between  the  States,"  fails  to  as- 
sign it  a  place  in  his  work  as  an  organization,  but  the  compa- 
nies composing  the  battalion  have  been  improperly  placed  by 
him  as  composing  a  part  of  the  Seventieth  Regiment.  The 
Field  and  Staff  officers  which  he  gives  of  that  regiment  on 
page  293,  Vol.  4,  of  his  Roster,  never  had  any  command  over 
the  five  companies  that  follow  from  pages  294  to  303,  but 

*The  First  Battalion  was  the  one  commanded  by  Major  C.  W.  Broad- 
foot  which  was  merged  into  the  First  Regiment  of  Reserves.  When  the 
other  battalions  were  organized  into  Regiments  this  which  had  been  the 
Ninth  Battalion  of  Reserves  became  the  rirst.--ED. 


386  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

those  five  companies  in  fact  constituted  the  First  Battalion 
(originally  the  Xinth)  of  Junior  Eeserves.  Evidently, 
Major  Moore  in  getting  up  his  work  had  to  deal  with  a  great 
deal  of  confusion,  as  is  shown  in  this  particular  instance,  and 
which  accounts  for  the  note  he  appends  in  which,  after  giving 
what  he  suj^posed  to  be  the  first  five  companies  of  the  Seven- 
tieth Regiment,  he  sajs :  "The  rolls  of  the  remaining  com- 
panies of  this  regiment  have  not  yet  been  found,  but  I  am  in 
hopes  of  yet  receiving  them  in  which  event  they  will  be  in- 
serted further  on  in  this  volume." 


The  First  Battalion,  composed  of  young  men  or  boys  be- 
tween the  ages  of  17  and  18  years,  was  organized  into  com- 
panies at  Camp  Clingman  in  the  town  of  Asheville,  at  a  point 
now  in  the  heart  of  the  city  of  Asheville,  near  the  present  resi- 
dence of  the  Hon.  Thomas  D.  Johnston,  on  Grove  street,  in 
May  and  June,  1864.  At  first  the  battalion  was  composed  of 
only  three  companies. 

Company  A — Buncombe  and  McDoirell — Captain,  Chas. 
M .  Hall ;  First  Lieutenant,  J.  J.  Culberson ;  Second  Lieuten- 
ants, N.  ^.  Sumner  and  B.  F.  Young. 

Company  B — RidJierford,  Folic  and  Henderson — Captain, 
J.  L.  Eaves ;  First  Lieutenant,  G.  W.  Suttle ;  Second  Lieu- 
tenants, S.  T.  Blanton  and  L.  M.  Gross. 

Company  C — Haywoodj. Henderson,  Jachson,  Macon,  Polk 
and  Rutherford — Captain,  William  P.  Lane;  First  Lieuten- 
ants, S.  E.  Smith,  A.  J.  Liner,  A.  C.  Webb  and  T.  E.  Gray. 

Dr.  D.  T.  Millard,  of  Asheville,  was  elected  Major  27 
June,  1864;  Lieutenant  Thos.  E.  Brown,  of  Abingdon,  Va., 
was  appointed  Adjutant ;  Alonzo  Rankin,  of  Asheville,  Ser- 
geant-Major;  and  Samuel  D.  Burgin,  of  Swanannoa,  Bun- 
combe County,  was  a]>pointed  Commissary  Sergeant.  After- 
wards, at  Wilmington,  the  writer  was  appointed  Hospital 

After  the  organization  of  the  first  three  companies  into  a 
battalion  at  Asheville,  it  remained  there  in  camp  of  instruc- 
tion, and  on  police  and  guard  duty  as  a  part  of  Colonel  Pal- 

Twentieth  Battalion.  387 

iner's  command  until  the  latter  part  of  the  summer  of  1864, 
when  it  was  ordered  and  moved  to  Camp  Vance,  near  Mor- 
ganton,  where  it  remained  for  several  weeks  on  garrison  duty. 
3  ust  previous  to  its  going  to  Camp  Vance  a  portion  of  Kirk's 
command  had  made  a  raid  on  that  camp  28  June  and  cap- 
tured the  small  garrison  stationed  there  and  had  carried  them 
away  prisoners,  back  through  the  mountains  into  East  Ten- 
iiL'.^ace.  /7  Ojf.  Rec.  Union  and  Confed.  Armies,  SSJ/.,  239,  a 
very  full  account.  Part  of  the  company  of  Captain  Conrad, 
afterwards  of  Company  E,  which  was  in  camp  there,  was  cap- 
tured. The  remnant  which  escaped  capture  afterwards  made 
up  a  part  of  Company  E.  Captain  Conrad  was  himself 
among  the  captured,  hut  hy  some  good  fortune  escaped  from 
his  captors  and  afterwards  had  the  Davie  County  boys  added 
to  the  remnant  of  his  company,  which  escaped  from  Camp 
Vance  and  on  a  reorganization  at  Salisbury,  he  was  again 
elected  Captain  and  was  attached  to  the  battalion  as  Company 
E.  After  the  Bentonville  fight  Captain  Conrad  resigned 
and  returned  to  his  home  in  Yadkin  County  and  was  twice 
captured  by  General  Stoneman's  command,  but  succeeded  in 
again  making  his  escape  in  both  instances. 


From  Camp  Vance  -we  were  sent  to  Salisbury,  4  October, 
1864,  to  perform  guard  duty  over  the  Federal  prisoners  who 
were  in  the  Confederate  prison  at  that  place,  and  were  en- 
camped a  few  hundred  yards  east  of  the  Federal  cemetery. 

At  that  place  17  October  we  were  joined  by  Company  D, 
commanded  by  Captain  J.  A.  Stephenson,  composed  of  boys 
from  the  counties  of  Alexander,  Ashe,  and  Wilkes.  The 
First  Lieutenant  was  E.  F.  Prather,  Second  Lieutenants  W. 
C.  York  and  G.  W.  Wilcox ;  and,  as  already  stated,  we  were 
also  joined  by  Company  E,  commanded  by  Captain  S.  F. 
Conrad,  composed  of  boys  from  the  counties  of  Davie,  Surry 
and  Yadkin.  The  First  Lieutenant  was  James  B.  Douthit, 
of  Davie,  (killed  at  South  West  Creek)  ;  Second  Lieutenants, 
G.  W.  Sain,  of  Davie,  and  Edwin  C.  Lineberry,  of  Yadkin. 

The  battalion  remained  on  duty  at  Salisbury  as  a  part 
of  the  prison  guard  until  about  the  last  of  October,  when  it 

388  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  ordered  to  Wilmington  and  went  into  quarters  at  Camp 
Lamb.  We  were  on  no  active  duty,  except  drill,  for  a 
few  weeks  while  at  this  place  and  had  a  comparatively  easy 
time,  except  that  bread  stuff  at  one  time  got  very  scarce  in  the 
Commissary  Department  and  for  several  days  our  rations 
consisted  of  one  pound  of  rice  and  a  half  pound  of  Nassau 
bacon  brought  intO'  Wilmington  by  the  blockade  runners. 
It  was  only  a  month  or  six  weeks  after  our  arrival  at  Camp 
Lamb  until  the  boys  entered  upon  their  active  and  earnest  sol- 
dier life  in  the  field,  which  continued  until  the  end  of  the  war 
and  during  which  period  they  received  their  "baptism  of 
fire"  with  that  heroic  fortitude  and  patient  endurance  that 
has  ever  characterized  the  sturdy,  gallant  and  intrepid  moun- 
tain boys  of  the  "Old  North  State." 


On  8  December  we  received  marching  orders  to  a  more  ac 
tive  field  of  duty.  We  were  put  aboard  a  freight  train  and 
hurried  off  tO'  Belfield,  Va.,  tO'  meet  and  help  drive  back  a 
force  of  the  enemy  under  command  of  General  Warren,  that 
was  approaching  the  North  Carolina  border  from  the  direc- 
tion of  Stoney  Creek  and  Petersburg  for  the  purpose  of  de- 
stroying the  Petersburg  and  Weldon  Railroad  and  cutting  off 
that  line  of  communication  with  Petersburg  and  Richmond. 
By  some  accident  our  train  was  partially  derailed  at  Wilson, 
N.  C,  and  our  progress  toward  Belfield  was  delayed  for  some 
hours.  We  were  after  this  delay  got  back  on  the  track  again 
and  proceeded  on  toward  Belfield,  arriving  at  Hicksford  on 
the  south  side  of  Hicks'  Run  opposite  the  town  of  Belfield, 
about  noon  on  the  9th.  When  we  reached  Hick's  Run  our 
train  crossed  slowly  over  the  bridge  into  Belfield,  but  the 
approaching  line  of  the  enemy's  skirmishers  and  sharpshoot- 
ers made  it  necessary  to  back  the  train  tO'  the  south  side 
of  the  creek  at  Hicksford,  where  we  were  ordered  to  dis- 
embark and  take  up  our  position  along  the  south  bank  of  the 
stream  on  the  left  of  the  railroad  line,  and  immediately  set  to 
work  to  throw  up  a  line  of  trenches.  The  enemy's  skirmish 
line,  still  advancing,  soon  put  us  in  range  of  their  fire,  which 
continued  almost  incessantly  the  entire  afternoon  and  until 

Twentieth  Battalion.  389 

late  in  the  night.  We  were  somewhat  protected  by  a  battery 
which  from  an  elevation  a  short  distance  in  our  rear,  opened 
fire  over  our  heads  upon  the  enemy's  skirmish  line,  holding 
them  in  check  until  our  trenches  were  so  far  completed  as  to 
afford  shelter  from  their  fire.  On  our  left  and  joining  to 
our  battalion  was  a  battalion  of  Louisiana  Zouaves,  and  on 
our  right  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  railroad  from  us  was 
a  regiment  of  Junior  Reserves.  It  was  a  raw,  rainy  day  and 
in  the  afternoon  turned  into  a  heavy,  disagreeable  sleet. 
Being  in  range  of  the  enemy's  fire  made  it  necessary  for  the 
boys  to  keep  pretty  close  in  their  fresh  dug  trenches  during 
the  afternoon  and  the  greater  part  of  the  night,  without  much 
fire ;  with  only  a  very  scant  supply  of  blankets  and  rations,  it 
rendered  their  experiences  ever  memorable  in  the  minds  of 
our  boys  who  watched  and  waited  in  the  rain  and  sleet,  on 
that  dreary  De-cember  night. 

The  enemy  succeeded  in  reaching  and  burning  the  depot 
and  a  considerable  portion  of  tJbe  town  of  Belfield  that  after- 
noon and  night,  having  torn  up  and  destroyed  the  railrofii 
track  as  they  advanced,  by  burning  the  rails  on  piles  of  crO'=s 
ties  and  twisting  them  around  trees  and  telegraph  poles  into 
almost  every  conceivable  shape.  After  accomplishing  this, 
their  skirmishers  withdrew  and  with  their  main  force  en- 
camped about  five  miles  north  of  that  place  toward  Peters^ 

Although  relieved  from  the  danger  of  being  struck  by  the 
enemy's  bullets  by  their  withdrawal,  the  terrible  weather 
alloAved  the  boys  little  or  no  sleep  that  night.  The  casual- 
ties among  our  boys  were  few  that  afternoon.  Sylvester 
Peirson,  of  Company  A,  fell  mortally  wounded  by  the  pre- 
mature explosion  of  a  shell  thrown  over  our  heads  from  our 
own  battery,  and  died  that  night,  and  George  MeCormick,  of 
the  same  company,  was  wounded  in  the  arm ;  Corporal  Leon- 
ard and  a  private  of  Company  E,  were  slightly  wounded. 
There  were  no  others  killed  or  wo'unded  in  the  battalion  that 
I  remember. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  10th  we  were  started  out  on 
the  march  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy  along  the  line  of  railroad 
which  they  had  laid  in  ruins  the  day  before.     A  part  of  Gen- 

390  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

eral  Wade  Hampton's  command  came  in  from  our  left,  among 
them  the  Ninth  North  Carolina  Eegiment  (First  Cavalry), 
and  passed  by  our  line,  crossed  Hicks^  Run  and  began  the  ad- 
vance. Our  battalion,  the  Louisiana  Zouaves  and  other  cO'm' 
mands  took  up  the  line  of  march  through  the  mud  and  sleet, 
following  after  the  retreating  enemy  about  ten  or  twelve 
miles.  General  Warren's  forces  having  succeeded  in  destroy- 
ing the  railroad  for  the  time  being,  as  far  down  as  Belfield 
and  being  met  there  with  such  resistance  as  to  render  further 
advance  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  were  now  hurrying  back 
tO'  the  shelter  of  the  main  body  of  the  Federals  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Stoney  Creek.  About  seven  miles  north  of  Bel- 
field  a  part  of  General  Hill's  Corps  came  in  upon  the  left  in 
advance  of  us,  and  a  sharp  engagement  took  place  for  a  few 
minutes.  The  enemy  was  soon  in  full  retreat  back  to  their 
stronghold  and  we  went  intO'  camp  for  the  night.  The  expe- 
riences of  that  day  were  indelibly  impressed  upon  my  mind 
as  one  of  the  bitterest  of  my  life,  and  never  to  be  forgotten. 
Because  of  very  badly  inflamed  heels,  caused  by  trying  to 
wear  a  pair  of  coarse,  stubborn  new  shoes',  drawn  from  the 
quartermaster's  store  just  before  leaving  Wilmington,  I  was 
unable  to  wear  them  on  this  march  and  foimd  it  more  endura- 
ble to  march  all  day  through  the  sleet  and  mud  barefoot, 
with  the  slices  thrown  across  my  shoulders,  than  to  attempt 
to  do  so. 


Next  morning,  the  11th,  we  were  ordered  back  to  Bel- 
field  and  we  returned  to  that  place,  going  to  our  old  camp  at 
the  trenches  which  we  had  occupied  on  the  9th  and  morning  of 
the  10th.  By  this  time  the  weather  had  somewhat  moderated. 
Here  we  got  the  first  rations  since  leaving  Wilmington, 
Owing  to  the  great  haste  with  which  we  had  been  carried 
away  from  there  our  supply  was  very  meagre,  so  much  so 
that  we  were  practically  without  rations  for  nearly  three  days. 
It  was  a  great  relief  to  our  hungry,  chilled  and  worn  out  boyg 
to  get  where  they  could  get  a  little  rest  and  rations  once  more. 
After  resting  a  few  hours  and  getting  our  dinner  we  again 
boarded  our  train  and  that  evening  went  down  to  Weldon  and 

Twentieth  Battalion.  391 

encamped  there  for  the  night.  An  accident  occurred  that 
night  which  resulted  in  the  wounding  of  two  men,  both  of 
Company  A.  A  stack  of  guns,  which  had  been  hurriedly 
and  carelessly  stacked,  fell  down,  by  which  one  of  them  was 
discharged  and  shot  Dobson,  of  McDowell,  through  the  knee, 
from  which  he  died,  and  Matthews,  of  the  same  county,  was 
painfully,  but  not  dangerously,  woimded  in  the  leg.  Next 
morning,  12  December,  we  again  boarded  our  train  and  re^ 
turned  to  our  old  quarters  at  Camp  Lamb.  We  had  done  no 
hard  fighting  but  we  had  been  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fir©  for 
the  first  time.  We  had  gained  some  knowledge  of  soldier's 
life.  We  had  endured  fearful  exposure  in  wind  and  rain  and 
sleet  in  want  of  blankets-  and  food.  We  had  from  the  8th  to 
the  12th  travelled  over  400  miles  by  rail  and  spent  two  days 
marching  and  a  day  in  the  trenches.  This  gave  us  our  first 
real  insight  into  the  life  of  a  soldier. 


Active  soldier  life  had  now  begun  and  our  rest  at  our  old 
quarters  at  Camp  Lamb  was  destined  to  be  of  short  duration. 
On  account  of  exposure  encountered  in  the  Belfield  campaign, 
some  of  the  boys  were  taken  sick.  I  was  of  that  number  and 
was  sent  to  the  hospital  in  Wilmington.  About  20  December 
the  battalion  was  ordered  to  break  camp  and  move  down  to 
Masonboro  Sound,  near  Fort  Fisher.  It  went  into-  camp 
there  about  two  miles  from  the  fort  and  remained  there  a  few 
days,  until  the  attack  on  the  fort  began  on  the  24th,  when 
General  Butler's  fieet  appeared  and  opened  the  bombardment. 
The  boys  were  ordered  out  of  camp  and  aftei*  patroling  and 
watching  along  the  coast  for  the  enemy  to  land,  until  late  in 
the  night,  went  into  the  fort. 

The  next  morning,  Sunday  (which  was  Christmas  day), 
the  bombardment  was  renewed  by  the  enemy's  fle«t  and  kept 
up  all  day.  In  the  afternoon  the  enemy  effected  a  landing. 
The  boys  were  then  ordered  out  of  the  fort  to  the  front  to  as- 
sist in  repelling  any  attack  upon  it  or  the  field  gTins.  They 
took  their  position  in  front  of  the  rifle  pits.  Some  of  the  field 
artillerymen  for  some  reason  left  their  guns,  and  by  command 
of  Major  Reilly,  Lieutenant  Liner,  of  Company  C,  with  a  por- 

392  JSToETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

tion  of  his  company,  undertook  to  man  tlie  guns,  which  they 
did  very  successfully  and  did  good  service.  In  about  an  hour 
the  coast  was  cleared,  the  enemy  returning  to  their  vessels,  ex- 
cept a  captain  and  a  few  men  who  had  been  captured  by  the 
boys.  The  battalion  remained  under  arms  in  a  cold  rain  all 
night.  The  enemy  after  that  night  abandoned  the  attack  on 
the  fort  and  drew  out  to  sea.  Adjutant  Brown  was  wounded 
in  this  engagement  and  was  never  with  the  command  any 
more.  Private  Chapman,  of  Company  A,  and  Private  Carri- 
gan,  of  Company  D,  were  wounded. 


The  enemy  having  abandoned  their  attack  and  withdrawn 
from  before  Port  Pisher,  the  battalion  returned  to  Camp 
Lamb  on  the  27th,  where  they  had  another  short  respite  from 
active  service.  It  lasted  but  a  short  time,  however.  The  en- 
emy had  possession  of  JSTew  Bern  and  were  threatening  to 
overrun  all  of  Eastern  North  Carolina.  Along  in  January, 
1865,  they  had  entered  Albemarle  Sound  and  had  gone  up 
Chowan  river  with  one  or  more  gun  boats  and  a  small  force 
had  effected  a  landing  at  Coleraine.  The  battalion  was  again 
ordered  to  leave  Camp  Lamb,  for  the  last  time,  and  were  sent 
by  train  to  Halifax.  It  was  a  cold,  uncomfortable  trip.  For 
want  of  room  inside  the  cars  some  of  the  boys  were  compelled 
to  ride  on  top  the  train  and  it  was  so  cold  that  one  of  the  boys 
froze  and  fell  off  the  car  on  the  trip.  Arriving  at  Halifax 
we  were  placed  with  the  Seventy-first  Kegiment  (Second 
Juniors)  and  some  other  troops,  under  Colonel  John  H.  An- 
derson, of  that  regiment  and  marched  down  the  Roanoke  and 
across  the  country  to  Coleraine,  encountering  flooded  streams 
and  other  obstacles,  to  meet  the  enemy  at  that  point.  They 
did  not  hold  their  ground  to  give  our  boys  the  glory  of  an  en- 
gagement with  them,  but  at  our  approach  they  went  back 
aboard  their  gun  boats  and  evacuated  the  place. 

Prom  Coleraine  the  battalion  returned  to  Goldsboro  and 
took  up  camp  there  for  a  few  weeks.  On  or  about  12  and  13 
January,  while  in  camp  at  Goldsboro  all  the  boys  in  the  bat- 
talion over  18  years  of  age  were  transferred  to  regular  Con- 
federate regiments  to  fill  up  their  depleted  ranks. 

Twentieth  Battalion.  393 

battle  of  south  west  creek. 

A  short  time  after  this  the  enemy  coming  out  from  New 
Bern  was  advancing  toward  Kinston.  The  battaJion  was 
ordered  away  from  Goldsboro  tO'  move  to  Kinston  and  was 
attached  txj  General  Hoke's  Division.  A  few  miles  below 
Kinston  General  Ploke's  force  met  and  engaged  the  enemy, 
whom  they  repulsed.  Some  1,500  or  more  of  the  Federal 
forces  were  taken  prisoners.  In  this  fight,  8-9  March,  the 
battalion  was  actively  engaged  and  sustained  considerable  loss 
in  killed  and  wounded.  While  supporting  General  Hoke's 
left  wing  a  portion  of  the  enemy's  force  advanced  upon  and 
engaged  our  boys.  In  the  morning  we  held  a  position  on  the 
south  side  of  the  railroad,  but  in  the  afternoon  were  ordered 
to  change  position  to  the  north  side,  crossing  very  near  where 
the  enemy  were  advancing.  As  soon  as  we  crossed  over  the 
enemy  attacked  our  boys,  to  which  they  promptly  responded 
and  a  sharp  engagement  followed.  Here  for  the  first  time, 
the  boys  were  ordered  to  make  a  charge,  which  they  did  ef- 
fectively, and  drove  the  enemy  back.  Companies  0  and  E 
were  particularly  exposed  by  being  in  the  road  without  any 
shelter,  and  suffered  considerable  loss  in  wounded;  Captain 
Lane,  of  Company  C,  was  shot  through  the  breast  and  seri- 
ously wounded ;  Lieutenant  Liner,  of  Company  C,  received 
two  slight  flesh  wounds;  Lieutenant  Douthit  (who  is  named 
in  Major  Moore's  "Roster"  as  Lieutenant  Danthel),  and 
Lieutenant  Lineberry,  of  Company  E,  were  both  mortally 
wounded.  This  company,  E,  had  nine  men  wounded  in  this 
engagement.  Corporal  W.  R.  Hill,  of  Company  D,  was 
killed  and  several  others  of  that  company  wounded.  The 
other  companies  had  some  of  their  men  wounded,  but  I  am 
not  able  now  to  give  names  and  number.  Major  Millard, 
being  absent  from  the  battalion  since  leaving  Wilmington, 
Captain  Hall,  a  brave  and  courageous  officer  was  in  com- 


After  the  engagement  at  Kinston,  the  battalion  was  as- 
signed to  the  brigade  of  Junior  Reserves,  which  already  em- 
braced the  Seventieth,  Seventy-first  and  Seventy-second  Reg- 

394  NoETH  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

iments  (First,  Second  and  Third  Juniors),  commanded  by 
Colonel  J.  H.  JSTetliercutt.  This  brigade  belonged  to  Hoke's 
Division,  and  met  the  eaiemy  next  at  Bentonville  19-21  March, 
1866.  A  portion  of  General  Johnston's  army  was  there  con- 
fronting the  advancing  columns  of  Sherman's  army  approach- 
ing from  the  south.  At  this  engagement  the  battalion  took 
part  and  while  not  engaged  in  the  hottest  of  the  conflict  it  was 
exposed  both  toi  the  artillery  and  musketry  fire  of  the  enemy 
at  f reqiient  intervals  for  three  days  and  sustained  some  losses. 
There  were  quite  a  number  of  the  boys  wounded  at  this  en- 
gagement, but  I  am  unable  to  give  the  names  of  any  except 
Private  Carter,  of  Company  E. 


After  the  Bentonville  engagement  the  Battalion  made  no 
other  history  except  in  common  with  the  retreating  forces  of 
General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  before  the  victorious  columns 
of  Sherman's  invading  army.  The  fortunes  of  the  Confeder- 
acy were  rapidly  yielding  to  the  force  of  overwhelming  num- 
bers and  the  want  of  army  supplies.  This  great  leader,  sec- 
ond only  tO'  Lee,  with  his  ai-my  must  soon  capitulate  to  an 
army  of  invaders  of  far  superior  strength.  The  fate  of  that 
army  was  shared  by  the  First  Battalion  of  Junior  Eeserves. 
Tt  moved  with  the  brigade  and  that  wing  of  our  army  from 
Bentonville  on  through  Smithfield,  Raleigh,  Durham  and 
other  intervening  points  until  the  final  surrender  26  April 
near  Greensboro,  then,  along  with,  their  fathers  and  older 
brothers,  scar-worn  veterans  that  had  contested  the  Federal 
advance  from  Chickamauga  to  Greensboro,  the  boys  laid  down 
their  arms  on  the  grave  of  the  "Lost  Cause"  to  return  to  their 
homes  and  enter  again  the  paths  of  civil  life.  Eadi  officer 
and  man  in  the  army  was  paid  $1.25  in  silver.  The  Jimior 
Brigade  received  their  paroles  2  May,  1865,  at  Bush  Hill,  be- 
tween High  Point  and  Trinity  College,  in  Randolph  County. 

This  ends  the  real  history  of  the  First  Battalion  of  North 
Carolina  Junior  Reserves  and  its  services  in  the  Civil  War 
of  thirty-six  years  ago.  There  are  many  incidents  and  mat- 
ters of  detail  which  went  to  make  up  our  army  life  that  would 
no  doubt,  be  interesting  to  individual  members,  to  have  re- 

Twentieth  Battalion.  395 

corded  in  history ;  want  of  information  renders  it  impossible 
to  go  into  them.  I  have  given  the  histoiy  of  the  organization 
and  its  services  with  soane  of  the  incidents  and  results  attend- 
ing its  military  career  in  the  best  manner  I  am  able  with  the 
means  at  my  command,  Avhich  I  feel  sure  is  substantially  cor- 
rect in  outline  if  not  literally  correct  in  detail. 

It  will  not  be  improper  for  me  to  say  here,  that  while  I 
have  been  engaged  in  writing  this  sketoh  that  I  have  been 
greatly  aided  in  my  work  by  Captain  S.  F.  Conrad,  of  Com- 
pany E,  and  Lieutenant  Joseph  Liner,  of  Company  C.  Also 
Sergeant  A.  H.  Matheson,  of  Company  I),  and  Mr.  E.  E. 
Smith,  of  Settle,  N.  C,  who  married  the  sister  of  Li eii tenant 
Lineberry,  who  fell  at  Kinston,  all  of  whom  have  fur-